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1.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 112-119, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893485

ABSTRACT

Objective@#As the cycling population grows, the lack of public awareness about the dangers of cycling while under the influence of alcohol is a signifant problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and bicycle-related injuries such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and excess mortality ratio-adjusted injury severity score (EMR-ISS). @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective analysis using data collected from the Korean Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) database from 20 emergency departments during the period 2011-2016. The study subjects who had sustained bicycle-related injuries were over 18 years of age. The covariates included the mechanism, place, and time of injury. The outcomes were TBI incidence and severe and critical injury of EMR-ISS≥25. The effects of alcohol consumption on these outcomes were analyzed, and the variations in effects were determined using logistic regression. @*Results@#Of the 24,297 individuals studied, 1,912 had alcohol-related bicycle injuries, which led to a higher proportion of single-vehicle injury incidents (alcohol 63.7% vs. non-alcohol 46.4%, P<0.001). The alcohol group had a higher rate of TBI (alcohol 11.5% vs. non-alcohol 4.6%, P<0.001) and severe and critical injury of EMR-ISS (alcohol 23.1% vs. nonalcohol 11.7%, P<0.001). TBI (odds ratio [OR], 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.33-3.16) and severe and critical injury of EMR-ISS (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 2.01-2.53) showed a significant association with alcohol. @*Conclusion@#Our study showed an association of alcohol consumption with a higher incidence of TBI and severe and critical EMR-ISS. Education should focus more on the association between cycling under alcohol influence and injury severity.

2.
Journal of the Korean Society of Emergency Medicine ; : 112-119, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901189

ABSTRACT

Objective@#As the cycling population grows, the lack of public awareness about the dangers of cycling while under the influence of alcohol is a signifant problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and bicycle-related injuries such as traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and excess mortality ratio-adjusted injury severity score (EMR-ISS). @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective analysis using data collected from the Korean Emergency Department-based Injury In-depth Surveillance (EDIIS) database from 20 emergency departments during the period 2011-2016. The study subjects who had sustained bicycle-related injuries were over 18 years of age. The covariates included the mechanism, place, and time of injury. The outcomes were TBI incidence and severe and critical injury of EMR-ISS≥25. The effects of alcohol consumption on these outcomes were analyzed, and the variations in effects were determined using logistic regression. @*Results@#Of the 24,297 individuals studied, 1,912 had alcohol-related bicycle injuries, which led to a higher proportion of single-vehicle injury incidents (alcohol 63.7% vs. non-alcohol 46.4%, P<0.001). The alcohol group had a higher rate of TBI (alcohol 11.5% vs. non-alcohol 4.6%, P<0.001) and severe and critical injury of EMR-ISS (alcohol 23.1% vs. nonalcohol 11.7%, P<0.001). TBI (odds ratio [OR], 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.33-3.16) and severe and critical injury of EMR-ISS (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 2.01-2.53) showed a significant association with alcohol. @*Conclusion@#Our study showed an association of alcohol consumption with a higher incidence of TBI and severe and critical EMR-ISS. Education should focus more on the association between cycling under alcohol influence and injury severity.

3.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 25-32, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836799

ABSTRACT

Natural killer (NK) cells play have a crucial role in the early phase of immune responses against various pathogens. We compared characteristics of canine NK cells against two canine mammary carcinoma cell lines, REM134 and CF41.Mg. REM134 showed higher expression of progesterone receptor, proliferative cell nuclear antigen, Ki67, multiple drug resistance, Bmi-1, c-myc, E-cadherin, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 than that of CF41.Mg. For specific expansion and activation of NK cells, we isolated CD5 negative cells from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and co-cultured K562 cells in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-15, and IL-21 for 21 days. As a result, we found that expression markers of activated NK cells such as NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKG2D, CD244, perforin, granzyme B, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were highly upregulated. In addition, we found there was upregulated production of interferon gamma of activated NK cells against target cells such as REM134 and CF41.Mg.Specifically, we observed that cytotoxicity of NK cells against target cells was more sensitively reacted to CF41.Mg than REM134. Based on the results of this study, we recommend the development of an experimental application of CF41Mg, which has not been reported in canine mammary carcinoma research.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e238-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831606

ABSTRACT

Background@#Atrial arrhythmia is a cardiac disorder caused by abnormal electrical signaling and transmission, which can result in atrial fibrillation and eventual death. Genetic defects in ion channels can cause myocardial repolarization disorders. Arrhythmia-associated gene mutations, including KCNH2 gene mutations, which are one of the most common genetic disorders, have been reported. This mutation causes abnormal QT intervals by a gain of function in the rapid delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr). In this study, we demonstrated that mutations in the KCNH2 gene cause atrial arrhythmia. @*Methods@#The N588K and L532P mutations were induced in the Courtemanche-Ramirez-Nattel (CRN) cell model, which was subjected to two-dimensional and three-dimensional simulations to compare the electrical conduction patterns of the wild-type and mutant-type genes. @*Results@#In contrast to the early self-termination of the wild-type conduction waveforms, the conduction waveform of the mutant-type retained the reentrant wave (N588K) and caused a spiral break-up, resulting in irregular wave generation (L532P). @*Conclusion@#The present study confirmed that the KCNH2 gene mutation increases the vulnerability of the atrial tissue for arrhythmia.

5.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 201-209, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918271

ABSTRACT

Canine mammary tumors are among the most frequently observed cutaneous tumors in female dogs. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), referred to as tumor-initiating cells, are thought to have properties similar to normal stem cells such as the ability to self-renewal and to differentiate into various cell types. Biological understanding of CSCs and the critical pathways involved in their maintenance are important in research and therapy for mammary tumors. We conducted the present study on sphere formation from REM134 cells by using methylcellulose to produce tumorspheres on a large scale and compared the specific markers of the spheres-formed and plating-cultured REM134 cells. The results revealed that the tumorspheres cultured in methylcellulose had higher seeding density and improved morphology compared to those produced in normal sphere formation medium. Expression levels of stemness markers and CSC-related markers were higher in tumorsphere-forming cells than in plating-cultured cells. Subsequently, we transplanted the tumorsphere-forming and plating-cultured cells into female nude mice to examine their tumorigenic potential. Tumor volume increased rapidly in mice transplanted with tumorsphere-derived cells compared to plating-cultured cells. We observed a novel sphere-forming condition for REM134 cells and showed that REM134 cell tumorspheres can exhibit improved CSC properties.

6.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 211-217, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918270

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are useful candidates for tissue engineering and cell therapy. Physiological cell environment not only connects cells to each other, but also connects cells to the extracellular matrix that provide mechanical support, thus exposing the entire cell surface and activating signaling pathways. Hydrogel is a polymeric material that swells in water and maintains a distinct 3-dimensional (3D) network structure by cross linking. In this study, we investigated the optimized cellular function for canine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (cAD-MSCs) using hydrogel. We observed that the expression levels of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which are involved in cell proliferation and stemness, were increased in transwell-hydrogel (3D-TN) compared to the transwell-normal (TN). Also, transforming growth factor-β1 and SOX9, which are typical bone morphogenesis-inducing factors, were increased in 3D-TN compared to the TN. Collagen type II alpha 1, which is a chondrocyte-specific marker, was increased in 3D-TN compared to the TN. Osteocalcin, which is a osteocyte-specific marker, was increased in 3DTN compared to the TN. Collectively, preconditioning cAD-MSCs via 3D culture systems can enhance inherent secretory properties that may improve the potency and efficacy of MSCs-based therapies for bone regeneration process.

7.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 406-415, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714669

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Loss of cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus is a hallmark of many dementias. Administration of stem cells as a therapeutic intervention for patients is under active investigation, but the optimal stem cell type and transplantation modality has not yet been established. In this study, we studied the therapeutic effects of human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pMSCs) in dementia rat model using either intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intravenous (IV) injections and analyzed their mechanisms of therapeutic action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dementia modeling was established by intraventricular injection of 192 IgG-saporin, which causes lesion of cholinergic neurons. Sixty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control, lesion, lesion+ICV injection of pMSCs, lesion+IV injection of pMSCs, and lesion+donepezil. Rats were subjected to the Morris water maze and subsequent immunostaining analyses. RESULTS: Both ICV and IV pMSC administrations allowed significant cognitive recovery compared to the lesioned rats. Acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly rescued in the hippocampus of rats injected with pMSCs post-lesion. Choline acetyltransferase did not co-localize with pMSCs, showing that pMSCs did not directly differentiate into cholinergic cells. Number of microglial cells increased in lesioned rats and significantly decreased back to normal levels with pMSC injection. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that ICV and IV injections of pMSCs facilitate the recovery of cholinergic neuronal populations and cognitive behavior. This recovery likely occurs through paracrine effects that resemble microglia function rather than direct differentiation of injected pMSCs into cholinergic neurons.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Rats , Acetylcholinesterase , Choline O-Acetyltransferase , Cholinergic Neurons , Dementia , Hippocampus , Injections, Intraventricular , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Methods , Microglia , Models, Animal , Negotiating , Placenta , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stem Cells , Therapeutic Uses , Water
8.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 201-209, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741519

ABSTRACT

Canine mammary tumors are among the most frequently observed cutaneous tumors in female dogs. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), referred to as tumor-initiating cells, are thought to have properties similar to normal stem cells such as the ability to self-renewal and to differentiate into various cell types. Biological understanding of CSCs and the critical pathways involved in their maintenance are important in research and therapy for mammary tumors. We conducted the present study on sphere formation from REM134 cells by using methylcellulose to produce tumorspheres on a large scale and compared the specific markers of the spheres-formed and plating-cultured REM134 cells. The results revealed that the tumorspheres cultured in methylcellulose had higher seeding density and improved morphology compared to those produced in normal sphere formation medium. Expression levels of stemness markers and CSC-related markers were higher in tumorsphere-forming cells than in plating-cultured cells. Subsequently, we transplanted the tumorsphere-forming and plating-cultured cells into female nude mice to examine their tumorigenic potential. Tumor volume increased rapidly in mice transplanted with tumorsphere-derived cells compared to plating-cultured cells. We observed a novel sphere-forming condition for REM134 cells and showed that REM134 cell tumorspheres can exhibit improved CSC properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Female , Humans , Mice , Carcinogenesis , Critical Pathways , Mammary Neoplasms, Animal , Methylcellulose , Mice, Nude , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Stem Cells , Tumor Burden
9.
Korean Journal of Veterinary Research ; : 211-217, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741518

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are useful candidates for tissue engineering and cell therapy. Physiological cell environment not only connects cells to each other, but also connects cells to the extracellular matrix that provide mechanical support, thus exposing the entire cell surface and activating signaling pathways. Hydrogel is a polymeric material that swells in water and maintains a distinct 3-dimensional (3D) network structure by cross linking. In this study, we investigated the optimized cellular function for canine adipose tissue-derived MSCs (cAD-MSCs) using hydrogel. We observed that the expression levels of Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, which are involved in cell proliferation and stemness, were increased in transwell-hydrogel (3D-TN) compared to the transwell-normal (TN). Also, transforming growth factor-β1 and SOX9, which are typical bone morphogenesis-inducing factors, were increased in 3D-TN compared to the TN. Collagen type II alpha 1, which is a chondrocyte-specific marker, was increased in 3D-TN compared to the TN. Osteocalcin, which is a osteocyte-specific marker, was increased in 3DTN compared to the TN. Collectively, preconditioning cAD-MSCs via 3D culture systems can enhance inherent secretory properties that may improve the potency and efficacy of MSCs-based therapies for bone regeneration process.


Subject(s)
Bone Regeneration , Cell Proliferation , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Chondrogenesis , Collagen Type II , Extracellular Matrix , Hydrogels , Hydrogels , Mesenchymal Stem Cells , Osteocalcin , Osteogenesis , Polymers , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen , Tissue Engineering , Water
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 165-172, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186108

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused by cholinergic deficits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We lesioned basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats using 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin. After 3 weeks, lesioned animals underwent water maze testing or were analyzed by 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. RESULTS: During water maze probe testing, performance of the lesioned group decreased with respect to time spent in the target quadrant and platform zone. Cingulate cortex glucose metabolism in the lesioned group decreased, compared with the normal group. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity and glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 expression declined in the cingulate cortex. CONCLUSION: Our results reveal that spatial memory impairment in animals with selective basal forebrain cholinergic neuron damage is associated with a functional decline in the GABAergic and cholinergic system associated with cingulate cortex glucose hypometabolism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Rats , Acetylcholine/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Basal Forebrain/drug effects , Cholinergic Agents/administration & dosage , Cholinergic Neurons/drug effects , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , GABAergic Neurons/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Gyrus Cinguli/drug effects , Injections , Maze Learning , Motor Activity/physiology , Positron-Emission Tomography , Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 1/pharmacology
11.
Korean Journal of Community Nutrition ; : 574-579, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-98559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Vitamin C has various functions such as antioxidative effect and supporting absorption of iron (Fe). Aim of this present study was to provide vitamin C nutrition information and to briefly evaluate absorption interaction of vitamin C and Fe content of vitamin C emphasized products. METHODS: Vitamin C emphasized foods including beverages, cereal, snacks, chocolate products, other cocoa products, and sugary products were examined by HPLC. Fe contents in samples after dry-ashing were examined by ICP. RESULTS: Vitamin C content ranges in various products tested were the following: beverages (n=11) 20.15 ± 0.08~845.41 ± 6.07 mg, cereal (n=11) 52.50 ± 0.23~262.50 ± 0.07 mg, snacks (n=1) 50.00 ± 0.25 mg, chocolate products (n=1) 311.73 ± 2.44 mg, other cocoa products (n=1) 311.73 ± 2.44 mg, other sugary products (n=2) 52.50 ± 0.23~262.50 ± 0.07 mg. Vitamin C (n=27) analysis values ranged from 82 to 450% of the labeled value. Vitamin C content in vitamin C emphasized food (n=6) was estimated 7.7 times~56.6 times more than Fe content. CONCLUSIONS: Analyzed samples ranged more than 80% of the labeled value in vitamin C emphasized products, which complied with food labeling regulation. But, beverages (n=3), cereal (n=4), chocolate products (n=1) were 2 times more than the labeled value. To provide accurate nutrition information, food manufactures should supervise nutrition labeling and understand the interactions between nutrients. Also, consumer should decide about the adequate amount of nutrient intake by thoroughly checking nutrition labeling.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Ascorbic Acid , Beverages , Cacao , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Edible Grain , Food Labeling , Iron , Snacks , Vitamins
12.
Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine ; : 86-92, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the gender differences of direct aggression and relational aggression in Korean elementary and middle school students. METHODS: Parents of 946 elementary school students(age 9.54±1.72 years, 485 boys, 461 girls) completed the Child Behavior Checklist(CBCL). Six-hundred-and-three middle school students(age 13.98±0.93 years, 301 boys, 302 girls) completed the Youth Self-Report(YSR). Independent t-test, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were used. RESULTS: Boys had significantly higher direct aggression scores than girls in elementary school students(p<0.001). There was no significance gender difference of relational aggression in elementary school students(p=0.235). In middle school students, boys had significantly higher direct aggression than girls(p=0.017), and girls had significantly higher relational aggression compared to the boys(p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the presence of gender differences in manifestation of aggression subtypes in Korean elementary and middle school students. These gender differences should be taken into account in prevention and intervention approaches of aggression in children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Aggression , Child Behavior , Parents
13.
Korean Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; : 945-949, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-177599

ABSTRACT

The development of myolysis has allowed number of gynecologic surgeons to treat myoma instead of hysterectomy or myomectomy. However not long time has passed since this operation started, little studies were conducted on this complication and side effect. Especially, there are not enough studies about complication and prognosis related pregnancy after myolysis. One of these complications, uterine rupture during pregnancy is not frequent, but fatal condition to both mother and fetus. We report a case of uterine rupture that occurred in early second-trimester who had been myolysis 22 months before pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pregnancy , Fetus , Hysterectomy , Mothers , Myoma , Prognosis , Uterine Rupture
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