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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924915

ABSTRACT

Background@#Risk assessment tools have been actively studied, and they summarize key predictors with relative weights/importance for a disease. Currently, standardized screening scores for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)—two key global health problems—are available in United States and Korea. We aimed to compare and evaluate screening scores for DM (or combined with prediabetes) and CKD, and assess the risk in contemporary United States and Korean populations. @*Methods@#Four (2×2) models were evaluated in the United States-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2015–2018) and Korea-NHANES (2016–2018)—8,928 and 16,209 adults. Weighted statistics were used to describe population characteristics. We used logistic regression for predictors in the models to assess associations with study outcomes (undiagnosed DM and CKD) and diagnostic measures for temporal and cross-validation. @*Results@#Korean adult population (mean age 47.5 years) appeared to be healthier than United States counterpart, in terms of DM and CKD risks and associated factors, with exceptions of undiagnosed DM, prediabetes and prehypertension. Models performed well in own country and external populations regarding predictor-outcome association and discrimination. Risk tests (high vs. low) showed area under the curve >0.75, sensitivity >84%, specificity >45%, positive predictive value >8%, and negative predictive value >99%. Discrimination was better for DM, compared to the combined outcome of DM and prediabetes, and excellent for CKD due to age. @*Conclusion@#Four easy-to-use screening scores for DM and CKD are well-validated in contemporary United States and Korean populations. Prevention of DM and CKD may serve as first-step in public health, with these self-assessment tools as basic tools to help health education and disparity.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874546

ABSTRACT

Background@#Results regarding the cardiovascular (CV) effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are inconsistent. This study aimed to assess the effects of teneligliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on the risk of major CV outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared to sulfonylurea. @*Methods@#From January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017, we conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. A total of 6,682 T2DM patients who were newly prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors or sulfonylurea were selected and matched in a 1:1 ratio by propensity score. The hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause mortality, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), all-cause mortality or HHF, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and hypoglycemia were assessed. @*Results@#During 641 days of follow-up, the use of teneligliptin was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.19), HHF (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.14), all-cause mortality or HHF (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.14), MI (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.20), and stroke (HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.17) compared to the use of sulfonylurea. However, it was associated with a significantly lower risk of hypoglycemia (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.94) compared to sulfonylurea therapy. @*Conclusion@#Among T2DM patients, teneligliptin therapy was not associated with an increased risk of CV events including HHF, but was associated with a lower risk of hypoglycemia compared to sulfonylurea therapy.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874524

ABSTRACT

We investigated the cardiovascular complications and mortality rates of patients with diabetes in South Korea. The rates of hospitalization due to cardiovascular complications and mortality were analyzed using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. From 2006 to 2015, the rates of hospitalization due to major cardiovascular complications decreased, while those due to heart failure (from 72 to 146 and 124 to 161 per 10,000 men and women, respectively) and peripheral artery disease (from 39 to 55 and 19 to 35 per 10,000 men and women, respectively) increased. In the period 2007 to 2015, the mortality rates for cancer, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertensive disease all decreased. However, the mortality rate for pneumonia increased. We observed a continuous reduction in cardiovascular complications and mortality in adults with diabetes. However, with the increase in some diabetes complications, more efforts are needed to prevent diabetes complications.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874522

ABSTRACT

This report presents the status of diabetic neuropathy (DN) in Korea as determined using a National Health Insurance ServiceNational Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). Annual prevalences of DN were estimated by age and gender using descriptive statistics. Pharmacological treatments for DN were also analyzed. The annual prevalence of DN increased from 24.9% in 2006 to 26.6% in 2007, and thereafter, gradually subsided to 20.8% in 2015. In most cases, pharmacological treatments involved a single drug, which accounted for 91.6% of total prescriptions in 2015. The most commonly used drugs (in decreasing order) were thioctic acid, an anti-convulsive agent, or a tricyclic antidepressant. In conclusion, the prevalence of DN decreased over the 10-year study period. Thioctic acid monotherapy was usually prescribed for DN. To reduce the socio-economic burden of DN, more attention should be paid to the diagnosis of this condition and to the appropriate management of patients.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898072

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade are reported to affect the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). @*Methods@#As of May 2020, analysis was conducted on all subjects who could confirm their history of claims related to COVID-19 in the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database in Korea. Using this dataset, we compared the short-term prognosis of COVID-19 infection according to the use of DPP-4i and RAS blockade. Additionally, we validated the results using the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of Korea dataset. @*Results@#Totally, data of 67,850 subjects were accessible in the HIRA dataset. Of these, 5,080 were confirmed COVID-19. Among these, 832 subjects with DM were selected for analysis in this study. Among the subjects, 263 (31.6%) and 327 (39.3%) were DPP4i and RAS blockade users, respectively. Thirty-four subjects (4.09%) received intensive care or died. The adjusted odds ratio for severe treatment among DPP-4i users was 0.362 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.135 to 0.971), and that for RAS blockade users was 0.599 (95% CI, 0.251 to 1.431). These findings were consistent with the analysis based on the NHIS data using 704 final subjects. The adjusted odds ratio for severe treatment among DPP-4i users was 0.303 (95% CI, 0.135 to 0.682), and that for RAS blockade users was 0.811 (95% CI, 0.391 to 1.682). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that DPP-4i is significantly associated with a better clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898060

ABSTRACT

Background@#Using real-world data, cardiovascular safety was investigated in metformin users newly starting sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors compared with other glucose-lowering drugs in Korea. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective observational study using the National Health Insurance Service claims database in Korea. The study period was from September 2014 to December 2016. The study included subjects who were newly prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors or other glucose-lowering drugs while on metformin monotherapy; cohort 1 was composed of new users of SGLT2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and cohort 2 included new users of SGLT2 inhibitors versus sulfonylureas. To balance the patient characteristics, propensity score matching was performed at a 1:1 ratio. Cardiovascular outcomes included hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), all-cause mortality, HHF plus all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and modified major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). @*Results@#After propensity score matching, each cohort group was well balanced at baseline (21,688 pairs in cohort 1 and 20,120 pairs in cohort 2). As the second-line treatment, use of SGLT2 inhibitors was associated with a lower risk of HHF and HHF plus all-cause mortality compared with DPP-4 inhibitors. In addition, use of SGLT2 inhibitors versus sulfonylurea as add-on therapy to metformin was associated with decreased risks of HHF, all-cause mortality, HHF plus all-cause mortality, MI, stroke, and modified MACEs. @*Conclusion@#SGLT2 inhibitors can be a good second-line drug to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases compared with DPP-4 inhibitors or sulfonylureas in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898052

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

8.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : S39-S43, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896751

ABSTRACT

With the advent of checkpoint inhibitors, it has opened up opportunities for numerous cancer patients. However, as is the case with every treatment, complications need to be weighed. Gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as diarrhea and colitis are well-known complications for checkpoint inhibitors. In severe cases, colitis-induced colonic perforation may occur with an estimation of 1.0% to 1.5% in anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. However, only a handful of cases of such devastating complications have been reported in anti-PD-1 antibodies such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab. We here report a case of intestinal perforation in a patient treated with nivolumab.

9.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 185-191, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918933

ABSTRACT

It has been a year and half since the World Health Organization declared the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. As of July 23, 2021, more than 193 million people worldwide have been confirmed to contract the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with more than 4.15 million deaths. In Korea, about 185,000 people have been confirmed and 2,066 have died of COVID-19. Korea is in the middle of the fourth wave of trends, and the metropolitan area is in the top stage of social distancing. Since the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination began in the UK in December 2020, the number of people who complete vaccination is only 13.3% around the world, and many low-income countries have less than 5%. In Korea, the first vaccination rate was 32.27%, but only 13% completed the vaccination until July 23. As expected, there has been a lot of confusion, controversy, and even fake news and rumors over the past five months since the vaccination against COVID-19 began in Korea on February 26, 2021. People’s views on vaccination are bound to vary depending on their experience, perspective, and even political stance. In this article, we wanted to introduce the arguments and conflicts that could arise during vaccinations and suggest what we should think about so that many people can get vaccinated without hesitation.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890368

ABSTRACT

Background@#Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade are reported to affect the clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). @*Methods@#As of May 2020, analysis was conducted on all subjects who could confirm their history of claims related to COVID-19 in the National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database in Korea. Using this dataset, we compared the short-term prognosis of COVID-19 infection according to the use of DPP-4i and RAS blockade. Additionally, we validated the results using the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) of Korea dataset. @*Results@#Totally, data of 67,850 subjects were accessible in the HIRA dataset. Of these, 5,080 were confirmed COVID-19. Among these, 832 subjects with DM were selected for analysis in this study. Among the subjects, 263 (31.6%) and 327 (39.3%) were DPP4i and RAS blockade users, respectively. Thirty-four subjects (4.09%) received intensive care or died. The adjusted odds ratio for severe treatment among DPP-4i users was 0.362 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.135 to 0.971), and that for RAS blockade users was 0.599 (95% CI, 0.251 to 1.431). These findings were consistent with the analysis based on the NHIS data using 704 final subjects. The adjusted odds ratio for severe treatment among DPP-4i users was 0.303 (95% CI, 0.135 to 0.682), and that for RAS blockade users was 0.811 (95% CI, 0.391 to 1.682). @*Conclusion@#This study suggests that DPP-4i is significantly associated with a better clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890356

ABSTRACT

Background@#Using real-world data, cardiovascular safety was investigated in metformin users newly starting sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors compared with other glucose-lowering drugs in Korea. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective observational study using the National Health Insurance Service claims database in Korea. The study period was from September 2014 to December 2016. The study included subjects who were newly prescribed SGLT2 inhibitors or other glucose-lowering drugs while on metformin monotherapy; cohort 1 was composed of new users of SGLT2 inhibitors versus dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and cohort 2 included new users of SGLT2 inhibitors versus sulfonylureas. To balance the patient characteristics, propensity score matching was performed at a 1:1 ratio. Cardiovascular outcomes included hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), all-cause mortality, HHF plus all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and modified major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). @*Results@#After propensity score matching, each cohort group was well balanced at baseline (21,688 pairs in cohort 1 and 20,120 pairs in cohort 2). As the second-line treatment, use of SGLT2 inhibitors was associated with a lower risk of HHF and HHF plus all-cause mortality compared with DPP-4 inhibitors. In addition, use of SGLT2 inhibitors versus sulfonylurea as add-on therapy to metformin was associated with decreased risks of HHF, all-cause mortality, HHF plus all-cause mortality, MI, stroke, and modified MACEs. @*Conclusion@#SGLT2 inhibitors can be a good second-line drug to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases compared with DPP-4 inhibitors or sulfonylureas in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890348

ABSTRACT

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

13.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : S39-S43, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889047

ABSTRACT

With the advent of checkpoint inhibitors, it has opened up opportunities for numerous cancer patients. However, as is the case with every treatment, complications need to be weighed. Gastrointestinal adverse effects, such as diarrhea and colitis are well-known complications for checkpoint inhibitors. In severe cases, colitis-induced colonic perforation may occur with an estimation of 1.0% to 1.5% in anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. However, only a handful of cases of such devastating complications have been reported in anti-PD-1 antibodies such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab. We here report a case of intestinal perforation in a patient treated with nivolumab.

14.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2020070-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Physical activity (PA) is an established protective factor for many chronic diseases. Numerous studies have established positive relationships between social networks and PA. Accordingly, this study examined the relationship between social network structures (specifically the network size and the number and proportion of same-sex alters) and self-reported PA in Korean middle-age adults, where the term “alter” refers to a respondent’s social network members. @*METHODS@#We analyzed 8,092 participants of the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort. We assessed the association between each network structure variable and PA level using a linear regression model. Then, we employed logistic regression to evaluate associations between social network structure and adherence to guideline-recommended exercise levels. Socio-demographic factors and health status measures were used as covariates. @*RESULTS@#In both sexes, the social network size and proportion of same-sex network members showed positive relationships with total and moderate-to-vigorous PA. Notably, female participants with a greater number of kin were more likely to satisfy the recommended amount of total PA. @*CONCLUSIONS@#These findings suggest that large scale, same-sex intervention programs can help to achieve recommended PA regimens.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898143

ABSTRACT

Background@#The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive patients with type 2 diabetes compared to those without diabetes in Korea. @*Methods@#We extracted claims data for patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from the National Health Insurance Service database in Korea from January 20, 2020 to March 31, 2020. We followed up this cohort until death from COVID-19 or discharge from hospital. @*Results@#A total of 5,473 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were analyzed, including 495 with type 2 diabetes and 4,978 without diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes were more likely to be treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) (P<0.0001). The incidence of inhospital mortality was higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (P<0.0001). After adjustment for age, sex, insurance status, and comorbidities, odds of ICU admission (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 2.49; P=0.0416) and in-hospital mortality (adjusted OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.21; P=0.0161) among patients with COVID-19 infection were significantly higher in those with type 2 diabetes. However, there was no significant difference between patients with and without type 2 diabetes in ventilator, oxygen therapy, antibiotics, antiviral drugs, antipyretics, and the incidence of pneumonia after adjustment. @*Conclusion@#COVID-19 positive patients with type 2 diabetes had poorer clinical outcomes with higher risk of ICU admission and in-hospital mortality than those without diabetes. Therefore, medical providers need to consider this more serious clinical course when planning and delivering care to type 2 diabetes patients with COVID-19 infection.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898033

ABSTRACT

We performed a retrospective cohort study including people diagnosed with diabetes from 2006 to 2015 according to the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database, to analyze the changes in the prevalence, screening rate, and treatment patterns for diabetic retinopathy (DR) over 10 years. The proportion of people who underwent fundus screening for DR steadily increased over the past decade. The prevalence of DR increased from 13.4% in 2006 to 15.9% in 2015, while that of proliferative DR steadily decreased from 1.29% in 2006 to 1.16% in 2015. The proportion of patients undergoing retinal photocoagulation constantly decreased. The prevalence of DR increased over the past decade, while its severity seemed to have improved, with a decreased rate of proliferative DR and retinal photocoagulation. A higher proportion of patients underwent ophthalmic screening using fundus examination, but still less than 30% of patients with diabetes underwent comprehensive examination in 2015.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898023

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the epidemiologic characteristics of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients is essential. The trends in the prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of ESKD were analyzed retrospectively using the Korean National Health Insurance ServiceNational Sample Cohort database between 2006 and 2015. From 2006 to 2015, the incidence of ESKD decreased from 28.6 to 24.0 per 100,000 people and showed a decreasing pattern with or without diabetes mellitus. However, the incidence of those aged ≥75 years increased, as did the mean age at the onset of ESKD. From 2007 to 2015, the prevalence of ESKD increased in all age groups, but particularly in those aged ≥75 years. The prevalence of ESKD differed by sex and diabetes mellitus status and this gap widened over time. Mortality rates in ESKD patients remained relatively constant throughout the study period. However, mortality rates in ESKD without diabetes decreased over the same period.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832340

ABSTRACT

We performed a retrospective cohort study including people diagnosed with diabetes from 2006 to 2015 according to the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database, to analyze the changes in the prevalence, screening rate, and treatment patterns for diabetic retinopathy (DR) over 10 years. The proportion of people who underwent fundus screening for DR steadily increased over the past decade. The prevalence of DR increased from 13.4% in 2006 to 15.9% in 2015, while that of proliferative DR steadily decreased from 1.29% in 2006 to 1.16% in 2015. The proportion of patients undergoing retinal photocoagulation constantly decreased. The prevalence of DR increased over the past decade, while its severity seemed to have improved, with a decreased rate of proliferative DR and retinal photocoagulation. A higher proportion of patients underwent ophthalmic screening using fundus examination, but still less than 30% of patients with diabetes underwent comprehensive examination in 2015.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831825

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Cigarette smoking and abnormal blood lipids are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The results of previous studies on the relationship between cigarette smoking and dyslipidemia are controversial. In the present study, we investigated the independent association between cigarette smoking and blood lipid levels in a male Korean population. @*Methods@#A total of 1,932 men aged from 30 to 64 years old participated in the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Etiology Research Center cohort study. Smoking history was obtained by in-person interviews. In all regression models, measurements of triglyceride levels were log-transformed. @*Results@#Triglyceride levels were higher in current smokers than in never-smokers (median: 149 mg/dL vs. 115 mg/dL, p < 0.001) even after adjusting age, body mass index, alcohol intake, systolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, physical activity, and nutrition intake (β = 0.14, p < 0.001). We further divided people into heavy and light smokers using 20 pack-years as the cut-off. Higher triglyceride were found in current heavy smokers (β = 0.18, p < 0.001), current light smokers (β = 0.13, p < 0.001), as well as in past heavy smokers (β = 0.08, p = 0.037), as compared to never-smokers. Moreover, significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were observed in current heavy smokers (β = –2.27 mg/dL, p = 0.009). @*Conclusions@#Cigarette smoking is associated with higher triglyceride in Korean men, with the most dramatic effect seen in current smokers with a smoking history of more than 20 pack-years. HDL-C were also lower in current smokers with more than 20 pack-years.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk for dementia. The effects of hypoglycemia on dementia are controversial. Thus, we evaluated whether hypoglycemia increases the risk for dementia in senior patients with T2DM.METHODS: We used the Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior cohort, which includes >10% of the entire senior population of South Korea. In total, 5,966 patients who had ever experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia were matched with those who had not, using propensity score matching. The risk of dementia was assessed through a survival analysis of matched pairs.RESULTS: Patients with underlying hypoglycemic events had an increased risk for all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's dementia (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) compared with those who had not experienced a hypoglycemic event (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.166 to 1.349; P<0.001 for all-cause dementia; HR, 1.264; 95% CI, 1.162 to 1.375; P<0.001 for AD; HR, 1.286; 95% CI, 1.110 to 1.490; P<0.001 for VaD). According to number of hypoglycemic episodes, the HRs of dementia were 1.170, 1.201, and 1.358 in patients with one hypoglycemic episode, two or three episodes, and more than three episodes, respectively. In the subgroup analysis, hypoglycemia was associated with an increased risk for dementia in both sexes with or without T2DM microvascular or macrovascular complications.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that patients with a history of hypoglycemia have a higher risk for dementia. This trend was similar for AD and VaD, the two most important subtypes of dementia.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Korea , National Health Programs , Propensity Score
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