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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928946

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether Lingbao Huxin Pill (LBHX) protects against acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at the infarct border zone (IBZ) of myocardial tissue by regulating apoptosis and inflammation through the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)-mediated forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κ B) signaling pathways.@*METHODS@#Six-week-old Wistar rats with normal diet were randomized into the sham, the model, Betaloc (0.9 mg/kg daily), LBHX-L (0.45 mg/kg daily), LBHX-M (0.9 mg/kg daily), LBHX-H (1.8 mg/kg daily), and LBHX+EX527 (0.9 mg/kg daily) groups according to the method of random number table, 13 in each group. In this study, left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) ligation was performed to induce an AMI model in rats. The myocardial infarction area was examined using a 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride solution staining assay. A TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay was conducted to assess cardiomyocyte apoptosis in the IBZ. The histopathology of myocardial tissue at the IBZ was assessed with Heidenhain, Masson and hematoxylineosin (HE) staining assays. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 β, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The mRNA expressions of SIRT1 and FOXO1 were detected by real-time qPCR (RT-qPCR). The protein expressions of SIRT1, FOXO1, SOD2, BAX and NF- κ B p65 were detected by Western blot analysis.@*RESULTS@#The ligation of the LADCA successfully induced an AMI model. The LBHX pretreatment reduced the infarct size in the AMI rats (P<0.01). The TUNEL assay revealed that LBHX inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis at the IBZ. Further, the histological examination showed that the LBHX pretreatment decreased the ischemic area of myocardial tissue (P<0.05), myocardial interstitial collagen deposition (P<0.05) and inflammation at the IBZ. The ELISA results indicated that LBHX decreased the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in the AMI rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that the LBHX pretreatment upregulated the protein levels of SIRT1, FOXO1 and SOD2 (P<0.05) and downregulated NF- κ B p65 and BAX expressions (P<0.05). The RT-qPCR results showed that LBHX increased the SIRT1 mRNA and FOXO1 mRNA levels (P<0.05). These protective effects, including inhibiting apoptosis and alleviating inflammation in the IBZ, were partially abolished by EX527, an inhibitor of SIRT1.@*CONCLUSION@#LBHX could protect against AMI by suppressing apoptosis and inflammation in AMI rats and the SIRT1-mediated FOXO1 and NF- κ B signaling pathways were involved in the cardioprotection effect of LBHX.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Inflammation/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Sirtuin 1/genetics
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922126

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the combined anti-inflammatory effect of activating blood circulation and detoxifying Chinese medicines in unstable angina (UA) patients.@*METHODS@#This study was an open-labeled, randomized controlled trial conducted in 5 centers in Beijing. A total of 154 patients were randomized into two groups at a 1:1 ratio by random numbers. Based on the conventional treatment, patients in the activating blood circulation (ABC) group were treated with Guanxin Danshen Droping Pill (, 0.4 g, thrice daily), and patients in the activating blood circulation and detoxifying (ABCD) group were treated with Guanxin Danshen Droping Pill (0.4 g, thrice daily) and Andrographis tablet (0.2 g, thrice daily) for 4 weeks. The primary outcome was the serum level of high sensitive C reaction protein (hs-CRP), and the secondary outcome index included the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), thrombomodulin (TM), the score of angina pectoris, the score of blood stasis syndrome, and the score of Chinese medicine symptoms, observed at week 0 and week 4.@*RESULTS@#A total of 144 patients completed the trial (ABC group, n=70; ABCD group, n=74). There were no significant differences in the clinical baseline characteristics between the two groups. When compared with the ABC group, ABCD group showed better performance in reducing the level of inflammatory factors, especially hs-CRP (P<0.05), IL-6 (P<0.01) and TNF-α (P<0.01). In term of clinical symptoms, ABCD group played a better role in improving the scores of angina pectoris and blood stasis syndrome than ABC group (all P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The combination of Guanxin Danshen Dropping Pill and Andrographis tablet exert significant anti-inflammatory effect on UA patients, which is superior to single Guanxin Danshen Dropping Pill. (Registration No. ChiCTR-TRC-13004072).


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris/drug therapy , Angina, Unstable/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To elucidate the underlying mechanism of Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS) on gastric epithelial cell injury and barrier dysfunction induced by dual antiplatelet (DA).@*METHODS@#Human gastric mucosal epithelial cell (GES-1) was cultured and divided into 4 groups: a control, a DA, a PNS+DA and a LY294002+PNS+DA group. GES-1 apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry, cell permeability were detected using Transwell, level of prostaglandins E2 (PGE2), 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in supernatant were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), expression of phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated-PI3K (p-PI3K), Akt, phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) were measured by Western-blot.@*RESULTS@#DA induced apoptosis and hyper-permeability in GES-1, reduced supernatant level of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1α and VEGF (P<0.05). Addition of PNS reduced the apoptosis of GES-1 caused by DA, restored the concentration of PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1α and VEGF (P<0.05). In addition, PNS attenuated the alteration of COX-1 and COX-2 expression induced by DA, up-regulated p-PI3K/p-Akt, down-regulated RhoA and GSK-3β. LY294002 mitigated the effects of PNS on cell apoptosis, cell permeability, VEGF concentration, and expression of RhoA and GSK-3β significantly.@*CONCLUSIONS@#PNS attenuates the suppression on COX/PG pathway from DA, alleviates DA-induced GES-1 apoptosis and barrier dysfunction through PI3K/Akt/ VEGF-GSK-3β-RhoA network pathway.


Subject(s)
Cyclooxygenase 1 , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 beta , Humans , Panax notoginseng , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Saponins/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , rhoA GTP-Binding Protein
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773209

ABSTRACT

Diemailing~® Kudiezi Injection( DKI) is widely used in the treatment of cerebral infarction,coronary heart disease and angina pectoris. Long-term clinical application and related research evidence showed that DKI has a good effect in improving the clinical symptoms of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However,this injection has not been included in any clinical practice guideline. It has been found that the use of DKI is in wrong way in clinical practice in recent years. Therefore,clinical experts from the field of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases nationwide are invited to compile this expert consensus in order to guide clinicians.GRADE system is used to grade the quality of evidence according to different outcomes according to degrading factors. Then it forms the recommendation or consensus suggestion through the nominal group method. The formation of expert consensus mainly considers six factors: quality of evidence,economy,efficacy,adverse reactions,patient acceptability and others. Based on these six aspects,if the evidence is sufficient,a " recommendation" supported by evidence is formed,and GRADE grid voting rule is adopted. If the evidence is insufficient,a " consensus suggestions" will be formed,using the majority voting rule. In this consensus,the clinical indications,efficacy,safety evidences and related preliminary data of DKI were systematically and comprehensively summarized in a concise and clear format,which could provide valuable reference for the clinical use of DKI. This consensus has been approved by China association of Chinese medicine which is numbered GS/CACM 202-2019.


Subject(s)
Angina Pectoris , Drug Therapy , Cerebral Infarction , Drug Therapy , China , Consensus , Coronary Disease , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Injections , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777120

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To examine the prognostic value of serum levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) thus explore a potential biomarker of "toxin syndrome" in CHD.@*METHODS@#In this prospective nested case-control study, 36 of 1,503 Chinese patients with stable CHD experienced at least 1 recurrent cardiovascular event (RCE) during 1-year follow-up. Serum levels of ADMA at the start of follow-up were compared between these 36 cases and 36 controls which matched to cases in terms of gender, age, history of hypertension, and myocardial infarction.@*RESULTS@#Based on the crude model, subjects in the 2 highest ADMA quartiles showed significantly higher risk of developing RCE than those in the lowest ADMA quartile [odds ratio (OR) 4.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01 to 16.58; OR 6.76, 95% CI 1.57 to 29.07]. This association was also observed in the case-mix model (OR 5.51, 95% CI 1.23 to 24.61; OR 7.83, 95% CI 1.68 to 36.41) and multivariable model (OR 6.64, 95% CI 1.40 to 31.49: OR 13.14, 95% CI 2.28 to 75.71) after adjusting for confounders. The multivariable model which combined ADMA and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) showed better predictive power with areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (0.779) than the model of either ADMA (0.694) or hsCRP (0.636).@*CONCLUSION@#Serum ADMA level may be a potential biomarker of "toxin syndrome" in CHD which shows favorable prognostic value in predicting 1-year RCE in patients with stable CHD. [The registration number is ChiCTR-PRNRC-07000012].


Subject(s)
Arginine , Blood , Biomarkers , Blood , Coronary Disease , Blood , Humans , Odds Ratio , ROC Curve , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Syndrome
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773646

ABSTRACT

Expert consensus statement on Diemailing Kudiezi Injection in clinical practice was approved on April 17,2019 by the Standardadization Office of the Chinese Association of Chinese Medicine. This project,which started in November 2017,has been developed and completed in accordance with the standard developing procedure. This paper will give a detailed introduction to the compilation process about the consensus. The aim is to enable readers to understand the background,purpose and basis of this consensus in a timely manner. Readers can learn about diffferent stages of develping process,including project management system,drafting,consulting,expert consensus,as well as current problems and shortcomings. Such an editorial explanation is just a dynamic follow-up of the whole consensus-making process. It also plays a good supervisory role in the whole consensus-making. It could be a guarantee for the quality of the consensus. There is no doubts that the editorial explanation is an important auxiliary document in the process of consensus-making. It is the extension and supplement of consensus content and a basis for fully understanding the technical content of this consensus. Therefore it is an indispensable document in the process of consensus-making.


Subject(s)
Consensus , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Injections , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691400

ABSTRACT

Atherothrombosis is the major cause of acute coronary syndromes and cardiovascular deaths. Platelets participate in the processes of forming and extending atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, antiplatelet therapy is a milestone in the primary and second prevention of atherothrombotic diseases. Along with the longterm use of antiplatelet agents, the safety and drug resistance has become a big concern in clinic and new drugs possessing higher effectiveness and fewer adverse effects are needed. Abundant recent data support that traditional Chinese herbs may be a good alternative and complementary choice of new antiplatelet drugs. This review highlights the progress of antiplatelet effect of active components derived from traditional Chinese herbs based on their chemical structures.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Humans , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled , Metabolism , Signal Transduction
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691369

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tongxinluo Capsule (, TXL) for patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding TXL in the treatment of CSX were searched in Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Wanfang Database, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trial, websites of the Chinese and International Clinical Trial Registry platform up to June 30, 2015. The intervention was either TXL alone or TXL combined with conventional treatment, while the control intervention was conventional treatment with or without placebo. Data extraction, methodological quality assessment and data analyses were performed according to the Cochrane criteria. The primary outcome was a composite event of death, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), angina requiring hospitalization, revascularization, and heart failure. The secondary outcome measures were angina symptom improvement, electrocardiograph (ECG) improvement, and serum endothelin-1 (ET-1) level. The adverse events were also recorded. RevMan 5.3 software was applied for data analyses.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Twelve RCTs (696 patients) were included. Compared with conventional treatment, the addition of TXL to conventional treatment showed some benefits on relieving angina symptoms [risk ratio (RR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.25, 1.71), P<0.01], and improving ECG [RR: 1.45, 95% CI (1.21, 1.74), P<0.01]. The pooled result did not support a benefit of TXL on reducing the incidence of primary outcome [RR: 0.20, 95% CI (0.02, 1.61), P=0.13]. In addition, TXL decreased serum ET-1 concentration of CSX patients [standardized mean number:-1.63, 95% CI (-2.29,-0.96), P<0.01]. No serious adverse events were reported.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>TXL documents potential benefits on attenuating angina symptoms, improving ECG and decreasing serum ET-1 level for CSX patients. However, more rigorous RCTs with high quality are needed to confirm its efficacy and safety.</p>


Subject(s)
Capsules , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diagnostic Imaging , Drug Therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Electrocardiography , Endothelin-1 , Blood , Humans , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Publication Bias , Syndrome
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687924

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the effect and safety of Kuanxiong Aerosol (, KA) on patients with angina pectoris.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Block randomization was performed to randomly allocate 750 patients into KA (376 cases) and control groups (374 cases). During an angina attack, the KA group received 3 consecutive sublingual sprays of KA (0.6 mL per spray). The control group received 1 sublingual nitroglycerin tablet (NT, 0.5 mg/tablet). Log-rank tests and Kaplan-Meier estimations were used to estimate the angina remission rates at 6 time-points after treatment (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and >5 min). Logistic regression analysis was performed to observe the factors inflfluencing the rate of effective angina remission, and the remission rates and incidences of adverse reactions were compared for different Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) classes of angina.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The 5-min remission rates in the KA and control groups were not signifificantly different (94.41% vs. 90.64%, P>0.05). The angina CCS class signifificantly inflfluenced the rate of remission (95% confidence interval = 0.483-0.740, P<0.01). In the CCS subgroup analysis, the 3-and 5-min remission rates for KA and NT were similar in the CCSII and III subgroups (P>0.05), while they were signifificantly better for KA in the CCSI and II subgroups (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Furthermore, the incidence of adverse reactions was signifificantly lower in the KA group than in the control group for the CCSII and III subgroups (9.29% vs. 26.22%, 10.13% vs. 20.88%, P<0.05 or P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>KA is not inferior to NT in the remission of angina. Furthermore, in CCSII and III patients, KA is superior to NT, with a lower incidence of adverse reactions. (Registration No. ChiCTRIPR-15007204).</p>


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Therapeutic Uses , Angina Pectoris , Drug Therapy , Case-Control Studies , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Remission Induction , Treatment Outcome
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301027

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the prognosis effect of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for benefiting qi and activating blood circulation adjunctive to conventional treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 702 patients with ACS who underwent PCI were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment plus CHMs for benefiting qi and activating blood circulation (treatment group, 351 cases) or conventional treatment alone (control group, 351 cases) for 6 months. Six months later, all patients received conventional treatment alone. Follow-ups were scheduled at 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th month after enrollment in April 2008, and the final follow-up visit was during September 2011 and November 2011. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or revascularization (PCI or coronary artery bypass grafting); and the secondary endpoint was the composite of re-admission for ACS, congestive heart failure, nonfatal stroke or other thrombus events.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 621 (88.59%) patients completed 35.4±3.8 months follow-up, while 80 (11.41%) patients withdrew from the trial (41 in the treatment group and 39 in the control group). The incidence of primary endpoint was 5.7% (20 patients) in the treatment group versus 10.86% (38 patients) in the control group [relative risk (RR): 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.30, 0.88; P=0.013; absolute risk reduction (ARR):-0.052, 95% CI: -0.06, 0.01]. The incidence of secondary endpoint was 5.98% (21 patients) in the treatment group versus 10.28% (36 patients) in control group (RR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.97, P=0.037; ARR: -0.043, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.01). Most of the primary and secondary endpoints were occurred in 18 months (84.50% in the treatment group versus 78.10% in the control group).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>CHMs for benefiting qi and activating blood circulation adjunctive to conventional treatment improved clinical outcomes for patients with ACS after PCI in long-term follow-up.</p>

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327215

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the relationship between inflammatory factors and two Chinese medicine (CM) syndrome types of qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS) and qi deficiency and blood stasis (QDBS) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty subjects with ACS, whose pathogenesis changes belongs to qi disturbance blood stasis syndrome, were divided into 2 groups: 30 in the QSBS group and 30 in the QDBS group. The comparative analysis on them was carried out through comparing general information, coronary angiography and inflammatory factors including intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the QSBS group, Lp-PLA2 and YKL-40 levels in the QDBS group showed no-significant difference (P>0.05); ICAM-1 was significantly higher in the QDBS group than in the QSBS group in the pathological processes of qi disturbance and blood stasis syndrome of ACS (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Inflammatory factor ICAM-1 may be an objective basis for syndrome typing of QSBS and QDBS, which provides a research direction for standardization research of CM syndrome types.</p>

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-301018

ABSTRACT

Stenosis of the coronary artery has been considered as an essential component of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Consequently, revascularization [e.g., percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass] has been the primary therapeutic approach to IHD. Such strategy has indeed revolutionized the management of IHD patients. However, not all patients with myocardial ischemia have visible coronary stenosis. Moreover, cardiovascular events occur in nearly 20% patients with stable coronary artery disease who have undergone PCI. The recently proposed "solar system" hypothesis of IHD postulates that coronary stenosis is only one (albeit important) of its features. Mechanistic contribution and clinical implication of multiple pathophysiological processes beyond coronary stenosis are highlighted in this hypothesis. On the basis of a holistic regulation and individualized medicine, Chinese medicine (CM) has been used in the real-world setting to manage a variety of diseases, including IHD, for more than two thousands years. In this article, we summarize the evidence of CM that supports the "solar system" IHD hypothesis, and argue for a comprehensive approach to IHD. At the theoretical level, the central features of this approach include a holistic view of disease and human subjects, as well as individualized medicine. At the practical level, this approach emphasizes anoxia-tolerance and self-healing.


Subject(s)
Holistic Health , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Models, Cardiovascular , Myocardial Ischemia , Therapeutics
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-310847

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the protective effect of propyl gallate (PG), an alkyl ester of gallic acid which is an active ingredient of Radix Paeoniae, against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced apoptosis and death in endothelial cells (ECs) and to find out its preliminary mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The cultured endothelial cells were divided into normal, model (ox-LDL), control (fetal bovine serum), PG high dose (20 μg/mL), PG middle dose (10 μg/mL), and PG low dose (5 μg/mL) groups, each derived from three different pools of umbilical cords. The model of injured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was induced by ox-LDL. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry and measurement of nitrogen monoxidum (NO) release were used to evaluate the protective effect of PG against ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and death in HUVECs. To find out the mechanism of this protective effect, the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA, eNOS protein expression, immunofluorescence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxidedismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>PG significantly reduced ox-LDL-induced apoptosis and cell death. The percentage of cells death and apoptosis was significantly higher in the ox-LDL group than that in the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the cells death and apoptosis of PG group was no different (P>0.05). As compared with the ox-LDL group, results of the PG high dose group showed that cell viability was significantly increased (P<0.05), the level of NO release, expression of eNOS mRNA, densitometric value of eNOS protein expression, as well as the activities of SOD and GPx were all significantly higher (all P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>PG could potentially serve as a novel endothelial protective agent against ox-LDL-induced injury of endothelial cell.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Cell Survival , Cells, Cultured , Cytoprotection , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Metabolism , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL , Toxicity , Oxidative Stress , Propyl Gallate , Pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297453

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effect of drug-containing serum of Chinese herbal compounds [Xiongshao Capsule (XS, for activating blood) and Huanglian Capsule (HL, for dispelling toxin)] on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced adherence between human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), inflammatory reaction and expression of related proteins in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups (8 in each group) using random digit table: the blank control group treated with distilled water, the test group I treated with Chinese herbal compound of XS (0.135 g/kg), the test group II treated with Chinese herbal compound of HL (0.135 g/kg), and the test group Ill treated with Chinese herbal compound of XS (0.135 g/kg) and HL (0.135 g/kg). All medication was given by gastrogavage once a day for a week. Rats' blood serum was harvested 1 h after the last administration to prepare drug-containing serum. HUVECs were exposed to TNF-alpha (100 ng/mL) to induce cell injury model and incubated with corresponding drug-containing serum (10%) for 24 h. Normal rats' serum was given to cells in the blank control group and the model group, while XC + HL containing serum was given to cells in the rest 3 groups. The adherence of HUVECs and PMN cells was detected by using rose bengal strain. Levels of E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1P) in the supernatant of cultured HU-VECs were determined by ELISA. Protein expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 (p38MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 12) were determined by Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with the blank control group, HUVECs were seriously injured; PMN adherence amount significantly increased; levels of E-selectin, ICAM-1, and IL-1beta increased; expression levels of p-p38MAPK and p-ERK 1/2 in the supernatant of HUVECs significantly increased in the model group (all P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, HUVECs-PMN adherence amount decreased (P < 0.05); levels of E-selectin, ICAM-1, and IL-1 beta in the supernatant of HUVECs decreased (P < 0.01, P < 0.05); expression levels of p-p38MAPK and p-ERK 1/2 of endothelial cells decreased in the test group I, II, and III (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Drug-containing serums of activating blood, activating blood and dispelling toxin could attenuate TNF-alpha induced injury of HUVECs, inhibit HUVECs-PMN adherence and the release of adhesion factors. Its mechanism might be involved with protein phosphorylation of p38MAPK and ERK 1/2 in the MAPK pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , E-Selectin , Endothelial Cells , Physiology , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Inflammation , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Metabolism , Interleukin-1beta , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 , Neutrophils , Rats , Serum , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Metabolism
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-297384

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the efficacy of Chinese herbs for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation (CHSQABC) on patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In this ChiCTR-TRC-00000021, a total of 281 ACS patients complicated with type 2 DM after successful PCI were randomly assigned to the Western medicine treatment group (the control group, treated by routine Western medicine treatment) and the combined treatment group (the treatment group, treated by CHSQABC + routine Western medicine treatment). Patients in the combined treatment group took Xinyue Capsule (2 pills each time, 3 times per day) and Compound Chuanxiong Capsule (2 pills each time, 3 times per day for half a year and 1-year follow-ups). Primary endpoints covered incidence of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia-driven revascularization, and secondary endpoints included stroke, heart failure, and rehospitalization for ACS. At the same time scores for blood stasis syndrome (BSS) and the incidence of angina pectoris were evaluated before treatment, at month 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 after treatment.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The incidence of ischemia-driven revascularization was obviously less in the treatment group than in the control group (P < 0.05). No patient had nonfatal MI in the treatment group, while 5 patients in the control group had it. The incidence of non-fatal MI showed an obvious lowering tendency in the treatment group, but with no statistical difference when compared with that in the control group (P > 0.05). Four patients readmitted to hospital in the treatment group, while 12 patients readmitted. There existed obvious tendency in the treatment group, but with no statistical difference when compared with that in the control group (P > 0.05). The incidence of angina was significantly lower in the treatment group at month 6, 9, and 12 than that at month 1 , but it was lower in the control group at 9 months (P < 0.05). The incidence of angina was 15. 4% in the treatment group, obviously lower than that in the control group (26.2%, P < 0.05). Compared with before treatment, scores for BSS were obviously lowered in the treatment group at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment and in the control group at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment (P < 0.05). It was obviously lower in the treatment group than in the control group at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Administration of CHSQABC combined routine Western medicine treatment could reduce the event of revascularization and post-PCI recurrent angina, and improve scores for BSS of ACS patients complicated with DM after PCI.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , General Surgery , Therapeutics , Angina Pectoris , Combined Modality Therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Therapeutics , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Humans , Incidence , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Qi
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-237922

ABSTRACT

"Treatment based on diseases identification and formulas corresponding to diseases" is one of important therapy modes of Chinese medicine. Although it originates from Huangdi Neijing, it is seldom systematically discussed. Modern Chinese medicine (CM) now faces diseases mostly with comparatively confirmed Western medical diagnoses. Most of them have specific pathophysiological changes. How to interpret these specific pathophysiological changes, play CM's advantages, and improve clinical efficacies has become an inevitable problem for modern CM in clinic. Authors expounded historic development and clinical application of "formulas corresponding to diseases", and its difference from "formulas corresponding to syndromes", put forward that we should combine "formulas corresponding to diseases" and "formulas corresponding to syndromes" in CM clinics. We should focus on the disease and summarize treatment rules, thereby improving targeted CM formulas.


Subject(s)
Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Syndrome
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246120

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine Curcuma Zedoary ( E'Zhu) contains essential oil, curcuminoid and other effective constituents, with such pharmacological actions as anti-platelet aggregation, lowing blood lipid, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. In recent years, studies have showed that certain extracts and chemical components of E'Zhu could mitigate myocardial cell mitochondria injury and protect vascular endothelium by enhancing heme oxygenase-1 activity, inhibit nuclear factor NF-kappaB, target genes interleukin-associated kinase-1 (IRAK-1), tumor necrosis factor receptor-6 (TRAF-6) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), reduce inflammatory infiltration, and inhibit growth factor-induced smooth muscle cells (SMCs) proliferation and migration by impacting oxidation of cellular phosphatases. Due to its different functions in vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, E'Zhu has been applied in drug-eluting stents, with a potential effect in preventing in-stent restenosis and thrombogenesis. In this paper, studies on pharmacological effects and mechanisms of extracts and main chemical constituents from E'Zhu in preventing vascular restenosis were summarized.


Subject(s)
Animals , Constriction, Pathologic , Drug Therapy , General Surgery , Curcuma , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Endothelium, Vascular , Humans , Stents
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229564

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To develop a reliable method to assess the stability of xinyue capsules containing Panax quinquefolius saponins according to European quality standards.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>An efficient high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) method was established to analyse six main ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re and Rg1) in six different batches (120 capsules/batch) from the same lot of xinyue capsules and in one batch measured six times within one day. The six ginsenosides were separated on a Hypersil BDS-C18 column (3 μm, 100 mm×3 mm) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Gradient elution was performed using a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile-water modified with 0.01% formic acid. The HPLC chromatograms were analyzed with "LC data comparison" using Lab Solutions software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The HPLC peaks were identified by comparing their retention times (Rg1: 23.44 min, Re: 23.77 min, Rb1: 35.24 min, Rc: 36.18 min, Rb2: 38.55 min and Rd: 40.88 min) with those of the standards under the same chromatographic conditions, which showed similar results among the samples of six different batches and among the samples from one batch detected six times within one day.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Xinyue capsules have good drug intra-day consistency at room temperature and exhibit a consistent quality between different batches. This study established a reliable method to assess the stability of xinyue capsules, which is suitable for further qualitative analysis and may assist in promoting the safe and effective use of Chinese herbal medicine.</p>


Subject(s)
Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drug Stability , Ginsenosides , Saponins
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-313027

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of activating blood circulation drugs or activating blood circulation and detoxication drugs on indices of platelet activation, inflammation, and coagulation status correlated with blood-stasis and toxin in acute myocardial infarction rats.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Totally 100 male SD rats were randomly divided into the sham-operation group, the model group, the activating blood circulation group, the activating blood circulation and detoxication group, and the metoprolol group, 20 in each group. Rats in the activating blood circulation group were administered with Xiongshao Capsule at the daily dose of 0.39 g/kg. Rats in the activating blood circulation and detoxication group were administered with Xiongshao Capsule (at the daily dose of 0.39 g/kg) and Huanglian Capsule (at the daily dose of 0.135 g/kg). Rats in the metoprolol group received metoprolol at the daily dose of 2.25 mg/kg. And rats in the rest two groups were administered with normal saline. All medication lasted for 3 successive weeks. After the last administration, the rat model of acute myocardial infarction was prepared by ligation of left anterior descending artery. No ligation was given to rats in the sham-operation group. Animals were sacrificed 24 h after modeling. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), β-thromboglobulin (β-TG), platelet α granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140), 11 dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11-DH-TXB2), fibrinopeptide A (FPA), antithrombin III (AT-III), and D-dimer (DD) were detected by ELISA. The mRNA expression of TNF-α was tested by RT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Platelet activation parameters were significantly increased in the model group, when compared with the sham-operation group (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, all indices (except GMP-140 in the metoprolol group) obviously decreased in each medicated group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Besides, β-TG and 11-DH-TXB2 were superior in the activating blood circulation and detoxication group to that of the metoprolol group (P < 0.05). But 11-DH-TXB2 was also obviously superior in the activating blood circulation and detoxication group to that of the activating blood circulation group (P < 0.05). Compared with the sham-operation group, an obviously hypercoagulable state was obviously shown in the AMI model group, with significantly increased FPA and DD (P < 0.05 or 0.01) and significantly decreased AT III (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the FPA level significantly decreased in each medicated group (P < 0.01), and the AT III level significantly increased in the activating blood circulation group and the activating blood circulation and detoxication group (both P < 0.01). The level of DD obviously decreased in the activating blood circulation and detoxication group (P < 0.01). Besides, the 3 indices were superior in the activating blood circulation and detoxication group to those of the metoprolol group (P < 0.05). Compared with the sham-operation group, the serum TNF-α level and myocardial TNF-α mRNA expression were significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, not only the serum TNF-α level was significantly decreased, but also the TNF-α gene expression in the myocardial tissue was improved in the activating blood circulation and detoxication group (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Combined use of activating blood circulation and detoxication drugs could play an effective role in treatment of coronary heart disease by fighting against platelet activation, improving the hypercoagulable state, and inhibiting inflammation, which was significantly better than using activating blood circulation and removing stasis drugs alone.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Inflammation , Metabolism , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardium , Metabolism , Platelet Activation , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-312811

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the anginal attack-relieving efficacy and safety of Kuanxiong Aerosol (KA) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 780 patients confirmatively diagnosed as CHD angina from November 2011 to December 2012 in 13 medical centers in the mainland area were assigned to 2 groups by blocked randomization, the treatment group (376 cases) and the control group (374 cases). When the angina attacked, patients in the treatment group received sublingual spray three times, 0.6 mL each time, while those in the control group sublingually dissolved Nitroglycerin Tablet (NT), 0.5 mg each tablet. The effective rate of angina relief, efficacy of electrocardiogram (ECG), and the incidence of adverse reactions were observed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The 3 min and 5 min remission rates of angina attack were 53.72% (202/376) and 94.41% (355/376) in the treatment group, and 47.86% (179/374) and 90.64% (339/374) in the control group. The 95% confidence interval (CI) of the difference between the 2 groups of 3 min and 5 min remission rates of angina attacks were [(-1.84%, 12.32%) and (-1.33%, 6.85%) respectively, P > 0.05]. The total improvement rates of ST-T changes in the treatment group and the control group after treatment were 74.07% and 73.13% respectively (P > 0.05). The adverse reaction rate was 9.31 (35/376 cases) in the treatment group and 22.46% (84/374 cases) in the control group (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>KA was not inferior to NT in relieving anginal attacks and improving ischemic ECG changes, and had obviously less adverse reaction.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Angina Pectoris , Drug Therapy , Coronary Disease , Drug Therapy , Drug Combinations , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oils, Volatile , Therapeutic Uses , Phytotherapy
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