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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878982

ABSTRACT

In order to explore the effect of different drying methods(drying-in-the-shade, sun-drying, and hot air drying) on appearance characteristics, internal structure and composition of Belamcandae Rhizoma, so as to provide a theoretical basis for screening out suitable drying methods for primary processing. In this study, the Belamcandae Rhizoma's dynamic changes of the moisture content ratio and drying rate with different drying time under different drying methods, as well as the effects of different drying methods on the appearance, drying rate, density, ash, extractives and the contents of six flavonoids(mangiferin, tectoridin, iridin, tectorigenin, irigenin, irisflorentin) were compared. The results showed that fresh Belamcandae Rhizoma consumed the longest time to reach the water balance point by traditional dry drying in the shade, whiche was about 311 h; that by sun drying was 19.3%, which was shorter than drying in the shade; both drying curves were smoother. The section color of the sun drying samples was the closest to that of fresh samples, but the interior is full of holes, with a low density and loose structure. Hot air drying(40, 60, 80 ℃) could save about 27% to 88% of the drying time, which was greatly shorter, with less pores, a larger density and compact structure. Compared with the traditional drying method, the drying rate of hot air drying was reduced by 13.7%. Ash was affected by temperature, the drying conditions under 40 ℃ and below were not significantly different from those of conventional drying. The ash content decreased by 7.73% to 18.5% compared with conventional drying at 60,80 ℃. After conventional drying and 40 ℃ hot air drying, the contents of tectoridin and iridin(glycosides) in the samples were significantly higher than those in 60,80 ℃ hot air drying, while the contents of tectorigenin, irigenin and irisflorentin(aglycones) dried at 60 ℃ were the best. Therefore, considering comprehensive appearance characteristics and content of medicinal ingredients, traditional Chinese medicinal materials after 60 ℃ hot air drying show a solid texture, tight internal structure, good appearance, appropriate reduction of toxic parasides and higher aglycone content.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Rhizome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878973

ABSTRACT

In order to identify the species and biological characteristics of the pathogen of southern blight from three kinds of Chinese medicine of Iridaceae(Belamcanda chinensis, Iris tectorum and I. japonica) in Dabie Mountains, the isolation, identification, pathogenicity and biological characteristics of the pathogens were studied according to Koch's postulates. In addition, 9 chemical fungicides, 3 botanical fungicides and 5 microbial fungicides were used to evaluate their inhibition to the isolates in vitro. The results showed that all the strains(SG-Q, YW-Q, and HDH-Q) isolated and purified from the diseased plants of B. chinensis, I. tectorum and I. japonica, respectively, were identified as Sclerotium rolfsii through morphological observation and sequence aligement of 18 S rDNA, rDNA-ITS and TEF. Field observations showed that the intensity of the disease incidence of three Iridaceae plants was B. chinensis>I. japonica> I. tectorum, and the pathogenicity of the strains was SG-Q>YW-Q>HDH-Q. For biological characteristics, SG-Q strain was suitable for growth under the 12 h light/12 h dark cycle, with the optimal growth temperature of 30 ℃ and pH of 5. Among the 9 tested chemical fungicides, 29% lime sulphure and 10% flusilazole had stronger inhibitory effect on mycelia growth of SG-Q. For 3 botanical fungicides, 1% osthol, 20% eugenol and 0.5% berberine could effectively inhibt the mycelial growth of SG-Q and cause the morphological variation of the pathogen. For 5 microbial fungicides, Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis had better inhibition on the mycelium growth of SG-Q.


Subject(s)
Basidiomycota , Hypocreales , Iridaceae , Medicine
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878972

ABSTRACT

In this study, 24 copies of samples of Chrysanthemum morifolium and soil from two main production towns in Macheng city were collected, and the contents of 13 mineral elements, 5 effective components and 14 soil nutrient factors in Ch. morifolium were determined. The enrichment characteristics of available soil nutrients by mineral elements were analyzed and the dominant factors affecting the effective components of Ch. morifolium were screened. The results showed that the content of mineral elements and soil nutrients and effective components are very different, and variation of soil fertility was much greater than that of inorganic elements in chrysanthemum plants. In general, the level of element content in Ch. morifolium from different producing areas is K>N>P>Mg>Ca>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd. The content of K, N and Mg is higher than that of common crops, and the content of Cu, Cd and Pb in Ch. morifolium from various producing areas does not exceed the relevant standards. The N, P and K enrichment capacity in soil was stronger than that of other elements, and the Ca enrichment ability was the worst. The content of AvCu in the soil was positively correlated with the contents of N, Mg, K, Fe and Cu elements in Ch. morifolium. The contents of chlorogenic acid, luteolin, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid reached the pharmacopoeia standard. The percentage of chlorogenic acid and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in Ch. morifolium that from Huangtugang town in the active components were generally higher than that from Futianhe town, and the diffe-rences of luteolin contents in the two producing areas were relatively small. The correlation and regression analysis showed that the contents of Cu, Zn and Cr in Ch. morifolium were positively correlated with the active components, while the contents of Fe, Mn and Ni were negatively correlated with the contents of AvP, AvK, TK, AvMn and AvCu in soil. In general, Zn and Ca fertilizer should be added to the ecological planting of Ch. morifolium, K fertilizer should be added, and N and P fertilizer should be applied appropriately.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , Fertilizers , Minerals , Nutrients , Soil
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878971

ABSTRACT

In this study, 23 germplasm resources of Chrysanthemum morifolium used in medicine and tea were collected from Dabie Mountains and its surrounding producing areas, and the contents of 13 mineral elements were determined and compared. The thermal maps of correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used for comprehensive evaluation. The results showed that the average content of each element in Ch. morifolium of different germplasm resources was: K>N>P>Mg>Ca>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cd, and the leaves were: K>N>Ca>Mg>P>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Pb>Cd. There are rich contents of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe in Ch. morifolium flowers and their leaves, among them, K element has the largest change range, while N, Ca, Fe, Mg and Zn elements have a larger change range. The absorption and accumulation of each element in the leaves of different germplasm resources varied greatly. The correlation analysis shows that there is a strong positive correlation between Ca element, Mg, Mn and Cd element.Principal component analysis in Ch. morifolium flowers characteristic elements for Mn, Cr, Cu, P, K, can be used as a Ch. morifolium resources to identify the characteristics of the elements, choose top five principal component(F1-F5) comprehensive evalua-tion of medicinal Ch. morifolium, scored in the top five varieties for Hangiu-Fuhuangju, Hangju-Xiaoyangju, Hangju-Sheyangju, Hangju-Dayanghua, Hangju-Subeiju,indicates that in terms of mineral elements, the five medicinal Ch. morifolium resources quality is better. The PCA score chart can divide 23 Ch. morifolium resources into 4 groups, and the cluster analysis heat map divides 23 Ch. morifolium resources into 5 groups. All the Ch. morifolium resources of the same type can be well clustered together, indicating that the difference in mineral element content of Ch. morifolium germplasm resources is closely related to genetic factors.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum/genetics , Flowers/genetics , Minerals , Plant Leaves , Tea
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879109

ABSTRACT

The research on endophytes of medicinal plants mainly relies on the traditional culture and isolation methods. Because of their functions such as promoting host growth, improving stress resistance, promoting the accumulation of medicinal active ingredients or directly producing medicinal active ingredients, the endophytes of medicinal plants have gradually attracted wide attention. However, it was found that the strains isolated by traditional methods were not the true dominant endophytes of medicinal plants by comparing the results of traditional culture isolation with high-throughput sequencing. The blind and random nature of traditional methods leads to the lack of standards in terms of medium selection, culture time and interaction between species. On the contrary, high-throughput sequencing technology is an emerging molecular biology technology developed in recent decades. Due to its high resolution level and indepen-dent culture, it can be used for thorough analysis of the community structure and diversity of environmental microorganisms. Therefore, we proposed the strategy of using high-throughput sequencing technology to guide the traditional culture and isolation of endophytes from medicinal plants. Firstly, the endophytic structure and diversity of medicinal plants were completely clear by high-throughput sequencing technology, and the dominant endophytes of the host were unequivocal. Then according to the characteristics of each dominant endophytes design or query suitable medium for its growth to culture and isolation. Finally, the function of the isolates was studied. This method can prevent researchers from missing out on the important functional strains of the host, expand the research scope of endophytes of medicinal plants, and facilitate the in-depth excavation and utilization of endophytes of medicinal plants.


Subject(s)
Endophytes/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Plants, Medicinal , Research Design
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827990

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of comprehensive health industry, the demand for Chinese medicinal materials is increasing. There is also a growing demand for land for the cultivation of Chinese medicinal materials.Based on the analysis of the demand characteristics of planting habitats for Chinese medicinal herbs, this paper finds that compared with the cultivated environment, the wild environment is more conducive to the improvement of the quality and stress resistance of medicinal plants. The eco-planting for Chinese medicinal materials is the only way to achieve high quality, efficient and sustainable production of traditional Chinese medicine. Therefore, according to the habitat distribution characteristics of wild medicinal plants, combined with the current situation of land resource utilization in China and the increasing demand for land for Chinese herbal medicine cultivation, the land use strategy of Chinese herbal medicine ecological agriculture was proposed. ① To vigorously develop underwood planting and change the existing field cultivation mode. ② To make full use of mountainous areas and barren slopes to carry out wild planta tending or planting imitates wild condition. ③ According to the development law and biological characteristics of medicinal plants, the land resources should be developed and used rationally according to local conditions.This can not only meet the requirements of the specific growth environment of Chinese medicinal materials, realize the sustainable development of the Chinese medicinal materials industry, but also increase the economic income of people in mountainous areas, provide scientific and effective solutions for the land use of Chinese medicinal materials, and also have important significance for the protection of wild Chinese medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827985

ABSTRACT

Rhizosphere is the main place for the communication between medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms. Medicinal plants are closely related to the diversity and richness of rhizosphere microorganisms, and rhizosphere microorganisms in the rhizosphere of medicinal plants have important effects on the growth and development, yield, quality and resilience of medicinal plants. The reasonable and effective utilization of the principle of interaction between medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms has practical guiding significance for promoting the growth of medicinal plants, enhancing the ability of resistance to diseases and resisting the invasion of pathogens. This paper reviewed the research status of medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms in recent years, including the influence of medicinal plants on rhizosphere microorganisms, the influence of rhizosphere microorganisms on medicinal plants and the mechanism of interaction between medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms. The problems existing in the study of medicinal plants and rhizosphere microorganisms and the direction for further study were also pointed out.


Subject(s)
Plant Roots , Plants, Medicinal , Rhizosphere , Soil Microbiology
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827979

ABSTRACT

In this paper, Chrysanthemum morifolium was used as the experimental object, eight different planting periods were set up in field plot experiment from April to August, which were 04-15, 05-19, 05-30, 06-09, 06-19, 07-20, 07-31, 08-15. The effects of different treatments on the occurrence of root rot, agronnmic traits, mineral element absorption and content of effective components of Ch. morifolium in Macheng country of Hubei province were studied. The results showed that delaying the planting time could effectively reduce the diseases occurrence of root rot of Ch. morifolium. With the advance of transplanting period, the plant height, the weight of one hundred flowers and the number of flowers of Ch. morifolium showed a trend of gradual decrease, while the number of primary branches and the thickness of main stem and the primary branch increased first and then decreased. The yield of Ch. morifolium per plant and per mu increased with the advance of the planting period, and the yield per mu increased during the planting period on June 19, which was 91.96% higher than that on April 15. And with the delay of the planting period,the absorption and accumulation of potassium(K) elements was promotes. The content of active ingredients such as chlorogenic acid, rutin, luteolin, and 3,5-O dicoffeoacy lquinic acid in the Ch. morifolium increased significantly and then gradually decreased with the delay of the planting period, which indicates that late planting can significantly improve the quality of Ch. morifolium. Considering factors such as the occurrence of root rot disease, yield and active ingredient content, combined with climatic conditions in the Dabie Mountains in eastern Hubei, the optimum planting period of Ch. morifolium was determined from mid-late June to early July.


Subject(s)
Chlorogenic Acid , Chrysanthemum , Flowers , Minerals
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881031

ABSTRACT

Natural products have attracted a great deal of attention as significant resources in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and in chemical medicine, as well as in cosmetic ingredients, nutraceuticals and food products. Isochlorogenic acid (ICGA), which has medicinal value, has been discovered in various plants. As a widespread natural medicine, ICGA should be the subject of further research and development. However, there have been no systematic analyses of ICGA. According to our investigation, ICGA was initially isolated from green coffee extracts by Barnes et al. in 1950. To date, it has been discovered in a variety of tea, vegetables, medicinal diet and TCM materials. ICGA is used as a chemical marker for the quality control of these TCM materials. The metabolic process of ICGA has been studied in detail, conforming to be linear dynamics. Thus, the clear pharmacokinetics of ICGA offers a solid foundation for its research and development. ICGA has multiple biological and pharmacological effects, and studies have mainly focused on its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hypoglycemic, neuroprotective, and cardiovascular protective effects, and hepatoprotective properties. The mechanisms underlying these effects are summarized in this review to provide scientific support and inspiration for the future research and development of ICGA and ICGA-rich natural products.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872855

ABSTRACT

Objective:Isolate and identify Mycena, expand the resources of geminating fungus of Gastrodia elata and optimize the culture conditions of Mycena,in order to provide information and guidance for the production of geminating fungus of G. elata. Method:Juvenile tuber tissue mass transfer separation and purification technology was used for the separation and purification of strains,traditional morphology microscopy was used to isolate the colony mycelia spores morphological characteristics, such as identification,polymerase chain reaction(PCR) amplification rDNA (Ribosomal DNA) internal transcribed spacer(ITS) was used for sequencing analysis and further homology with NCBI database retrieval,MEGA6 software was used to establish Phylogenetic tree by the Maximum likelihood method (MaximumLikelihood,M-L), so as to classify and identify isolated strains. At the same time,orthogonal test was used to optimize the optimal growth conditions of Mycena. Result:A total of 86 strains were isolated, which belong to 21 species in 12 genera. WMMFJ,SHXG,WMM-21 and MFJ8103 were identified as M. purpureofusca, and ZT01-6 and ZT01-8 were identified as M. cf. purpureofusca. The growth rate of Mycena in wheat bran medium was significantly higher than in PDA medium. The optimal medium composition for the growth of germinating bacteria was 100 g potato,150 g wheat bran and 20 g corn flour,100 g glucose. And 1,3,5-Trihydroxybenzene significantly promoted the growth of WMMFJ,and played a role in promoting the growth of WMM-21 and ZT01-6,and 2-Methoxyphenol promoted the growth of WMMFJ. Conclusion:Six strains of Mycena were isolated and identified,four of them are M. purpureofusca,and two of them are M. cf. Purpureofusca. The separation method improved the separation effect of germinating bacteria.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872851

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effects of high temperature stress on the growth characteristics of different Armillaria strains,and to provide guidance for screening excellent Armillaria strains with high-temperature resistance. Method:14 strains of Armillaria from different G. elata producing areas were used as experimental materials to observe the growth characteristics and conduct phenotypic classification for the strains. rDNA-IGS sequence analysis was used for molecular identification to further determine the genetic relationship of the tested strains.The strain growth rate, biomass,mycelial length and other indicators under the condition of 23 ℃ (CK) and 30 ℃ high temperature stress were recorded. Result:All the 14 strains of Armillaria had the highest similarity and the closest relationship with Armillaria gallica,but there were significant differences in growth characteristics among different G. elata producing areas. The 14 strains of Armillaria were classified into Ⅳ groups,and the growth status was groupⅠ>group Ⅱ>group Ⅲ>group Ⅳ. After treatment with high temperature stress,the tolerance of each strain to high temperature also showed obvious differences,as shown in the average growth rate of the mycelial was GZ16>SX1>GZ1. The rank of relative mycelial length was GZ16>SX1>GZ3 and the relative biomass was GZ16>SX4>GZ1>HB1>AH2. Conclusion:Under high temperature stress,GZ16 was best in growth rate,relative length of mycelial,relative biomass and growth state,followed by SX1 and GZ1 strains. The results indicate that strains GZ16,SX1 and GZ1 have the strong resistance to high temperature and excellent growth characteristics at normal temperature,so these three strains are suitable to be produced in main G. elata producing areas in China.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872850

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the changes of soil microbial community structure before and after planting Gastrodia elata in different producing areas,and to investigate the response of soil microorganisms to the planting of G. elata. Method:ITS and 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technologies were used to detect fungal and bacterial community compositions in the soil,including the soil without planting G. elata(CK1,CK2),the soil around G. elata(GE1,GE2)before harvesting, and the soil around the rhizomorph of Armillaria(AGE1,AGE2) in Dafang, Guizhou and Jinzhai, Anhui respectively. Result:Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the soil microorganisms changed significantly after G. elata planting as compared with the control soil. The sequencing results showed that the planting of G. elata increased the OTUs number of fungi and bacteria. As compared with the control soil,the diversity and abundance of fungal and bacterial communities showed an increase trend after the cultivation of G. elata in soil of Dafang, Guizhou, such changes of fungal communities were not significant, but the abundance of soil bacteria communities increased in Jinzhai, Anhui as compared with the control soil. The abundance of genera Ilyonectria and Nitrospira increased,while genera Russula decreased significantly both in the soil of Guizhou and Anhui. Furthermore,the abundance of Fusarium and Mortierella increased significantly in the soil of Dafang, Guizhou. Conclusion:The soil microorganisms were out of balance after planting of G. elata, and the abundance of pathogenic microorganisms such as Ilyonectria and Fusarium increased,which may be related to the plant diseases and insect pests of G. elata.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774545

ABSTRACT

To study the effects of fresh-cut drying methods on the appearance and internal components of Panax notoginseng, and explore the feasibility of fresh-cut drying methods of P. notoginseng, so as to provide more effective processing methods for the production of P. notoginseng slices and Chinese patent medicines. In this study, we have compared the effects of 6 different drying methods on drying time, drying rate, density, appearance and internal components of P. notoginseng roots. It takes about 453 h to dry by whole-root drying in the sun, with a long constant speed period and a slow drying rate, the time of whole-root drying at 50 ℃ was shortened by 61.6% compared with whole-root drying in the sun, which resulted in the decrease of density and poor appearance of the medicinal material with hollow and crack appeared in the xylem, while the drying time of fresh-cut drying method was reduced by 61.82% to 91.58% and the drying rate increased greatly, due to the relatively slow drying process in the sun or in the shade after fresh-cut, salting-out and whitening appeared on the surface, and the internal components were all decreased to some extent. The drying time of fresh-cut drying at 50 ℃ was 91.58% and 68.83% shorter than that of whole-root drying in the sun and at 50 ℃, respectively. When drying at 50 ℃ after fresh-cut, the appearance and content of internal components of the medicinal materials were better, the appearance was yellowish green, the cut sections were clear with uniform pore distribution, and the content of saponin components was increased by 7.24% compared with that of the whole-root drying at 50 ℃, When drying at 40 ℃, the surface of slices has salting-out and whitening spots, and the loss of dencichine and total sugar was large, but at 60 ℃, this high temperature made the rate of dehydration of slices was extremely fast, which led to severe cracking and fragmentation, and the loss of total sugar and alcohol extract was large. By vacuum freeze drying after fresh-cut, the structure of medicinal materials slices was loose, the density was greatly reduced, and the appearance was different from those recorded in traditional books. The contents of total saponin components and dencichine were increased by 16.51% and 22.54%, respectively, compared with traditional whole-root drying. The fresh-cut process method is feasible in the production of P. notoginseng slices. In production, it is recommended that drying at 50 ℃ after fresh-cut can make the medicinal materials better in appearance and content of internal components, which is convenient for the subsequent processing and industrial feeding extraction. For the purpose of internal contents, it is better to adopt freeze-drying after fresh-cut processing method.


Subject(s)
Desiccation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Freeze Drying , Panax notoginseng , Plant Roots , Quality Control , Saponins
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773662

ABSTRACT

In this paper,the fingerprint of different varieties of chrysanthemum were established with " Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Chinese Materia Medica" and the content of chlorogenic acid,galuteolin and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in 29 batches of different varieties of chrysanthemum in Futianhe town,Huangtugang town and Wuhan city were compared. At the same time,similarity evaluation and common peak clustering analysis were carried out. There were 11 common peaks in the fingerprints of 29 batches of different varieties of chrysanthemum,and the similarity ranged from 0. 802 to 0. 975. Hangju and Gongju were divided into one group by cluster analysis,and Huangju into another category. The established fingerprint method provides a basis for the identification of chrysanthemum cultivars. The content of 29 batches of chlorogenic acid was between 4. 092 and 11. 723 mg·g-1,luteolin was between 1. 010 and 11. 713 mg·g-1,and 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid was between 8. 828 and 33. 435 mg·g-1,both reach the pharmacopoeia standard,but the effective components of different varieties of chrysanthemum were quite different. Based on the contents of three active ingredients and the diversity of fingerprint peaks,the quality of the characteristic germplasm resource of local Fubaijuin Macheng is superior,and the protection of local characteristic germplasm resource should be strengthened in production.


Subject(s)
Chlorogenic Acid , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chrysanthemum , Chemistry , Luteolin , Phytochemicals
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335836

ABSTRACT

In this paper,the potential climate factors affecting the Pairs polyphylla var. yunnanensis distribution in China at rational scales were selected from related literatures, using the sampling point geographic information from of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, combine the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) with spatial analyst function of ArcGIS software, to study the climate suitability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis cultivating region in China and the leading climate factors. The results showed that, average rainfall in August, average rainfall in October, coefficient of variation of seasonal precipitation, the average temperature of the dry season, isothermal characteristic, average temperature in July were the leading climate factors affecting the potential distribution of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis cultivating region in China, with their cumulative contribution rate reached 97.2% of all candidate climate factors. Existence probability of the region to be predicted of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis through the constructed model, the climate unsuitable region, low, medium and high region of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis in China were clarified and the threshold of climatic factors were gave and clarified the climate characteristics of the cultivating region in each climatic suitability division. The results of research can provide reference for production layout and introduction of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335835

ABSTRACT

The study was established an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of 8 steroidal saponins (polyphyllins Ⅶ, H, Ⅵ, Ⅱ, Ⅰ, and Ⅴ, dioscin, and gracillin) in Paridis Rhizoma, and made an evaluation by determining steroidal saponins in 15 kinds of genus Paris. The analysis was performed on a Waters Acquity H-ClassTM UPLC ultrafine liquid chromatography system coupled with a PDA detector. The chromatographic separation was achieved through a CAPCELL PAK ADME (4.6 mm× 250 mm, 5 μm) column and the optimal mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and water. The column was maintained at 21 ℃, and the flow rate was 0.8 mL•min ⁻¹. The UV detection wavelength was 203 nm. The results showed that ① the detected components can be well separated and all with good correlation coefficients. The standard calibration curves were linearly good (R2>0.999 9). The linearity was obtained over 0.041 70-3.812 00 μg. The average recoveries ranged from 95.91% to 103.8%. ② there are significant differences in the content of steroidal saponins from different species. The steroidal saponins are low content or almost none in P. mairei, P. polyphylla var. stenophylla, and P. delavayi have low content or almost did not contain, so these species are not suitable for medicinal use. The contents of steroidal saponins in P. polyphylla var. chinensis are varied from different places. There were high content of steroidal saponins in P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, P. forrestii, P. daliensis, and P. axialis, even up to 5.0%, which indicated that they had the potential pharmic value of development.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335834

ABSTRACT

In order to study whether Paris forrestii could be developed as a substitute of Paridis Rhizome, chemical compositions of P. forrestii and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were investigated by UPLC-Q-TOF MS. In addition, the contents of eight primary steroidal saponins in 77 batches of P. forrestii samples from different habitats were simultaneously determined by HPLC-UV. The results showed that P. forrestii and P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis have similar chemical compositions, and all 22 major common peaks were identified as steroid derivatives. Meanwhile, there were some differences in the contents of saponins in P. forrestii samples from different habitats. The contents of 4 steroidal saponins in Chinese Pharmacopoeia ranged from 0.068% to 3.30%, and the highest content of the 8 kinds of steroidal saponins was 6.18%, while the lowest was just 0.71%. Moreover, 78% of P. forrestii samples were in conformity with the requirements of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, indicating that P. forrestii samples had relatively stable quality and could be further studied as a substitute for Paridis Rhizome.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335831

ABSTRACT

Based on the field investigation, this paper researched the germplasms and geoherbs habitat of Chonglou in ancient herbal books systematically. The results showed that, Chonglou in ancient herbal books sometimes referred to certain specific germplasm, while sometimes it referred to many species derived from genus Paris except Sect. Paris. The medicinal material Chonglou in Chinese Materia Medica Bencaotujing and Bencaomengquan was verified as P. polyphylla var. chinensis, which could be P. polyphylla in Xinxiubencao, and it should include P. polyphylla or P. polyphylla var. stenophylla in Bencaogangmu. However, it proved to be a variety of species from Paris that can used as Chonglou in Diannanbencao and Zhiwumingshitukao. Moreover, the origins of Chonglou were correspondingly more diverse, with its producing areas changed from North to South. Therefore, with the resources increasing endangered, the botanical origin of Chonglou should be further studied.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-335807

ABSTRACT

Gastrodia elata has been used in China for more than 2 000 years and it is a kind of valuable traditional Chinese medicine. The originrecords of G. elata were Mount Tai of Shandong and and Mount Song of Henan, which began in Wupu Bencao of Wei Jin Dynasties, and Tai'an and its surrounding areas had been the Do-di herbs production areas. But from the beginning of the Republic of China, G. elata origin has undergone major changes, Do-di herbs production areas moved westward to the southwest.In this paper,through literature research and field visits, we studied the formation and changes of Do-di herbs production areas of G. elata. The cultivation history and current main producing area of G. elata was also introduced. On this basis, we profoundly summarized the reasons of Do-di herbs production areas formation and changes from the nature, society, transportation, humanities and germplasm resources.Combining the ancient herbal medicine and the characteristics of modern producing areas, the planting strength of G. elata could be strengthened in the hope of providing reference for the quality evaluation and cultivation of G. elata.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275484

ABSTRACT

To provide guidance for quality control and variety breeding of Gastrodia elata f. glauca cultivated form in Zhaotong, nine agronomic traits of G. elata f. glauca cultivation form were measured and the traits were analyzed using multiple comparison,correlation analysis, multiple stepwise regression analysis and path analysis. The results of multiple comparison and analysis showed that the number of dot ring and the length-width ratio of tuber were no different in G. elata f. glauca cultivation form. The coefficient of variation about the single tuber fresh weigh, ring spacing and belly button diameter was about 20%. The coefficient of variation about the length of the tuber, the width of the tuber, the thickness of the tuber, the length-width ratio of tuber and the number of dot ring was near 10%. The correlation analysis results showed that the single tuber fresh weigh and the length,the width and the thickness of the tuber were extremely significant positive correlated. The results of multiple stepwise regression analysis and path analysis showed that the length, the width and the thickness of the tuber were the main factors affecting the fresh weight of single tuber,which were the best agronomic traits on high yield of G. elata f. glauca. The length of the tuber,the width of the tuber and the thickness of the tuber, which would be used as indicators of the characteristics of high yield varieties in Zhaotong. The number of dot ring and the length-width ratio of tuber, which would be selected as quality control indicators of the genuine Chinese medicinal materials in Zhaotong.

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