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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913330

ABSTRACT

Kimura disease is characterized by painless subcutaneous masses, usually in the head and neck area as well as serum/tissue eosinophilia and elevated serum IgE levels. Various treatment methods, such as surgical excision, corticosteroids, and radiotherapy, have been suggested, but none of these are considered standard therapy due to high recurrence rates. Dupilumab is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to the alpha subunit of IL-4 receptor for IL-4 and IL-13 and inhibits T helper 2 (Th2) response, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, asthma, and nasal polyps. Kimura disease has also been shown to increase CD4+Th2 cells and Th2 cytokines. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who had subcutaneous neck and orbital masses of Kimura disease concurrent with allergic rhinitis, decreased lung function, and IgG subclass deficiency. The masses did not improve with omalizumab or immunomodulatory agents, but resolved with dupilumab. Considering potential side effects of steroids or immunosuppressant agents, dupilumab may be an option for initial treatment with Kimura diseases in children.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 109-116, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874579

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To date, studies on various noninvasive techniques have been suggested to evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of se-rum asialo α1-acid glycoprotein (AsAGP) in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis compared with chronic hepatitis for clinically useful result. @*Methods@#We conducted a case-control study of 96 patients with chronic liver disease. Chronic hepatitis was defined as the presence of chronic liver disease on ultrasonography, with a liver stiffness of less than 5.0 kPa as shown on magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). Liver cirrho-sis was defined as liver stiffness of more than 5.0 kPa on MRE. The serum AsAGP concentration was compared between the two groups. @*Results@#Serum AsAGP levels were significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in those with chronic hepatitis (1.83 μg/mL vs 1.42 μg/mL, p<0.001). Additionally, when comparing pa-tients in each cirrhotic group (Child-Pugh grades A, B, and C) to those with chronic hepatitis, AsAGP levels were significantly higher in all the cirrhotic groups (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of AsAGP for detecting cirrhosis were 79.2% and 64.6%, respectively, and the area under the curve value was 0.733. The best diagnostic cutoff to predict cirrhosis was 1.4 μg/mL. AsAGP and bilirubin were found to be independent risk factors for the prediction of cirrhosis in the logistic regression analysis. @*Conclusions@#Serum AsAGP showed an acceptable diagnostic performance in predicting liver cirrhosis.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913317

ABSTRACT

Triptorelin is a synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for the treatment of precocious puberty in children. Among the triptorelin side effects, drug hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, can rarely occur, mostly after repeated exposure to the drug. We present a first case of an 8-year-old girl with central precocious puberty who developed anaphylaxis to the first injection of decapeptyl depot, which contains triptorelin acetate (D,L lactide coglycolide), dextran 70, and polysorbate 80. She showed 2 positive reactions in an intradermal test to decapeptyl depot, suggesting that it is an IgE-mediated reaction to one of its components. Considering this was the first exposure to tryptorelin, it might be a reaction to polysorbate. As there are many therapeutic products containing polysorbate which can cross-react with polyethylene glycols, physicians should pay attention to immediate reactions to drugs containing polysorbate.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900010

ABSTRACT

Background@#Most epidemiological studies depend on the subjects' response to asthma symptom questionnaires. Questionnaire-based study for childhood asthma prevalence may overestimate the true prevalence. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of “Current asthma” using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and methacholine challenge test in Korean children. @*Methods@#Our survey on allergic disease included 4,791 children (age 7–12 years) from 2010 to 2014 in Korean elementary schools. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) was defined as provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (PC20) ≤ 16 mg/mL. “Current asthma symptoms” was defined as positive response to “Wheezing, current,” “Treatment, current,” or “Exercise, current.” “Current asthma” was defined when the subjects with “Current asthma symptoms” showed BHR on the methacholine challenge test or had less than 70% of predicted FEV1 value. @*Results@#The prevalence of “Wheezing, ever,” “Wheezing, current,” “Diagnosis, ever,” “Treatment, current,” “Exercise, current,” and “Current asthma symptoms” was 19.6%, 6.9%, 10.0%, 3.3%, 3.5%, and 9.6%, respectively, in our cross-sectional study of Korean elementary school students. The prevalence of BHR in elementary school students was 14.5%. The prevalence of BHR in children with “Wheezing, ever,” “Wheezing, current,” “Diagnosis, ever,” “Treatment, current,” and “Exercise, current” was 22.3%, 30.5%, 22.4%, 28.8%, and 29.9%, respectively. BHR was 26.1% in those with “Current asthma symptoms.”The prevalence of “Current asthma” was 2.7%. @*Conclusions@#Our large-scale study provides 2.7% prevalence of current asthma in Korean elementary school children. Since approximately one third of the children who have “Current asthma symptoms” present BHR, both subjective and objective methods are required to accurately predict asthma in subjects with asthma symptoms.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892306

ABSTRACT

Background@#Most epidemiological studies depend on the subjects' response to asthma symptom questionnaires. Questionnaire-based study for childhood asthma prevalence may overestimate the true prevalence. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of “Current asthma” using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and methacholine challenge test in Korean children. @*Methods@#Our survey on allergic disease included 4,791 children (age 7–12 years) from 2010 to 2014 in Korean elementary schools. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) was defined as provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (PC20) ≤ 16 mg/mL. “Current asthma symptoms” was defined as positive response to “Wheezing, current,” “Treatment, current,” or “Exercise, current.” “Current asthma” was defined when the subjects with “Current asthma symptoms” showed BHR on the methacholine challenge test or had less than 70% of predicted FEV1 value. @*Results@#The prevalence of “Wheezing, ever,” “Wheezing, current,” “Diagnosis, ever,” “Treatment, current,” “Exercise, current,” and “Current asthma symptoms” was 19.6%, 6.9%, 10.0%, 3.3%, 3.5%, and 9.6%, respectively, in our cross-sectional study of Korean elementary school students. The prevalence of BHR in elementary school students was 14.5%. The prevalence of BHR in children with “Wheezing, ever,” “Wheezing, current,” “Diagnosis, ever,” “Treatment, current,” and “Exercise, current” was 22.3%, 30.5%, 22.4%, 28.8%, and 29.9%, respectively. BHR was 26.1% in those with “Current asthma symptoms.”The prevalence of “Current asthma” was 2.7%. @*Conclusions@#Our large-scale study provides 2.7% prevalence of current asthma in Korean elementary school children. Since approximately one third of the children who have “Current asthma symptoms” present BHR, both subjective and objective methods are required to accurately predict asthma in subjects with asthma symptoms.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915481

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because of the very low incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in Korea, data on hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV coinfection are limited. This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with HCV/HIV coinfection in Korea. @*Methods@#We performed a retrospective cohort study of all HCV-monoinfected and HCV/ HIV-coinfected patients treated with antivirals at National Medical Center in Seoul, Korea, between January 2009 and March 2020. @*Results@#We enrolled 220 HCV-monoinfected and 23 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients treated with antivirals. The HCV/HIV-coinfected patients were younger (HCV vs. HCV/HIV: 57.3 ± 11.3 vs. 40.7 ± 10.1 years, P < 0.001) and had a higher proportion of men (HCV vs. HCV/ HIV: 54.5% [n = 120] vs. 91.3% [n = 21], P < 0.001) than the HCV-monoinfected patients.Genotype 1b and 2 were most common in both HCV monoinfection and HCV/HIV coinfection groups. HCV-monoinfected patients had a higher incidence of genotype 1b and 2 than HCV/HIV-coinfected patients (HCV vs. HCV/HIV: 95.4% [n = 210] vs. 73.9% [n = 17], P < 0.001), while the HCV/HIV-coinfected patients had genotype 1a (HCV vs. HCV/HIV: 1.8% [n = 4] vs. 21.7% [n = 5], P < 0.001). The fibrosis-4 index was significantly lower in the HCV/ HIV-coinfected patients than in the HCV-monoinfected patients (HCV vs. HCV/HIV: 3.81 ± 3.38 vs. 1.66 ± 1.10, P < 0.001). Among the direct-acting antivirals (DAA)-treated patients, the sustained viral response (SVR) rate did not differ significantly between both groups (HCV vs.HCV/HIV: 94.9% [93/99] vs. 90.9% [10/11], P = 0.480). @*Conclusion@#In Korea, the HCV/HIV-coinfected patients who received antiviral treatment were younger, had higher proportion of men and incidence of genotype 1a, and had less advanced fibrosis than the HCV-monoinfected patients. In actual clinical settings, HCV/HIV-coinfected patients show excellent SVR to DAA treatment, similar to HCVmonoinfected patients.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898123

ABSTRACT

Because it is associated with mortality, hyponatremia is an important feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its mechanisms remain unclear, although right heart failure resulting from pulmonary arterial hypertension may lead to systemic congestion and arterial underfilling. However, most patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension are clinically euvolemic and have no peripheral edema. Unlike patients with underlying heart disease, neurohumoral activation is not demonstrated in hyponatremic patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, who show features of congestive heart failure only at later stages in their disease. Here, a case vignette is introduced, and the pathophysiology of hyponatremia in pulmonary arterial hypertension will be discussed. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) appears to underlie hyponatremia in the initial phase of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The mechanisms by which various lung diseases can lead to SIAD remain an enigma.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896615

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890419

ABSTRACT

Because it is associated with mortality, hyponatremia is an important feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Its mechanisms remain unclear, although right heart failure resulting from pulmonary arterial hypertension may lead to systemic congestion and arterial underfilling. However, most patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension are clinically euvolemic and have no peripheral edema. Unlike patients with underlying heart disease, neurohumoral activation is not demonstrated in hyponatremic patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, who show features of congestive heart failure only at later stages in their disease. Here, a case vignette is introduced, and the pathophysiology of hyponatremia in pulmonary arterial hypertension will be discussed. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (SIAD) appears to underlie hyponatremia in the initial phase of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The mechanisms by which various lung diseases can lead to SIAD remain an enigma.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888911

ABSTRACT

Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is defined as the occurrence of spontaneous wheals, angioedema, or both for >6 weeks in the absence of specific causes. It is a common condition associated with substantial disease burden both for affected individuals and societies in many countries, including Korea. CSU frequently persists for several years and requires high-intensity treatment; therefore, patients experience deteriorations in quality of life and medication-associated complications. During the last decade, there have been major advances in the pharmacological treatment of CSU and there is an outstanding need for evidence-based guidelines that reflect clinical practice in Korea. The guidelines reported here represent a joint initiative of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Korean Dermatological Association, and aim to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of CSU in Korean adults and children. In Part 1, disease definition, guideline scope and development methodology as well as evidence-based recommendations on the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids are summarized.

11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 310-316, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816704

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of air purifiers on the concentrations of indoor air pollutants and on asthma control in children.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized crossover trial, daily use of an air purifier filter was compared with a matched placebo with the filter off. Thirty elementary school students who had asthma were enrolled and randomly allocated to one of two groups. The primary endpoints were changes in indoor air quality, asthma severity, lung function, airway inflammatory, urine microbiome, and phthalate after the installation of air purifiers. PM(2.5) and CO₂ were measured as indoor air pollutants. Asthma severity was assessed in terms of both symptom and medication scores acquired using a daily questionnaire. The higher the score, the better the symptom or the less frequent the use of medication. Peak expiratory flow rate and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were also measured.RESULTS: The mean age of the enrolled patients was 9.2±1.98 years. The mean concentration of PM2.5 was 17.0 µg/m³ in the filter-off condition, but significantly lower at 9.26 µg/m³ in the filter-on condition. Medication scores were 6.9 for the filter-off and 7.12 for the filter-on conditions, reflecting a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of medications used during air purifier operation. Bacterial richness, as determined using the Chao 1 index, was markedly lower in the filter-on than the filter-off condition.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that air purifiers benefit medication burden in children with asthma by reducing PM(2.5) levels.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762181

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Childhood asthma has a considerable social impact and economic burden, especially in severe asthma. This study aimed to identify the proportion of childhood asthma severity and to evaluate associated factors for greater asthma severity. METHODS: This study was performed on 667 children aged 5–15 years with asthma from the nationwide 19 hospitals in the Korean childhood Asthma Study (KAS). Asthma was classified as mild intermittent, mild persistent, and moderate/severe persistent groups according to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program recommendations. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify the associated factors for greater asthma severity. RESULTS: Mild persistent asthma was most prevalent (39.0%), followed by mild intermittent (37.6%), moderate persistent (22.8%), and severe persistent asthma (0.6%). Onset later than 6 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.69 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 1.92 for moderate/severe persistent asthma) tended to increase asthma severity. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (aOR, 1.53 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 1.85 for moderate/severe persistent asthma), and current dog ownership with sensitization to dog dander (aOR, 5.86 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 6.90 for moderate/severe persistent asthma) showed increasing trends with greater asthma severity. Lower maternal education levels (aOR, 2.32) and no usage of an air purifier in exposure to high levels of outdoor air pollution (aOR, 1.76) were associated with moderate/severe persistent asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Modification of identified environmental factors associated with greater asthma severity might help better control childhood asthma, thereby reducing the disease burden due to childhood asthma.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , Air Pollution , Animals , Asthma , Child , Dander , Dogs , Education , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Risk Factors , Smoke , Social Change , Tobacco
13.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 67-71, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836090

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are widely used as targeted treatments for various malignancies. Sorafenib is an orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitor that blocks the signaling pathways of several growth factors. Its use is approved for various malignancies such as unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Several adverse effects have been reported in the literature; however, cardiotoxicity is rare. We present a case of recurrent coronary vasospasm caused by short-term administration (5 days) of sorafenib. Since it caused refractory ischemia after re-administration, we had no choice but to stop the treatment.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739403

ABSTRACT

This erratum is being published to correct the error on page 650 of the article. The number of participating research institution should be corrected.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739399

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Adherence is a major component of successful medical treatment. However, non-adherence remains a barrier to effective delivery of healthcare worldwide. METHODS: Twenty healthcare facilities (secondary or tertiary hospitals) belonging to the Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Diseases (KAPARD) participated. Questionnaires were given to patients currently receiving treatment in the form of inhalant useor oral intake or transdermal patch for mild to moderate asthma. RESULTS: A total of 1,838 patients responded to the questionnaire. Mean age was 5.98 ± 3.79 years (range: 0-18 years). With help from their caregivers, the percentage of patients that answered “taking as prescribed” was 38.04% for inhalant users, 50.09% for oral medication users and 67.42% for transdermal users. Transdermal patch users had significantly greater adherence compared to the other 2 groups (P < 0.001). The 34.15% of inhalant users, 70.33% of oral medication users and 93.00% of transdermal patch users felt that their medication delivery system was “Easy” or “Very easy” to use (P < 0.001). “Method of administration” was deemed to be the most difficult part of the treatment regimen to follow, and 76.7% of patients preferred once-daily administration (i.e., “Frequency of administration”). CONCLUSIONS: Asthma medication adherence in young children was found to be better in the transdermal patch group. This may be due to requiring fewer doses and easy to follow instructions. From an adherence point of view, the transdermal patch seems more useful for long-term asthma control in children compared to oral or inhaled medicine.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Caregivers , Child , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Medication Adherence , Transdermal Patch
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762202

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Various studies have investigated factors related to the prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR). We studied the correlation between the outbreaks of AR and airborne pollen in September. METHODS: According to data from the National Health Insurance Service, the number of AR cases was increased from 2012 to 2016. During the same period, the number of patients with upper respiratory tract infection, respiratory virus detection rate, air pollutants, and concentration of airborne pollen were correlated with the occurrence of AR in correlation analysis. RESULTS: The number of patients with AR showed increasing biphasic patters in the spring and fall with the peak reached in September (278,487±12,894), while April marked the fifth-highest figure with 241,570±132,677. The concentration of airborne pollen was highest at 4,450 grains/m³ in May, followed by 3,597 grains/m³ in April, marking its peak in the spring. September marked the third-highest level at 1,619 grains/m³. According to the monthly correlation between the number of patients with AR and pollen, Seoul and Daejeon showed correlations of ρ=0.929 (P=0.022) and ρ=0.955 (P=0.011), respectively, in September. There were no significant correlations among AR, air pollutants, and respiratory virus detection rate. CONCLUSION: Based on this study, the monthly number of patients with AR was the highest in September. In September, we found the correlation between allergic rhinitis and pollen, although there are regional limitations, regarding outbreaks in the number of patients with AR. Further research and attention are needed to prepare measures against airborne weed pollen during the fall.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , National Health Programs , Pollen , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections , Rhinitis, Allergic , Seoul
17.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 952-959, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762037

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term and very short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) exceeding the daily average environmental standards for Korea (≤100 µg/m³ for PM₁₀ and ≤50 µg/m³ for PM(2.5)) on on asthma-related hospital visits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a population-based, case-crossover study using National Health Insurance and air pollution data between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2016. The event day was defined as a day when PM exceeded the daily average environmental standard (short-term exposure) or daily average environmental standard for 2 hours (very short-term exposure). The control day was defined as the same day of the week at 1 week prior to the event day. RESULTS: Compared with control days, asthma-related hospital visits on the 24-hr event days and 2-hr event days increased by 4.10% and 3.45% for PM₁₀ and 5.66% and 3.74% for PM(2.5), respectively. Asthma-related hospital visits increased from the 24-hr event day for PM₁₀ to 4 days after the event day, peaking on the third day after the event day (1.26, 95% confidence interval, 1.22–1.30). Hospitalizations also increased on the third day after the event. While there was a difference in magnitude, PM(2.5) exposure showed similar trends to PM₁₀ exposure. CONCLUSION: We found a significant association between short-term and very short-term PM exposure exceeding the current daily average environmental standards of Korea and asthma-related hospital visits. These results are expected to aid in establishing appropriate environmental standards and relevant policies for PM.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Asthma , Hospitalization , Humans , Korea , National Health Programs , Outpatients , Particulate Matter
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 960-968, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762036

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Many studies have reported that pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) can cause anaphylaxis. No comprehensive investigations into anaphylaxis in PFAS have been conducted, however. In this study, we investigated the clinical manifestations and risk factors for anaphylaxis in PFAS in Korean patients with pollinosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from a nationwide cross-sectional study that previously reported on PFAS in Korean patients with pollinosis. Data from 273 patients with PFAS were collected, including demographics, list of culprit fruits and vegetables, and clinical manifestations of food allergy. We analyzed 27 anaphylaxis patients and compared them with patients with PFAS with oropharyngeal symptoms only (n=130). RESULTS: The most common cause of anaphylaxis in PFAS was peanut (33.3%), apple (22.2%), walnut (22.2%), pine nut (18.5%), peach (14.8%), and ginseng (14.8%). Anaphylaxis was significantly associated with the strength of sensitization to alder, hazel, willow, poplar, timothy, and ragweed (p<0.05, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that the presence of atopic dermatitis [odds ratio (OR), 3.58; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–10.23; p=0.017]; sensitization to hazel (OR, 5.27; 95% CI, 1.79–15.53; p=0.003), timothy (OR, 11.8; 95% CI, 2.70–51.64; p=0.001), or ragweed (OR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.03–9.87; p=0.045); and the number of culprit foods (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.15–1.37; p<0.001) were related to the development of anaphylaxis in PFAS. CONCLUSION: The most common culprit foods causing anaphylaxis in PFAS were peanut and apple. The presence of atopic dermatitis; sensitization to hazel, timothy, or ragweed; and a greater number of culprit foods were risk factors for anaphylaxis in PFAS.


Subject(s)
Alnus , Ambrosia , Anaphylaxis , Arachis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Demography , Dermatitis, Atopic , Food Hypersensitivity , Fruit , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Juglans , Nuts , Panax , Pollen , Prunus persica , Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal , Risk Factors , Salix , Vegetables
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718140

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Foreign body aspiration in children is emergent and can cause serious complications. This study aims to show the clinical characteristics of foreign body aspiration and to analyze the clinical cases of delayed diagnosis to predict and prevent complications. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 63 children (48 in Inha University Hospital and 15 in Gachon University Gil Medical Center) who were diagnosed with foreign body aspiration through bronchoscopy from 1996 to 2017 in Incheon City, and analyzed clinical characteristics. Patients were divided into 3 groups: those were diagnosed within 24 hours, delayed after 24 hours, or delayed more than 7 days according to time elapse from the time of foreign body aspiration, and clinical characteristics of each group were compared. RESULTS: Aspiration occurred in 58.7% at 1 year and 15.9% at 2 years. Cough (65.1%) and coarse breathing sound (41.3%) were most common, and radiologic findings were commonly presented as emphysema on the affected side (41.3%). Nuts were most common (42.9%), and there was no difference in the frequency between the right and left main bronchi. The documented history of foreign body aspiration was more frequently found in the early diagnosed group; however, sputum, fever, and complications were more frequent in the delayed diagnosed group. CONCLUSION: If a patient with respiratory disease has persistent fever or sputum, foreign body aspiration should be suspected.


Subject(s)
Bronchi , Bronchoscopy , Child , Cough , Delayed Diagnosis , Emphysema , Fever , Foreign Bodies , Humans , Korea , Medical Records , Nuts , Respiratory Sounds , Retrospective Studies , Sputum
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718135

ABSTRACT

Chronic cough is common in the community and causes significant morbidity. Several factors may underlie this problem, but comorbid conditions located at sensory nerve endings that regulate the cough reflex, including rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, asthma, eosinophilic bronchitis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, are considered important. However, chronic cough is frequently non-specific and accompanied by not easily identifiable causes during the initial evaluation. Therefore, there are unmet needs for developing empirical treatment and practical diagnostic approaches that can be applied in primary clinics. Meanwhile, in referral clinics, a considerable proportion of adult patients with chronic cough are unexplained or refractory to conventional treatment. The present clinical practice guidelines aim to address major clinical questions regarding empirical treatment, practical diagnostic tools for non-specific chronic cough, and available therapeutic options for chronic wet cough in children and unexplained chronic cough in adults in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asthma , Bronchitis , Child , Cough , Eosinophils , Evidence-Based Medicine , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Humans , Korea , Referral and Consultation , Reflex , Rhinitis , Sensory Receptor Cells
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