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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915802

ABSTRACT

Composite lymphoma is very rare and a combination of Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma and even histiocytic tumors can occur. Because of the unfamiliarity, not only can this cause diagnostic problems, but can also affect treatment plan. We report a case of composite lymphoma in a 40-year-old male. Initial biopsy showed a composite lymphoma of follicular lymphoma grade 1 and classic Hodgkin lymphoma. After chemotherapy, another lymph node was taken because of disease progression, which revealed follicular lymphoma, grade 3a without Hodgkin lymphoma component.

2.
Blood Research ; : S112-S119, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925620

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is isolated thrombocytopenia characterized by autoimmune-mediated disruption of platelet without other etiologies. Treatments for chronic ITP consist of corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, anti-D immunoglobulin, rituximab, thrombopoietin receptor agonists, immunosuppressants and splenectomy. Although current therapies are effective in over two-thirds of patients, some patients are refractory to therapies or fail to achieve long-term responses. Recently, great advance has been made in identifying various mechanisms involved in ITP pathogenesis, and new treatments targeting these pathways are being developed. Novel agents such as splenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Bruton kinase inhibitor, plasma cell targeting therapies, neonatal Fc receptor inhibitor, platelet desialylation inhibitor, and inhibition of the classical complement pathway are expected to be effective for ITP treatment. This review summarizes current strategies and emerging therapies of ITP.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919162

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Relatively little data are available on how the response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected treatment outcomes in patients receiving chemotherapy for lymphoma or multiple myeloma. We aimed to determine the effect of COVID-19 countermeasures on treatment outcomes in this patient population. @*Methods@#We retrospectively analyzed data on patients treated for lymphoma or multiple myeloma in two tertiary hospitals in Seoul. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 included patients who received chemotherapy between September and December 2019 (the control period), and group 2 included patients who received chemotherapy between September and December 2020 (the study period). Countermeasures to COVID-19 were applied to the patients in group 2. The countermeasures implemented included mask wearing and regular handwashing at home and in hospital; COVID-19 risk assessments on all hospital visitors; and pre-emptive COVID-19 screening for all newly hospitalized patients and their resident guardians. @*Results@#No differences in treatment outcomes, including treatment response, incidence and duration of neutropenia or neutropenic fever, delays in chemotherapy, or number of deaths during chemotherapy, were observed between the g roups. None of the patients in group 2 tested positive for COVID-19, and there were no COVID-19-related deaths during the study period. @*Conclusions@#Countermeasures to COVID-19 did not affect treatment outcomes in patients receiving chemotherapy for lymphoma or multiple myeloma. Data on the effect of countermeasures to COVID-19 on treatment outcomes should continue to be analyzed to ensure that treatment outcomes are not adversely affected.

4.
Blood Research ; : 243-251, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913728

ABSTRACT

Background@#Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common type of adult leukemia in Western countries but is rare in the East Asian countries. Due to its rarity and the lack of feasible novel agents and laboratory prognostic tools, there are limited data on the clinical outcomes of this disease in Asia. To clarify the current treatment status, we performed a multicenter retrospective analysis of patients with CLL in Korea. @*Methods@#The medical records of 192 eligible patients between 2008 and 2019 were reviewed for clinical characteristics, treatment courses, and outcomes. The first-line treatment regimens of the patients included in this analysis were as follows: fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/rituximab (FCR) (N=117, 52.7%), obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil (GC) (N=30, 13.5%), and chlorambucil monotherapy (N=24, 10.8%). @*Results@#The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 55.6 months, and the average 2-year PFS rate was 80.3%. PFS was not significantly different between the patients receiving FCR and those receiving GC; however, chlorambucil treatment was associated with significantly inferior PFS (P <0.001). The median overall survival was 136.3 months, and the average 5- and 10-year OS rates were 82.0% and 57.4%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#This is one of the largest studies involving Korean patients with CLL. Although the patients had been treated with less favored treatment regimens, the outcomes were not different from those reported in Western studies.

5.
Blood Research ; : 102-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897359

ABSTRACT

Background@#To estimate real-world outcomes in East Asian populations, we conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with transfusion-dependent anemia in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients aged ≥19 years who had received lenalidomide for the treatment of lower-risk, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent del(5q) MDS were selected. A filled case report form (CRF) with information from electronic medical records was requested from members of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology. All the CRFs were gathered and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 31 patients were included in this study. Of 28 evaluable patients, 19 (67.9%) achieved RBC transfusion independence (RBC-TI). Female sex and the development of thrombocytopenia during treatment were associated with achieving RBC-TI. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were pruritus, fatigue, and rashes. All non-hematologic toxicities of grades ≥3 were limited to rash (12.9%) and pruritus (6.5%). Dose reduction was required in 15 of the 19 responders (78.9%). The most common final stable dosing schedule for the responders was 5 mg once every other day (31.6%). @*Conclusion@#Lenalidomide efficacy and tolerability were similar in the Asian del(5q) MDS patients and western patients. Dose reduction during treatment was common, but it was not associated with inferior outcomes.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875517

ABSTRACT

Nilotinib is used for treating patients with imatinib-sensitive or -resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); however, nilotinib-resistant cases have been observed in recent years. In addition, a considerable number of patients receiving nilotinib developed diabetes. Metformin is a front-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and several studies have shown that diabetes patients treated with metformin have reduced incidence of cancer. This study aimed to define the effect of metformin on CML cells to determine whether metformin overcomes nilotinib resistance, and to identify novel targets for the treatment of nilotinib resistance. Methods: We observed the effects of metformin and nilotinib on K562 and KU812 human CML cell lines. Nilotinib-resistant CML cell lines were generated by exposing cells to gradually increasing doses of nilotinib. Then, we investigated the driving force that makes resistance to nilotinib and the effect of metformin on the driving force. Results: Sub-toxic doses of metformin enhanced nilotinib efficacy by reducing Bcl-xL expression, which induces apoptosis in CML cells. Next, we generated nilotinib-resistant K562 and KU812 cell lines that overexpressed the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) gene. JNK silencing by a JNK inhibitor restored sensitivity to nilotinib. Furthermore, metformin was effective in decreasing phosphorylated JNK levels, restoring nilotinib sensitivity. Combined treatment with nilotinib and metformin was more effective than combined treatment with nilotinib and a JNK inhibitor in terms of cell proliferation inhibition. Conclusions: This study suggested that combination therapy with metformin and nilotinib may have clinical benefits of enhancing antileukemia efficacy and overcoming resistance to nilotinib.

7.
Blood Research ; : 102-108, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889655

ABSTRACT

Background@#To estimate real-world outcomes in East Asian populations, we conducted a nationwide retrospective analysis of the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide for del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients with transfusion-dependent anemia in Korea. @*Methods@#Patients aged ≥19 years who had received lenalidomide for the treatment of lower-risk, red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent del(5q) MDS were selected. A filled case report form (CRF) with information from electronic medical records was requested from members of the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/MDS Working Party of the Korean Society of Hematology. All the CRFs were gathered and analyzed. @*Results@#A total of 31 patients were included in this study. Of 28 evaluable patients, 19 (67.9%) achieved RBC transfusion independence (RBC-TI). Female sex and the development of thrombocytopenia during treatment were associated with achieving RBC-TI. The most common non-hematologic toxicities were pruritus, fatigue, and rashes. All non-hematologic toxicities of grades ≥3 were limited to rash (12.9%) and pruritus (6.5%). Dose reduction was required in 15 of the 19 responders (78.9%). The most common final stable dosing schedule for the responders was 5 mg once every other day (31.6%). @*Conclusion@#Lenalidomide efficacy and tolerability were similar in the Asian del(5q) MDS patients and western patients. Dose reduction during treatment was common, but it was not associated with inferior outcomes.

8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 452-459, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833364

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with optimal conditioning has helped better long-term survival in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study investigated the efficacy and safety of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with busulfan and fludarabine in adult ALL patients unfit for myeloablation. @*Materials and Methods@#Records of 78 patients who underwent HSCT with RIC consisting of 3.2 mg/kg/day of busulfan for 2 or 3 days and 30 mg/m2/day of fludarabine for 5 or 6 days were analyzed. @*Results@#The median age at diagnosis was 49 years. Over a median follow-up of 22 months, 2-year estimates of relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival were 57.4% and 68.7%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed a trend of improved RFS in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.26–1.08; p=0.080). The cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality were 42.9% and 19.6%, respectively and one case of central nervous system relapse was noted. No hepatic veno-occlusive disease was reported. Grade II–IV acute GVHD and any grade chronic GVHD occurred in 21.1% and 41.7%, respectively. @*Conclusion@#RIC with busulfan and fludarabine is an effective and safe conditioning regimen for adult ALL patients unfit for myeloablation.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831913

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Various preoperative screening tests, such as platelet count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and bleeding time, have been widely used to evaluate the risk of bleeding during surgery. Use of platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100/200 for assessing platelet function instead of bleeding time is increasing. However, its role in predicting the perioperative risk of bleeding remains controversial. @*Methods@#Data of 703 patients who underwent surgery under general anesthesia were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative platelet function was measured using PFA-200 system and the association with intraoperative bleeding was assessed. Additionally, other variables that could affect PFA-200 results were assessed by logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#Collagen/epinephrine (COL/EPI) test was prolonged in 199/703 (28.3%) patients (EPI group), while 99/212 (46.7%) patients showed COL/adenosine diphosphate test abnormalities. Bleeding over 300 mL during surgery occurred in 14.3% and 20.1% of patients in the normal and EPI groups, respectively (p = 0.058). In addition, red blood cell transfusion within 72 hours after surgery rate was significantly higher in the EPI group than in the normal group (31.7% vs. 23.4%,p= 0.024). In multivariate logistic analysis, prolongation closure time with COL/EPI (p = 0.068) was marginally associated with risk of bleeding during surgery. Furthermore, PFA-200 results were influenced by various factors, such as nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drug use, blood group, hematocrit, and time of blood collection. @*Conclusions@#Preoperative PFA-200 test may be helpful in predicting the risk of perioperative bleeding. However, its results should be carefully interpreted becausethey are affected by several factors.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831794

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is based on clinical manifestations and there is no gold standard. Thus, even hematologic malignancy is sometimes misdiagnosed as ITP and adequate treatment is delayed. Therefore, novel diagnostic parameters are needed to distinguish ITP from other causes of thrombocytopenia. Immature platelet fraction (IPF) has been proposed as one of new parameters. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of IPF and developed a diagnostic predictive scoring model for ITP. @*Methods@#We retrospectively studied 568 patients with thrombocytopenia. Blood samples were collected and IPF quantified using a fully-automated hematology analyzer. We also estimated other variables that could affect thrombocytopenia by logistic regression analysis. @*Results@#The median IPF was significantly higher in the ITP group than in the non-ITP group (8.7% vs. 5.1%). The optimal cut-off value of IPF for differentiating ITP was 7.0%. We evaluated other laboratory variables via logistic regression analysis. IPF, hemoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ferritin were statistically significant and comprised a diagnostic predictive scoring model. Our model gave points to each of variables: 1 to high hemoglobin (> 12 g/dL), low ferritin (≤ 177 ng/ mL), normal LDH (≤ upper limit of normal) and IPF ≥ 7 and < 10, 2 to IPF ≥ 10. The final score was obtained by summing the points. We defined that ITP could be predicted in patients with more than 3 points. @*Conclusions@#IPF could be a useful parameter to distinguish ITP from other causes of thrombocytopenia. We developed the predictive scoring model. This model could predict ITP with high probability.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831773

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) generally have poor clinical outcomes. Early determination of their prognosis is crucial for developing a therapeutic strategy. Recently, various inflammatory markers have been validated as prognostic indicators for many cancers, including PC. However, few studies have evaluated these markers together. Thus, the purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the value of inflammatory markers as prognostic indicators in patients with advanced PC treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy as the first line regimen. @*Methods@#This was a single-center retrospective study evaluating 302 patients with advanced PC who began first line treatment between November 2004 and August 2016. These patients were monitored until June 2017. Survival rates were assessed with univariate and multivariate analyses. Continuous variables were separated using the normal range or ideal cut-off levels determined by receiver operating curve analyses. @*Results@#Among inflammatory markers evaluated, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) to albumin ratio (CRP-albumin ratio) were independent predictors of overall survival (hazard ratio, 1.712, 1.345, and 1.454, respectively). Difference in survival rates was significant (p < 0.001) among three groups divided by the number of marker-related risks. @*Conclusions@#Baseline inflammatory markers including NLR, PLR, and CRP-albumin ratio are useful in predicting survival rates in patients with PC. Combining these three markers is proven to be valuable.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Bortezomib plus melphalan-prednisone (VMP) is a standard treatment for multiple myeloma, particularly for patients who are ineligible for high-dose therapy. However, early discontinuation or treatment modification is often needed owing to adverse events. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of modifying the dose of melphalan-prednisone (MP) in patients receiving VMP.@*METHODS@#We examined 67 patients who received a modified dose of MP, and 38 patients who received the regularly planned dose of MP. We then analyzed clinical differences between the groups.@*RESULTS@#Although there was no difference in the proportion of discontinuation due to adverse events between dose groups, more patients in the planned-dose group experienced earlier discontinuation in general. The overall response rate (ORR) was 81.0% and complete response (CR) rate was 30.5%. After a median 15.7 months of follow-up, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 25.0 and 47.8 months, respectively. There was no significant difference in the ORR, CR, PFS, and OS of the two dose groups. A median of four cycles were delivered, and the median cumulative bortezomib dose was 41.6 mg/m². The median PFS in patients with doses ≥ 41.6 mg/m² was longer than that in patients with doses < 41.6 mg/m² (35.1 months vs. 9.6 months). However, when MP was < 50% of the planned dose, PFS and OS were poor.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Modifying the dose of MP might be a feasible and effective therapeutic approach for multiple myeloma patients receiving VMP treatment.

13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 182-190, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The staging work-up for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma includes bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. Consistent results of both procedures can clarify the diagnosis. However, no clear guidelines have been established regarding positive results for bone marrow aspiration alone. The aim of this study was, therefore, to analyze the overall survival (OS) for the clinical diagnoses of these patients using morphological methods. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who were consecutively enrolled in the Korea University Lymphoma Registry from 1991 to 2016. OS was compared according to the bone marrow group: without bone marrow involvement (BMA−/BMBx−), with positive results for aspiration and negative results for biopsy (BMA+/BMBx−), and with bone marrow involvement in biopsy (BMBx+). OS was assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Of 1,735 patients, 1,326 were analyzed and 409 were excluded. In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, OS was significantly worse for patients in the BMBx+ group compared with those in the BMA−/BMBx− group (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in OS between patients in the BMA+/BMBx− group and those in other groups (vs. BMA−/BMBx−, p = 0.163; BMBx+, p = 0.292). In multivariate analysis, by adjusting survival-related variables, the BMA+/BMBx− group showed marginal significance compared to the BMA−/BMBx− group (p = 0.081), and showed significance in the subgroup of indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that even if there are positive results in bone marrow aspiration alone in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, attention to patient characteristics, involving significance as a poor prognosis for OS, is required.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Humans , Korea , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
14.
Ultrasonography ; : 244-253, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731141

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA), core needle biopsy (CNB), and combined FNA/CNB for the first-line diagnosis of thyroid nodules. METHODS: A total of 782 consecutive nodules that underwent simultaneous FNA and CNB were analyzed in this study. We compared the rate of inconclusive results and the diagnostic values for malignancy among FNA, CNB, and combined FNA/CNB. RESULTS: CNB showed a lower rate (10.2%) of inconclusive results than FNA (23.7%) (P < 0.001). Combined FNA/CNB showed a lower rate (6.5%) of inconclusive results than FNA (all nodules, P < 0.001; macronodules, P < 0.001; and micronodules, P < 0.001, respectively) or CNB (all nodules, P < 0.001; macronodules, P < 0.001; and micronodules, P=0.003, respectively). Combined FNA/CNB and CNB showed significantly higher sensitivity, accuracy, and diagnostic performance for malignancy as defined by criterion 1 (Bethesda category VI) or criterion 2 (Bethesda categories IV/V/VI) than FNA (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the sensitivity, accuracy, or diagnostic performance between combined FNA/CNB and CNB (with criterion 1, P=0.063, P=0.063, and P=0.412, respectively; with criterion 2, P=0.500, P=0.500, and P=0.348, respectively). CONCLUSION: CNB was found to be more effective than FNA for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and its sensitivity and diagnostic performance for malignancy were similar to those of combined FNA/CNB. CNB has the potential to be an effective alternative first-line diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules when performed by an experienced operator.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716271

ABSTRACT

Thermal ablation using radiofrequency is a new, minimally invasive modality employed as an alternative to surgery in patients with benign thyroid nodules and recurrent thyroid cancers. The Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) developed recommendations for the optimal use of radiofrequency ablation for thyroid tumors in 2012. As new meaningful evidences have accumulated, KSThR decided to revise the guidelines. The revised guideline is based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and expert consensus.


Subject(s)
Advisory Committees , Catheter Ablation , Consensus , Humans , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
17.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 480-483, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119544

ABSTRACT

Acquired factor V deficiency is extremely rare. Here we report the case of an 88-year-old female patient who presented with hematochezia 1 month after undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Her laboratory results showed an extremely prolonged prothrombin time and an activated partial thromboplastin time, but neither improved after fresh frozen plasma transfusion. She was finally diagnosed with acquired factor V deficiency and successfully treated with an immunosuppressant.


Subject(s)
Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors , Factor V Deficiency , Factor V , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Plasma , Prothrombin Time
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aims of this study were to identify the value of inflammatory markers as pretreatment prognostic factors for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and to estimate the value of a prognostic index including these markers at diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 273 newly diagnosed MM patients undergoing active treatment were analyzed in this study. The prognostic values for survival of the pretreatment inflammatory markers were investigated. A myeloma prognostic index (MPI) was derived using prognostic factors determined to be independently significant on multivariate analysis. RESULTS: A high pretreatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), low platelet count, and high C-reactive protein (CRP) level had independently unfavorable significance for overall survival (OS). The MPI was derived based on these factors. Per the MPI, 1 point each was assigned to high NLR, low platelet count, and high CRP. Risk categories were stratified into low- (score 0), intermediate- (score 1), and high-risk (score 2 or 3) groups. The MPI demonstrated independent statistical significance for OS on multivariate analysis ([intermediate: hazard ratio (HR), 1.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12 to 3.24] and [high: HR, 3.37; 95% CI, 2.00 to 5.69]; p < 0.001). Moreover, this significance could be observed regardless of age, renal function, and exposure to novel agents. In addition, the International Staging System risk group could be further significantly stratified using the MPI. CONCLUSIONS: The MPI, consisting of pretreatment inflammatory markers, NLR, platelet count, and CRP, might be effective in predicting the survival of newly diagnosed MM patients undergoing active treatment.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , Diagnosis , Humans , Multiple Myeloma , Multivariate Analysis , Platelet Count , Prognosis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-109562

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has achieved impressive success since the development of the Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, imatinib mesylate. Nevertheless, resistance to imatinib has been observed, and a substantial number of patients need alternative treatment strategies. METHODS: We have evaluated the effects of deferasirox, an orally active iron chelator, and imatinib on K562 and KU812 human CML cell lines. Imatinib-resistant CML cell lines were created by exposing cells to gradually increasing concentrations of imatinib. RESULTS: Co-treatment of cells with deferasirox and imatinib induced a synergistic dose-dependent inhibition of proliferation of both CML cell lines. Cell cycle analysis showed an accumulation of cells in the subG1 phase. Western blot analysis of apoptotic proteins showed that co-treatment with deferasirox and imatinib induced an increased expression of apoptotic proteins. These tendencies were clearly identified in imatinib-resistant CML cell lines. The results also showed that co-treatment with deferasirox and imatinib reduced the expression of BcrAbl, phosphorylated Bcr-Abl, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and beta-catenin. CONCLUSIONS: We observed synergistic effects of deferasirox and imatinib on both imatinib-resistant and imatinib-sensitive cell lines. These effects were due to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by down-regulated expression of NF-kappaB and beta-catenin levels. Based on these results, we suggest that a combination treatment of deferasirox and imatinib could be considered as an alternative treatment option for imatinib-resistant CML.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/metabolism , Benzoates/pharmacology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , G1 Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/pharmacology , Iron Chelating Agents/pharmacology , K562 Cells , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Triazoles/pharmacology
20.
Ultrasonography ; : 212-219, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731072

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study was performed to determine the malignancy risk of thyroid nodules with isolated macrocalcification and to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). METHODS: From May 2008 to December 2014, a total of 44 patients with isolated macrocalcifications were enrolled from 4,081 consecutive patients who underwent FNA or CNB at a single institution. We assessed the malignancy risk of nodules with isolated macrocalcification. We compared the diagnostic results between FNA and CNB, and the diagnostic efficacy of each procedure was evaluated by the rate of inconclusive results. We compared the diagnostic performance for malignancy between FNA and CNB with a criterion of malignant or atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (indeterminate) diagnostic results. We investigated whether the ultrasonographic feature of isolated macrocalcification was predictive of malignancy. RESULTS: The malignancy risk of nodules with isolated macrocalcification was 16.1% in 31 nodules with final diagnoses and 11.4% in all nodules. CNB demonstrated a significantly lower rate of nondiagnostic and inconclusive results than FNA (7.7% vs. 53.8%, P=0.002 and 15.4% vs. 57.7%, P=0.003, respectively) in 26 nodules that underwent both FNA and CNB. CNB showed a marginally higher diagnostic performance for identifying malignancy than FNA (P=0.067). The ultrasonographic features of the anterior margin of isolated macrocalcification were not predictive of malignancy (P>0.999). CONCLUSION: Thyroid nodules with isolated macrocalcification had a low to intermediate malignancy risk and should not be considered benign nodules. CNB showed a higher diagnostic efficacy than FNA in these nodules.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Diagnosis , Humans , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
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