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1.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 35: e1654, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1383224

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a frequent cause of emergency department admissions. AIM: This study aimed to determine risk factors of reoperations, postoperative adverse event, and operative mortality (OM) in patients surgically treated for SBO. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted between 2014 and 2017. Exclusion criteria include gastric outlet obstruction, large bowel obstruction, and incomplete clinical record. STATA version 14 was used for statistical analysis, with p-value <0.05 with 95% confidence interval considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 218 patients were included, in which 61.9% were women. Notably, 88.5% of patients had previous abdominal surgery. Intestinal resection was needed in 28.4% of patients. Postoperative adverse event was present in 28.4%, reoperation was needed in 9.2% of cases, and a 90-day surgical mortality was 5.9%. Multivariate analysis determined that intestinal resection, >3 days in intensive care unit (ICU), >7 days with nasogastric tube (NGT), pain after postoperative day 3, POAE, and surgical POAE were the risk factors for reoperations, while age, C-reactive protein, intestinal resection, >3 days in ICU, and >7 days with NGT were the risk factors for POAE. OM was determined by >5 days with NGT and POAE. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative course is determined mainly for patient's age, preoperative level of C-reactive protein, necessity of intestinal resection, clinical postoperative variables, and the presence of POAE.


RESUMO - RACIONAL: A obstrução do intestino delgado (OID) é uma causa frequente de admissões ao Serviço de Emergência. OBJETIVO: Determinar os fatores de risco de reoperações, eventos adversos pós-operatórios e mortalidade operatória (MO) em pacientes com OID tratados cirurgicamente. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo entre 2014 e 2017. Critérios de exclusão: obstrução da saída do estômago, obstrução do intestino grosso e história clínica incompleta. O STATA 14 foi utilizado para análise estatística, considerando significância estatística p<0,05 com IC de 95%. RESULTADOS: Duzentos e dezoito pacientes foram incluídos, 61,9% mulheres, 88,5% dos pacientes tinham cirurgia abdominal anterior. A ressecção intestinal foi necessária em 28,4% dos pacientes. O evento adverso pós-operatório (EAPO) esteve presente em 28,4%, a reoperação foi necessária em 9,2% dos casos e a mortalidade cirúrgica em 90 dias foi de 5,9%. A análise multivariada determinou que a ressecção intestinal, > 3 dias em UTI, > 7 dias com sonda nasogástrica (SNG), dor após o 3º dia de pós-operatório, EAPO cirúrgico foram fatores de risco para reoperações, enquanto idade, proteína C reativa, ressecção intestinal, > 3 dias em UTI, > 7 dias com SNG foram fatores de risco para EAPO. A MO foi determinada em > 5 dias com SNG e EAPO. CONCLUSÕES: A evolução pós-operatória é determinada principalmente pela idade do paciente, nível pré-operatório de proteína C reativa, necessidade de ressecção intestinal, variáveis clínicas pós-operatórias e presença de EAPO.

2.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 34(4): e1633, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360020

ABSTRACT

RESUMO - RACIONAL: Disfunção do esfíncter esofágico inferior (EEI), doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e esofagite erosiva em pacientes submetidos à gastrectomia subtotal são ocorrências comumente reconhecidas, mas até agora as causas permanecem obscuras. OBJETIVO: A hipótese deste estudo é que a gastrectomia subtotal provoque alterações na pressão de repouso do EEI e na sua competência, devido ao dano anatômico desta, visto que as fibras oblíquas "Sling", um dos componentes musculares do EEI, são seccionadas durante este procedimento cirúrgico. MÉTODOS: Sete cães adultos sem raça definida (18-30 kg) foram anestesiados e submetidos à transecção do estômago proximal. Em seguida, o remanescente gástrico proximal foi fechado por sutura. No intraoperatório, manometria lenta foi realizada em cada cão, em condições basais (com estômago intacto) e no remanescente gástrico proximal fechado. A média dessas medidas é apresentada, com cada cão servindo como seu próprio controle. RESULTADOS: A pressão média do EEI medida no remanescente gástrico proximal, em comparação com a pressão do EEI no estômago intacto, foi diminuída em cinco cães, aumentada em um cão e sem alterações no outro cão. CONCLUSÃO: A secção transversa superior do estômago e o fechamento do remanescente do estômago por sutura provocam alterações na pressão do EEI. Sugerimos que essas mudanças na pressão do EEI são secundárias à secção das fibras oblíquas "Sling" do esfíncter, um de seus componentes musculares. A sutura e o fechamento do remanescente gástrico proximal, reancora essas fibras com mais, menos ou a mesma tensão, modificando ou não a pressão do EEI.


ABSTRACT - BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), gastroesophageal reflux disease, and erosive esophagitis in patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy are commonly recognized occurrences, but until now the causes remain unclear. AIM: The hypothesis of this study is that subtotal gastrectomy provokes changes on the LES resting pressure and its competence, due to the anatomical damage of it, given that the oblique "Sling" fibers, one of the muscular components of the LES, are transected during this surgical procedure. METHODS: Seven adult mongrel dogs (18-30 kg) were anesthetized and admitted for transection of the proximal stomach. Later, the proximal gastric remnant was closed by a suture. Intraoperatively, slow pull-through LES manometries were performed on each dog, under basal conditions (with the intact stomach), and in the closed proximal gastric remnant. The mean of these measurements is presented, with each dog serving as its control. RESULTS: The mean LES pressure (LESP) measured in the proximal gastric remnant, compared with the LESP in the intact stomach, was decreased in five dogs, increased in one dog, and remained unchanged in other dogs. CONCLUSION: The upper transverse transection of the stomach and closing the stomach remnant by suture provoke changes in the LESP. We suggested that these changes in the LESP are secondary to transecting the oblique "Sling" fibers of the LES, one of its muscular components. The suture and closing of the proximal gastric remnant reanchor these fibers with more, less, or the same tension, whether or not modifying the LESP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower/surgery , Esophagogastric Junction , Gastrectomy/adverse effects , Manometry
3.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 33(3): e1547, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152619

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The identification of prognostic factors of esophageal cancer has allowed to predict the evolution of patients. Aim: Assess different prognostic factors of long-term survival of esophageal cancer and evaluate a new prognostic factor of long-term survival called lymphoparietal index (N+/T). Method: Prospective study of the Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital, between January 2004 and December 2013. Included all esophageal cancer surgeries with curative intent and cervical anastomosis. Exclusion criteria included: stage 4 cancers, R1 resections, palliative procedures and emergency surgeries. Results: Fifty-eight patients were included, 62.1% were men, the average age was 63.3 years. A total of 48.3% were squamous, 88% were advanced cancers, the average lymph node harvest was 17.1. Post-operative surgical morbidity was 75%, with a 17.2% of reoperations and 3.4% of mortality. The average overall survival was 41.3 months, the 3-year survival was 31%. Multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors showed that significant variables were anterior mediastinal ascent (p=0.01, OR: 6.7 [1.43-31.6]), anastomotic fistula (p=0.03, OR: 0.21 [0.05-0.87]), N classification (p=0.02, OR: 3.8 [1.16-12.73]), TNM stage (p=0.04, OR: 2.8 [1.01-9.26]), and lymphoparietal index (p=0.04, RR: 3.9 [1.01-15.17]. The ROC curves of lymphoparietal index, N classification and TNM stage have areas under the curve of 0.71, 0.63 and 0.64 respectively, with significant statistical difference (p=0.01). Conclusion: The independent prognostic factors of long-term survival in esophageal cancer are anterior mediastinal ascent, anastomotic fistula, N classification, TNM stage and lymphoparietal index. In esophageal cancer the new lymphoparietal index is stronger than TNM stage in long-term survival prognosis.


RESUMO Racional: A identificação de fatores prognósticos do câncer de esôfago permitiu prever a evolução dos pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar diferentes fatores prognósticos da sobrevida em longo prazo do câncer de esôfago e avaliar um novo fator prognóstico da sobrevida em longo prazo chamado índice linfoparietal (N+/T). Método: Estudo prospectivo do Hospital Clínico da Universidade do Chile, entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2013. Incluiu todas as operações de câncer de esôfago com intenção curativa e anastomose cervical. Os critérios de exclusão incluíram: câncer em estágio 4, ressecções R1, procedimentos paliativos e operações de emergência. Resultados: Cinquenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos, 62,1% eram homens, a idade média foi de 63,3 anos. Um total de 48,3% eram escamosos, 88% eram cânceres avançados, a colheita média de linfonodos foi de 17,1. A morbidade cirúrgica pós-operatória foi de 75%, com 17,2% de reoperações e 3,4% de mortalidade. A sobrevida global média foi de 41,3 meses, a sobrevida em três anos foi de 31%. A análise multivariada dos fatores prognósticos mostrou que variáveis significativas foram elevação pelo mediastinal anterior (p=0,01, OR: 6,7 [1,43-31,6]), fístula anastomótica (p=0,03, OR: 0,21 [0,05-0,87]), classificação N (p=0,02, OR: 3,8 [1,16-12,73]), estágio TNM (p=0,04, OR: 2,8 [1,01-9,26]) e índice linfoparietal (p=0,04, RR: 3,9 [1,01-15,17]. As curvas ROC do índice linfoparietal, classificação N e estádio TNM apresentam áreas abaixo da curva de 0,71, 0,63 e 0,64, respectivamente, com diferença estatística significativa (p=0,01). Conclusão: Os fatores prognósticos independentes de sobrevida em longo prazo no câncer de esôfago são a elevação mediastinal anterior, fístula anastomótica, classificação N, estágio TNM e índice linfoparietal. No câncer de esôfago, o novo índice linfoparietal é mais forte que o estágio TNM no prognóstico de sobrevida em longo prazo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Esophagectomy/methods , Cancer Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/mortality , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/pathology , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Prognosis , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Chile/epidemiology , Survival Rate , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma/surgery , Lymph Node Excision , Neoplasm Staging
5.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(2): e1441, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019242

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The identification of prognostic factors of gastric cancer (GC) has allowed to predict the evolution of patients. Aim: Assess the reliability of the lymphoparietal index in the prediction of long-term survival in GC treated with curative intent. Method: Prospective study of the Universidad de Chile Clinical Hospital, between May 2004 and May 2012. Included all gastric cancer surgeries with curative intent. Exclusion criteria were: gastrectomies due to benign lesions, stage 4 cancers, R1 resections, palliative procedures, complete esophagogastrectomies and emergency surgeries. Results: A total of 284 patients were included; of the sample 65.4% were male,mean age of 64.5 years,75% were advanced cancers, 72.5% required a total gastrectomy, 30 lymph nodes harvest. Surgical morbidity and mortality were 17.2% and 1.7%. 5-year survival was 56.9%. The N+/T index could predict long-term survival in all de subgrups (p<0.0001), although had a reliable prediction in early GC (p=0.005), advanced GC (p<0.0001), signet ring cell GC (p<0.0001), proximal GC (p<0.0001) and distal GC (p<0.0001). The ROC curves N+/T index, LNR and T classification presented areas below the curve of 0.789, 0.786 and 0,790 respectively, without a significant statistical difference (p=0.96). Conclusion: The N+/T index is a reliable quotient in the prognostic evaluation of gastric adenocarcinoma patients who have been resected with curative intent.


RESUMO Racional: A identificação de fatores prognósticos do câncer gástrico (GC) permitiu predizer a evolução dos pacientes. Objetivo: Avaliar a confiabilidade do índice linfoparietal na predição de sobrevida em longo prazo em pacientes tratados com intenção curativa. Método: Estudo prospectivo do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de Chile, entre maio de 2004 e maio de 2012. Todas as operações de câncer gástrico foram com intenção curativa. Os critérios de exclusão foram: gastrectomia por lesões benignas, cânceres estágio 4, ressecções R1, procedimentos paliativos, esofagogastrectomias completas e operações de emergência. Resultados: Foi incluído um total de 284 pacientes; da amostra 65,4% eram homens, com média de idade de 64,5 anos, 75% eram cânceres avançados, 72,5% necessitaram de gastrectomia total e 30 coletas de linfonodos. A morbimortalidade cirúrgica foi de 17,2% e 1,7%. Sobrevida em cinco anos foi de 56,9%. O índice N +/T pôde predizer a sobrevida em longo prazo em todos os subgrupos (p<0,0001), embora tivesse previsão confiável em GC precoce (p=0,005), GC avançado (p<0,0001), célula GC de anel de sinete (p< 0,0001), GC proximal (p<0,0001) e GC distal (p<0,0001). As curvas ROC N +/T, LNR e T apresentaram áreas abaixo da curva de 0,789, 0,786 e 0,790, respectivamente, sem diferença estatística significativa (p=0,96 ). Conclusão: O índice N +/T é um quociente confiável no prognóstico na avaliação de pacientes com adenocarcinoma gástrico que foram ressecados com intenção curativa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/mortality , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Prospective Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Disease-Free Survival , Gastrectomy , Neoplasm Staging
6.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 32(2): e1440, 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019241

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Re-fundoplication is the most often procedure performed after failed fundoplication, but re-failure is even higher. Aim: The objectives are: a) to discuss the results of fundoplication and re-fundoplication in these cases, and b) to analyze in which clinical situation there is a room for gastrectomy after failed fundoplication. Method: This experience includes 104 patients submitted to re-fundoplication after failure of the initial operation, 50 cases of long segment Barrett´s esophagus and 60 patients with morbid obesity, comparing the postoperative outcome in terms of clinical, endoscopic, manometric and 24h pH monitoring results. Results: In patients with failure after initial fundoplication, redo-fundoplication shows the worst clinical results (symptoms, endoscopic esophagitis, manometry and 24 h pH monitoring). In patients with long segment Barrett´s esophagus, better results were observed after fundoplication plus Roux-en-Y distal gastrectomy and in obese patients similar results regarding symptoms, endoscopic esophagitis and 24h pH monitoring were observed after both fundoplication plus distal gastrectomy or laparoscopic resectional gastric bypass, while regarding manometry, normal LES pressure was observed only after fundoplication plus distal gastrectomy. Conclusion: Distal gastrectomy is recommended for patients with failure after initial fundoplication, patients with long segment Barrett´s esophagus and obese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett´s esophagus. Despite its higher morbidity, this procedure represents an important addition to the surgical armamentarium.


RESUMO Racional: Re-fundoplicatura é o procedimento mais frequentemente realizado após falha na fundoplicatura, mas neste caso a falha é ainda maior. Objetivo: a) discutir os resultados da fundoplicatura e re-fundoplicatura nesses casos; e b) analisar em que situação clínica há espaço para gastrectomia após falha na fundoplicatura. Método: Esta experiência inclui 104 pacientes submetidos à re-fundoplicatura após falha da operação inicial, sendo 50 casos de esôfago de Barrett de segmento longo e 60 pacientes com obesidade mórbida, comparando-se o resultado pós-operatório em termos de pH clínico, endoscópico, manométrico de 24 h de monitoramento. Resultados: Em pacientes com falha após a fundoplicatura inicial, a re-fundoplicatura mostra os piores resultados clínicos (sintomas, esofagite endoscópica, manometria e pHmetria 24 h). Em pacientes com esôfago de Barrett de segmento longo, melhores resultados foram observados após fundoplicatura com gastrectomia distal em Y-de-Roux e em pacientes obesos resultados semelhantes em relação aos sintomas, esofagite endoscópica e monitoramento de pH 24 h foram observados após fundoplicatura com gastrectomia distal ou ressecção com bypass gástrico laparoscópico, enquanto que em relação à manometria, a pressão normal do EEI só foi observada após a fundoplicatura e gastrectomia distal. Conclusão: A gastrectomia distal é recomendada para pacientes com falha após a fundoplicatura inicial, pacientes com esôfago de Barrett de segmento longo e obesos com doença do refluxo gastroesofágico e esôfago de Barrett. Apesar de sua maior morbidade, esse procedimento representa um importante acréscimo ao arsenal cirúrgico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Barrett Esophagus/surgery , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Fundoplication/adverse effects , Gastrectomy/methods , Reoperation , Anastomosis, Roux-en-Y , Treatment Failure , Esophageal pH Monitoring , Manometry
7.
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(6): 452-458, dic. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899636

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En pacientes con esófago de Barrett largo hemos sugerido efectuar fundoplicatura con antrectomía, vagotomía y derivación duodenal en Y de Roux que podría asociarse con complicaciones y efectos colaterales. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio es comparar la cirugía por vía abierta vs laparoscópica en cuanto a complicaciones postoperatorias precoces y alejadas, mortalidad y resultados alejados. Material y método: Se comparan 2 cohortes de pacientes, 73 pacientes con cirugía abierta y 53 pacientes operados con la misma técnica por vía laparoscópica por el mismo equipo. Solo se incluyeron los pacientes con Barret largo. Se controlan clínicamente en el postoperatorio inmediato y alejado, con endoscopia e histología anual, y se evalúan los resultados en cuanto a complicaciones precoces, alejadas y se analiza la calidad de vida y la satisfacción del paciente. Para el análisis se utilizó «t¼ de Student considerando un valor de p < 0,05 como significativo. Resultados: En cuanto a complicaciones precoces en ambos grupos no hubo diferencias significativas. No hubo mortalidad postoperatoria. En las complicaciones tardías las complicaciones totales no son significativamente diferentes entre ambos grupos (solo cambian sus causas y características) ni en cuanto a la clasificación de Visick y el puntaje de calidad de vida. Conclusión: La fundoplicatura con procedimiento de supresión ácida y derivación biliar por vía laparoscópica presenta similares resultados a corto y largo plazo que la cirugía abierta, pero con los beneficios de una cirugía mínimamente invasiva.


Abstract Introduction: In patients with long Barrett esophagus we have suggested to perform fundoplication with antrectomy, vagotomy and Roux-en-Y duodenal diversion however it could be associated with complications and side effects. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare open versus laparoscopic surgery for early and early postoperative complications, mortality and distant outcomes. Material and method: We compare 2 cohorts of patients, 73 patients with open surgery and 53 patients, who underwent laparoscopic surgery using the same technique. Only patients with Long Barrett were included. They are clinically monitored in the early and late postoperative period, with endoscopy and histology at long term follow-up (3-5 years). The results were evaluated in terms of early and late complications, the quality of life and patient satisfaction were analyzed. For the analysis we used t-student considering a P < .05 as significant. Results: As for early complications, there were no significant differences in both groups. There was no postoperative mortality. In the late complications, the total complications are not significantly different between the two groups (only their causes and characteristics changed) neither in terms of Visick's classification and the quality of life score Conclusion: The fundoplication, with laparoscopic acid suppression and duodenal diversion, presents similar short-term and long-term results than open surgery, with the benefits of a mini-invasive procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Barrett Esophagus/surgery , Laparoscopy/methods , Fundoplication/methods , Duodenum/surgery , Gastric Acid/metabolism , Postoperative Complications , Quality of Life , Gastroesophageal Reflux/surgery , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Laparoscopy/adverse effects , Fundoplication/adverse effects
8.
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(6): 502-507, dic. 2017.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899645

ABSTRACT

Resumen El cáncer gástrico es uno de los cánceres más frecuentes en el mundo. Recientes estudios han contribuido en la comprensión de esta enfermedad. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar de manera crítica y actualizada distintos aspectos del cáncer gástrico tanto a nivel mundial como a nivel chileno. Este artículo revisa algunos aspectos relacionados con el cáncer gástrico, tales como epidemiología, dieta, estudio histológico, búsqueda de lesiones precancerosas, prevención, Helicobacter pylori, estilos de vida, factores metabólicos y tratamiento.


Abstract Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Recent studies have contributed to the understanding of this disease. The aim of this article is to critically review various aspects of gastric cancer both globally and Chilean. This article reviews some aspects related to gastric cancer, such as epidemiology, diet, histology, screening of precancerous lesions, prevention, Helicobacter pylori, lifestyles, metabolic factors and treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Stomach Neoplasms/epidemiology , Precancerous Conditions/epidemiology , Stomach Neoplasms/prevention & control , Chile , Global Health , Helicobacter Infections/epidemiology , Life Style
9.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 30(4): 267-271, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-885742

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Single anastomosis gastric bypass (one anastomosis gastric bypass or mini-gastric bypass) has been presented as an option of surgical treatment for obese patients in order to reduce operation time and avoiding eventual postoperative complications after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.The main late complication could be related to bile reflux. Aim: To report the experiences published after Billroth II anastomosis and its adverse effects regarding symptoms and damage on the gastric and esophageal mucosa . Method: For data recollection Medline, Pubmed, Scielo and Cochrane database were accessed, giving a total of 168 papers being chosen 57 of them. Results: According the reported results during open era surgery for peptic disease and more recent results for gastric cancer surgery, bile reflux and its consequences are more frequent after Billroth II operation compared to Roux-en-Y gastrojejunal anastomosis. Conclusion: These findings must be considered for the indication of bariatric surgery.


RESUMO Introdução: Bypass com anastomose única ou mini-bypass gástrico foi apresentado como oopção de tratamento cirúrgico para pacientes obesos, a fim de reduzir o tempo da operação e evitar complicações pós-operatórias após bypass gástrico Y-de-Roux. A principal complicação tardia pode estar relacionada ao refluxo biliar. Objetivo: Relatar as experiências publicadas após a anastomose Billroth II e seus efeitos adversos em relação aos sintomas e danos sobre a mucosa gástrica e esofágica. Método: A coleta de dados foi baseada na busca nas bases Medline, Pubmed, Scielo e Cochrane. Um total de 168 artigos foram revisados, tendo sido escolhidos 57 deles. Resultados: De acordo com os resultados relatados durante a operação da era aberta para doença péptica e resultados mais recentes para o tratamento cirúrgico do câncer gástrico, o refluxo biliar e suas consequências são mais frequentes após o Billroth II em comparação com a anastomose gastrojejunal em Y-de-Roux. Conclusão: Esses achados devem ser considerados para a indicação de cirurgia bariátrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastric Bypass/methods , Obesity/surgery , Gastroenterostomy , Forecasting
10.
Rev. chil. cir ; 69(4): 320-324, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-899609

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La población chilena, al igual que la mundial, ha presentado un importante envejecimiento en los últimos 25 años. El cáncer gástrico ocupa la primera causa de mortalidad por tumores malignos en Chile. Objetivo: Determinar la mortalidad operatoria de la gastrectomía total o subtotal en pacientes con cáncer gástrico de 80 o más años y la sobrevida a 5 años. Material y método: Estudio retrospectivo y prospectivo de todos los pacientes sometidos a resección gástrica por cáncer gástrico entre 1988 y 2016, con 80 o más años. Se excluyeron los pacientes sometidos a técnicas quirúrgicas no resectivas. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: síntomas y signos, comorbilidades, características anatomopatológicas, mortalidad según el tipo de gastrectomía y sobrevida global a 5 años. Resultados: En el periodo de tiempo analizado hubo 70 pacientes con cáncer gástrico y edad igual o mayor de 80 años, que representan al 7,4% del total de pacientes con resección gástrica. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron dolor, baja de peso y anemia crónica microcítica. Hubo un 66% de pacientes con comorbilidades. El cáncer se ubicó preferentemente en el tercio superior, siendo un adenocarcinoma en 66 pacientes. En 4 pacientes hubo 2 linfomas, un GIST maligno y un carcinoide maligno. El carcinoma incipiente correspondió al 12% de los adenocarcinomas. La mortalidad global de la gastrectomía fue del 17%, siendo el 5% para la subtotal y el 22% para la total. La sobrevida promedio a 5 años fue del 26%. Conclusiones: La gastrectomía subtotal o total en pacientes con cáncer gástrico sobre 80 años es factible de realizar en pacientes seleccionados, pero el riesgo de mortalidad operatoria es de 7 a 10 veces mayor que en pacientes bajo los 75 años.


Introduction: The longevity of Chilean population has increased greatly in the last 25 years, similar to world population. Gastric cancer in Chile is the first cause of death due to malignant tumors. Purpose: To determine operative mortality of subtotal or total gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer older than 80 years, and the rate 5 year-survival. Material and method: This is an retrospective-prospective study of all patients with 80 years of age or more submitted to gastric resection due to gastric cancer between 1988 and 2016. Patients submitted to non-resective procedures were excluded. The following parameters were analized: symptoms and signs, comorbidities, pathologic features of the gastric cancer, operative mortality according to the gastrectomy and 5-year survival rate. Results: There were 70 patients with gastric cancer older than 80 years of age, which represented 7.4% of all patients with gastric cancer submitted to gastric resection in the same period of time. Most frequent symptoms were epigastric pain, loss of weight and chronic microcitic anemia. There were 66% of the patients with comorbidities. The tumor was located mainly in the upper third of the stomach, being an adenocarcinoma in 66 patients (94%). There were also 2 linfomas, one GIST and one patient with a malignant carcinoid. Early cancer was observed in 12% of the adenocarcinomas. Global operative mortality was 17% being 5% for subtotal and 22% for total gastrectomy. Mean 5-year survival rate was 26%. Conclusions: Subtotal or total gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer with 80 years of age or more is possible to perform in selected patients, but the risk of operative mortality is 7 to 10 times greater than below 75 years of age.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Stomach Neoplasms/surgery , Gastrectomy/mortality , Stomach Neoplasms/mortality , Survival Analysis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Age Factors , Gastrectomy/methods
11.
Rev. chil. cir ; 68(5): 363-367, oct. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-797345

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: El objetivo del estudio es describir la presentación clínica e histopatológica de la adenomiomatosis vesicular en una serie de pacientes colecistectomizados. Material y método: Entre el 1 de enero del 2010 y el 30 abril del 2015 se realizaron 6.957 colecistectomías, diagnosticándose adenomiomatosis en 95 de las vesículas extirpadas (1,4%). Se describen los hallazgos clínicos e histopatológicos en estos pacientes. Resultados: En 53 pacientes (55,8%) se presentó dolor abdominal. Alteraciones histológicas concomitantes se presentaron en la mucosa vesicular de 34 pacientes (35,8%), siendo la metaplasia pilórica la más frecuente (21%); y en 8 pacientes (8,4%) se presentó displasia de alto y bajo grado. Las patologías asociadas más frecuentes fueron colelitiasis 82,1% y colecistitis crónica 85,3%. Conclusiones: En la serie estudiada se observaron diversas alteraciones histológicas, incluyendo la displasia de alto grado. La colelitiasis se presentó con una frecuencia elevada.


Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and histopathologic presentation of adenomyomatosis (ADM) of the gallbladder in a series of patients. Material and method: Between January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2015, 6957 patients underwent cholecystectomy. Among them, ADM was diagnosed in 95 of cholecystectomy specimens (1.4%). Clinical and pathological findings in these patients are described. Results: In 53 patients (55.8%) presented abdominal pain. Concomitant histological changes occurred in the gallbladder mucosa of 34 patients (35.8%), being the most frequent pyloric metaplasia (21%); and in 8 patients (8.4%) high-grade dysplasia and low-grade dysplasia was presented. The most frequent associated pathologies were cholelithiasis in 82.1%, and chronic cholecystitis in 85.3%. Conclusions: In this serie, various histological changes were observed, including high-grade dysplasia. Cholelithiasis was presented with high frequency.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Adenomyoma/diagnosis , Adenomyoma/pathology , Gallbladder Diseases/diagnosis , Gallbladder Diseases/pathology , Cholecystectomy , Retrospective Studies , Adenomyoma/surgery , Gallbladder Diseases/surgery
12.
Rev. chil. cir ; 68(2): 143-149, abr. 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-784844

ABSTRACT

background: Laparoscopic nissen fundoplication is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with gastroesophageal reflux. Aim: To describe the most important surgical stages of the technique and report the rates of complications and mortality. material and methods: In a ten years period, 530 patients were subjec-ted to laparoscopic fundoplication. In all patients a clinical history was obtained and an upper endoscopy with biopsy, esophageal manometry and 24 h pH measurement were performed. Patients with Barret esophagus, hiatal hernia of more than 5 cm and those subjected to other surgical techniques were excluded from analysis. Results: No patient died. The conversion rate was 0.4%. No patient required splenectomy. Two patients had complications and required a second intervention. Mean hospital stay was 2.8 days. Conclusions: Laparoscopic nissen fundoplication is safe and has a low rate of complications.


Objetivo: El presente estudio pretende describir las etapas quirúrgicas más importantes de esta técnica y describir la morbimortalidad publicada por autores nacionales. material y método: Entre enero de 1993 y diciembre de 2013 un total de 530 pacientes se sometieron a una fundoplicatura laparoscópica dentro de un protocolo de estudio prospectivo. En todos se realizó una encuesta clínica, endoscopia con toma de biopsia, manometría esofágica y pH de 24 h. Se excluyeron pacientes con esófago de Barrett, pacientes con hernia hiatal > 5 cm y pacientes sometidos a una técnica quirúrgica diferente. Resultados: La mortalidad operatoria fue cero. La tasa de conversión fue de 0,4%. No hubo esplenectomía. Hubo un total de 2 pacientes complicados (0,4%), siendo todos reoperados. La estadía hospitalaria fue de 2,8 días. Conclusión: La fundoplicatura de Nissen por vía laparoscópica es un procedimiento seguro, de muy baja morbilidad y nula mortalidad operatoria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Gastroesophageal Reflux/surgery , Fundoplication/adverse effects , Fundoplication/methods , Postoperative Complications , Prospective Studies , Laparoscopy , Operative Time , Length of Stay
13.
14.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 26(1): 7-12, jan.-mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-674134

ABSTRACT

RACIONAL: Disfagia grave ou mesmo afagia pode ocorrer após esofagectomia secundária à necrose do órgão ascendido com estenose severa ou separação completa dos cotos. Ruptura catastrófica esofágica ou gástrica impulsiona a decisão de "desconectar" o esôfago, a fim de evitar graves complicações sépticas. As operações utilizadas para restabelecer a descontinuidade do esôfago não são padronizadas e reoperações para restabelecimento do trânsito digestivo superior são um verdadeiro desafio. MÉTODOS: Este é estudo retrospectivo da experiência dos autores durante 17 anos incluindo 18 pacientes, 14 previamente submetidos à esofagectomia e quatro esofagogastrectomia. Eles foram operados com o fim de restabelecer o trato digestivo superior. RESULTADOS: Refazer esofagogastro anastomose foi possível em 12 pacientes, 10 por meio da abordagem cervical e combinando esternotomia em quatro, a fim de realizar a nova anastomose. Em cinco pacientes esofagocolo anastomose foi novamente realizada. Interposição de enxerto livre de jejuno foi realizada em um paciente. As complicações ocorreram em 10 pacientes (55,5%): deiscência anastomótica em três, estenose em quatro, condrite esternal em dois e abscesso cervical em um. Não se observou mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: Existem diferentes opções cirúrgicas para o tratamento desta situação clínica difícil e arriscada; deve ser tratada com procedimentos adaptados de acordo com o segmento anatômico disponível para ser usado, escolhendo o procedimento mais conservador.


BACKGROUND: Severe dysphagia or even aphagia can occur after esophagectomy secondary to necrosis of the ascended organ with severe stricture or complete separation of the stumps. Catastrophic esophageal or gastric disruption drives the decision to "disconnect" the esophagus in order to prevent severe septic complications. The operations employed to re-establish esophageal discontinuity are not standardized and reoperations for re-establishment of the upper digestive transit are a real challenge. METHODS: This is retrospective study collecting the authors experience during 17 years including 18 patients, 14 of them previously submitted to esophagectomy and four to esophagogastrectomy. They were operated on in order to re-establish the upper digestive tract. RESULTS: Redo esophago-gastro-anastomosis was possible in 12 patients, 10 through cervical approach and combined with sternotomy in four in order to perform the new anastomosis. In five patients a new esophago-colo anastomosis was performed. Free jejunal graft interposition was performed in one patient. Complications occurred in ten patients (55.5 %): anastomotic leaks in three, strictures in four, sternal condritis in two and cervical abscess in one. No mortality was observed. CONCLUSION: There are different surgical options for the treatment of this difficult and risky clinical situation which must be treated with tailored procedures according to the anatomic segment available to be used, choosing the most conservative procedure.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Colon/surgery , Esophagectomy , Esophageal Achalasia/surgery , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Esophageal Stenosis/surgery , Gastrectomy , Anastomosis, Surgical , Esophagectomy/methods , Gastrectomy/methods , Reoperation , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Failure
15.
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 25(4): 245-249, out.-dez. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-665740

ABSTRACT

RACIONAL: Bypass gástrico em Y-de-Roux é a operação bariátrica mais comumente realizada. Pequena bolsa gástrica é criada, deixando uma anastomose gastrojejunal estreita, com uma alça jejunal mais comprida. Muito pouco é conhecido sobre o comportamento desta bolsa em anos após o procedimento. OBJETIVO: Determinar através de estudos prospectivos endoscópico e histológico seqüenciais o tamanho da bolsa gástrica, o diâmetro da anastomose e o comportamento da infecção por H. pylori após a operação. MÉTODOS: Em 130 pacientes submetidos ao bypass gástrico foram realizadas várias avaliações sequenciais endoscópica (até 120 meses) e histológica de rotina da bolsa gástrica. RESULTADOS: Após a operação, foram realizadas em média 3,6 endoscopias por paciente. Macroscopicamente quase 95% das pequenas bolsas gástricas eram normais, e o principal achado patológico foi uma úlcera marginal. Esofagite erosiva desapareceu em 93% dos pacientes. Não houve aumento no tamanho orocaudal da bolsa durante o período de observação. Não houve dilatação do diâmetro da anastomose gastrojejunal. Perto de 54% de todos os pacientes tinham mucosa fúndica normal, enquanto 18% tinham gastrite crônica ativa, coincidente com a infecção por H. pylori. Cinco pacientes tinham metaplasia intestinal. CONCLUSÃO: Com base nesta avaliação endoscópica sequencial, não houve aumento no tamanho orocaudal da bolsa gástrica, nem do diâmetro da anastomose gastrojejunal. O comportamento do H. pylori foi inconsistente e difícil de interpretar.


BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most common performed bariatric surgery. A small gastric pouch is created, leaving a narrow gastrojejunal anastomosis, with a long jejunal limb. Very little is known regarding the behavior of this pouch years after surgery. AIM: To determine through prospective sequential endoscopic studies the size of the gastric pouch, the diameter of the anastomosis, and the behavior of H. pylori infection after surgery. METHODS: In 130 patients subjected to resectional gastric bypass, several routine sequential endoscopic (until 120 months) and histological evaluations of the gastric pouch were performed. RESULTS: After surgery, a mean of 3.6 endoscopies/patient were performed. Macroscopically nearly 95% of the small gastric pouches were normal, and the main pathological finding was a marginal ulcer. Erosive esophagitis disappeared in 93% of the patients. There was no increase in the orocaudal size of the pouch during this period of observation. There was no dilatation of the diameter of gastrojejunal anastomosis. Near 54% of all patients had normal fundic mucosa, while 18% had chronic active gastritis, coincident with H. pylori infection. Five patients had intestinal metaplasia. CONCLUSION: Based on this sequential endoscopic evaluation, there was no increase in the orocaudal size of the gastric pouch nor increase in the diameter of the gastrojejunal anastomosis. H. pylori behavior was inconsistent and difficult to interpret.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Gastric Bypass , Gastroscopy , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Stomach/pathology , Stomach/surgery , Prospective Studies
16.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 61(1): 28-35, Jan. 2011. ilus, graf, mapas
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-659096

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la ingesta de energía y nutrientes y la calidad de la alimentación, en pacientes sometidos a bypass gástrico en Y de Roux y (BPGYR) y gastrectomía vertical en manga (GVM). En 36 mujeres con obesidad severa y mórbida se estudió la alimentación previa y a los 6 meses posteriores a la cirugía, mediante encuesta de registro de tres días, se analizó el grado de adecuación e índice de calidad nutricional (ICN). Se controló estrictamente el consumo de suplementos de vitaminas y minerales. El consumo de energía y nutrientes fue significativamente menor al sexto mes post cirugía comparado con el preoperatorio, sin diferencias significativas entre grupos, excepto calcio y vitamina C. El ICN fue similar entre grupos. La ingesta dietética de calcio, hierro, zinc, cobre, ácido fólico, vitamina C y E fue menor al 100% de adecuación al 6º mes. Sin embargo, al considerar en conjunto el aporte de la dieta como de los suplementos, la adecuación de prácticamente todos los nutrientes estudiados sobrepasa el 100% en ambos grupos, logrando una mayor adecuación el grupo sometido a BPGYR. Las excepciones las constituyen el calcio, el cual no alcanza a cubrir el 100% en ningún grupo y el ácido fólico en el grupo sometido a GVM. En conclusión, estos pacientes presentan reducciones importantes de la ingesta dietética de energía y micronutrientes, sin mayores diferencias dependientes del tipo de cirugía. Las características de los suplementos son críticos para lograr la cobertura de las necesidades.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of dietary intake and quality of the diet in patients undergoing gastric bypass and sleeve surgery. In 36 women with severe and morbid obesity it was assessed their nutrient intakes and dietary quality before and 6 months after bariatric surgery through three-day food records. Vitamin and mineral intakes from supplements were strictly controlled. Energy and nutrient intakes were significantly decreased 6 months after surgery bypass compared to the pre-surgery period, with the exceptions of calcium and vitamin C. No differences were observed between groups. The Dietary quality index was also similar in both groups. Dietary intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, copper, folic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin E were below 100% of adequacy from at the 6th month after the surgery. Nevertheless, by considering both diet and supplements supply, nutrient adequacy of all but calcium and folic acid was above 100% in both groups. Gastric bypass patients presented greater values. In conclusion, these patients present an important reduction of their energy and nutrient intakes, with no major impact of the type of surgery. Supplement characteristics are crucial to cover nutritional needs.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Dietary Supplements , Diet/standards , Energy Intake , Gastrectomy/methods , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Gastric Bypass , Nutritional Requirements , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamins/administration & dosage
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 136(5): 570-577, mayo 2008. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-490694

ABSTRACT

The effects of gastric bypass (GBP) on resting energy expenditure (REE) are not well known. Aim: To evaluate the changes in REE and its relationship with body composition in severe and morbid obese women before and six and twelve months after GBP. Patients and methods: Twenty three women aged 37±10 years, with a body mass index of 44±4 kg/m², were evaluated before, six and twelve months after GBP. REE was measured in a Deltatrac indirect calorimeter and expressed as kcal/day Fat mass (EM), and fat free mass (EEM) were determined by double beam Xray densitometry (DEXA). Results: Body weight reduction six and twelve months after GBP was 29.0±4.3 and 35.8±6.9 percent, respectively. The best predictor of weight reduction was initial weight (p <0.01). At six and twelve months, REE decreased by 291.7±260.0 and 353.8±378.4 kcal/day, respectively. In the same periods REE/kg body weight increased by 3.3 and 4.8 kcal/kg respectively, compared to baseline. REE/kg EEM was unchanged. Conclusions: GBP was associated with significant changes in body composition after six and twelve months. However, despite weight reduction, resting energy expenditure per fat free mass unit did not change significantly.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Basal Metabolism/physiology , Body Composition/physiology , Gastric Bypass , Obesity, Morbid/metabolism , Energy Intake/physiology , Gastric Bypass/methods , Obesity, Morbid/surgery , Postoperative Care , Time Factors , Weight Loss/physiology
18.
Biol. Res ; 41(1): 81-92, 2008. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-490635

ABSTRACT

CYP2E1 enzyme is related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) due to its ability for reactive oxygen species production, which can be influenced by polymorphisms in the gene. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatic levels, activity, and polymorphisms of the CYP2E1 gene to correlate it with clinical and histological features in 48 female obese NASH patients. Subjects were divided into three groups: (i) normal; (ii) steatosis; and (iii) steatohepatitis. CYP2E1 protein level was assayed in microsomes from liver biopsies, and in vivo chlorzoxazone hydroxylation was determined by HPLC. Genomic DNA was isolated for genotype analysis through PCR. The results showed that liver CYP2E1 content was significantly higher in the steatohepatitis (45 percent; p=0.024) and steatosis (22 percent; p=0.032) group compared with normal group. Chlorzoxazone hydroxylase activity showed significant enhancement in the steatohepatitis group (15 percent, p=0.027) compared with the normal group. c2 rare allele of RsallPstl polymorphisms but no C allele of Dral polymorphism was positively associated with CHZ hydroxylation, which in turn is correlated with liver CYP2E1 content (r=0.59; p=0.026). In conclusion, c2 allele is positively associated with liver injury in NASH. This allele may determine a higher transcriptional activity of the gene, with consequent enhancement in pro-oxidant activity of CYP2E1 thus affording liver toxicity.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , /metabolism , Fatty Liver/enzymology , Hepatitis/enzymology , Liver/enzymology , Obesity/enzymology , Case-Control Studies , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chlorzoxazone/metabolism , /genetics , Fatty Liver/pathology , Gene Frequency , Genotype , Hepatitis/pathology , Hydroxylation/genetics , Liver/pathology , Obesity/pathology , Polymorphism, Genetic
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 135(5): 551-557, mayo 2007. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-456670

ABSTRACT

Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common mesenchymatous tumors of the digestive tract. The pathological diagnosis is based on microscopy and immunohistochemistiy. Aim: To review the experience of our surgical unit in patients with GIST Material and methods: Review of medical records of 15 patients (aged 66+13 years, 11 women), with a pathological diagnosis of GIST, treated between 1999 and 2005. Results: The main presenting symptoms were melena in 40 percent, hematemesis in 20 percent, abdominal pain in 60 percent and anemia in 13 percent. In only one patient, the tumor appeared as an incidentaloma. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy A CAT scan was done in 87 percent, a barium swallow in 60 percent and a digestive endosonography in 20 percent. Thirteen tumors were located in the stomach and two in the small bowel. Mean tumor diameter was 5.3+1.7 cm. Surgical management was a tumor resection in 40 percent, a partial gastrectomy in 27 percent, a total gastrectomy in 20 percent and an intestinal excision in the rest. Mean hospital stay was 6.9+4.2 days. No postoperative complications were recorded. Conclusions: The main clinical presentation of GIST in this retrospective series was an upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Surgical treatment was devoid of complication.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Abdominal Pain/etiology , /analysis , Biopsy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Gastrectomy , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/complications , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/pathology , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/surgery , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/analysis , Retrospective Studies
20.
Rev. chil. cir ; 58(3): 187-193, jun. 2006. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-475781

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las alteraciones de la histología hepática constituyen un hallazgo frecuente en pacientes con obesidad mórbida y pueden correlacionarse con los niveles sanguíneos de lípidos. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de anormalidades histológicas del hígado en un gran número de pacientes chilenos con obesidad mórbida, correlacionados con los niveles de lípidos sanguíneos y con los hallazgos ecográficos preoperatorios. Material y Método: Estudio prospectivo y descriptivo de 414 pacientes con obesidad mórbida sometidos a cirugía bariátrica. En el preoperatorio se determinaron los niveles séricos de colesterol total y triglicéridos y se realizó ecotomografía abdominal para evaluar el aspecto macroscópico del hígado. Resultados: Hubo 90 por ciento de pacientes con alteraciones histológicas del hígado, presentando esteatosis leve, moderada, severa o esteatohepatitis. Cirrosis hepática se encontró en 4 pacientes (1 por ciento). No hubo diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres, entre el índice de masa corporal (IMC) preoperatorio y hallazgos histológicos. Tampoco se encontró correlación entre niveles sanguíneos de colesterol y triglicéridos. La ecotomografía abdominal tuvo una baja sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de esteatosis leve o hígado normal, teniendo una alta sensibilidad para el resto de las alteraciones histológicas. Conclusión: La obesidad mórbida se acompaña de alteraciones de la histología hepática en un 90 por ciento de los casos. Los hallazgos ultrasonográficos del hígado permitirían diagnosticar estas alteraciones en un gran número de estos pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver/pathology , Obesity, Morbid/complications , Abdomen , Chi-Square Distribution , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Cholesterol/blood , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Fatty Liver/diagnosis , Fatty Liver/epidemiology , Liver , Prospective Studies , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Triglycerides/blood
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