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1.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 223-232, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902665

ABSTRACT

Background@#As a laboratory animal resource, the ICR mouse is commonly used in a variety of research fields. However, information on differences in exercise-related characteristics in ICR mice derived from different lineages and the underlying mechanisms remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the intrinsic exercise capacity and a magnitude of response to acute exercise, and sought to identify mechanisms contributing to difference in Korl:ICR (a novel ICR lineage recently established by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea) and two commercialized ICR lineages derived from different origins (viz., A:ICR mouse from Orient Bio Com, the United States, and B:ICR mouse from Japan SLC Inc., Japan). @*Results@#Results showed that despite no significant difference in body weight and weight-proportioned tissue mass of heart and skeletal muscles among groups, the relatively low intrinsic exercise capacity and exaggerated response to acute exercise were identified in B:ICR comparted with Korl:ICR and A:ICR, as reflected by total work and lactate threshold (LT). Also, the mitochondrial efficiency expressed as the complex 1 and complex 1 + 2 respiratory control ratio (RCR) values for cardiac mitochondrial O 2 consumption in B:ICR was significantly lower than that in Korl:ICR with higher level of state 2 respiration by glutamate/malate and UCP3 expression in cardiac muscle. @*Conclusions@#Taken together, these results indicate that the intrinsic exercise capacity of ICR mouse varies according to lineages, suggesting the role of cardiac mitochondrial coupling efficiency as a possible mechanism that might contribute to differences in the intrinsic exercise capacity and magnitude of response to exercise.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902654

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases in the world, is known to culminate in multiple organ failure due to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Hence, the use of animal models in sepsis research is very important to study complex immune responses. The current study was undertaken to compare commercial stocks with KFDA stocks of DBA/2 mice as an animal model for sepsis study. To compare responses of DBA/2 mice to lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced sepsis, we measured altered characteristics of various factors associated with sepsis, including survival curves, organ failure and inflammatory response, in DBA/2Korl stock and two commercial stocks (DBA/2A and DBA/ 2B). Survival rates after LPS exposure were similar for DBA/2Korl and DBA/2B; however, for times over 20 h, survival rates were reduced and concentration dependent in DBA/2A. In order to evaluate multiple organ failure caused by sepsis, H&E stains were evaluated for liver and spleen tissues obtained in the early (2 h) and later (20 h) stages after exposure to LPS; no significant differences were observed between the three stocks. mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed for evaluating inflammatory reactions, and were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in most DBA/2 mice after LPS treatment. However, no changes were observed in the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines at 20 h after LPS exposure in the DBA/2A stock. The induction of inflammation-mediated factors by LPS exposure did not induce alterations in the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS in all three DBA/2 stocks. Our results indicate that response of DBA/2Korl to LPS-induced sepsis is similar to the two commercial DBA/2 stocks, thus representing its potential as a useful biological resource established in Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902651

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic human diseases that are challenging to cure and are often unable to be resolved. The inbred mouse strain C57BL/ 6 N has been used in investigations of IBD as an experimental animal model. The purpose of the current study was to compare the inflammatory responsiveness of C57BL/6NKorl mice, a sub-strain recently established by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS), with those of C57BL/6 N mice from two different sources using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. @*Results@#Male mice (8 weeks old) were administered DSS (0, 1, 2, or 3%) in drinking water for 7 days. DSS significantly decreased body weight and colon length and increased the colon weight-to-length ratio. Moreover, severe colitisrelated clinical signs including diarrhea and rectal bleeding were observed beginning on day 4 in mice administered DSS at a concentration of 3%. DSS led to edema, epithelial layer disruption, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytokine induction (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β) in the colon tissues. However, no significant differences in DSS-promoted abnormal symptoms or their severity were found between the three sub-strains. @*Conclusions@#These results indicate that C57BL/6NKorl mice responded to DSS-induced colitis similar to the generally used C57BL6/N mice, thus this newly developed mouse sub-strain provides a useful animal model of IBD.

4.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 223-232, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894961

ABSTRACT

Background@#As a laboratory animal resource, the ICR mouse is commonly used in a variety of research fields. However, information on differences in exercise-related characteristics in ICR mice derived from different lineages and the underlying mechanisms remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the intrinsic exercise capacity and a magnitude of response to acute exercise, and sought to identify mechanisms contributing to difference in Korl:ICR (a novel ICR lineage recently established by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea) and two commercialized ICR lineages derived from different origins (viz., A:ICR mouse from Orient Bio Com, the United States, and B:ICR mouse from Japan SLC Inc., Japan). @*Results@#Results showed that despite no significant difference in body weight and weight-proportioned tissue mass of heart and skeletal muscles among groups, the relatively low intrinsic exercise capacity and exaggerated response to acute exercise were identified in B:ICR comparted with Korl:ICR and A:ICR, as reflected by total work and lactate threshold (LT). Also, the mitochondrial efficiency expressed as the complex 1 and complex 1 + 2 respiratory control ratio (RCR) values for cardiac mitochondrial O 2 consumption in B:ICR was significantly lower than that in Korl:ICR with higher level of state 2 respiration by glutamate/malate and UCP3 expression in cardiac muscle. @*Conclusions@#Taken together, these results indicate that the intrinsic exercise capacity of ICR mouse varies according to lineages, suggesting the role of cardiac mitochondrial coupling efficiency as a possible mechanism that might contribute to differences in the intrinsic exercise capacity and magnitude of response to exercise.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894950

ABSTRACT

Sepsis, one of the most fatal diseases in the world, is known to culminate in multiple organ failure due to an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Hence, the use of animal models in sepsis research is very important to study complex immune responses. The current study was undertaken to compare commercial stocks with KFDA stocks of DBA/2 mice as an animal model for sepsis study. To compare responses of DBA/2 mice to lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced sepsis, we measured altered characteristics of various factors associated with sepsis, including survival curves, organ failure and inflammatory response, in DBA/2Korl stock and two commercial stocks (DBA/2A and DBA/ 2B). Survival rates after LPS exposure were similar for DBA/2Korl and DBA/2B; however, for times over 20 h, survival rates were reduced and concentration dependent in DBA/2A. In order to evaluate multiple organ failure caused by sepsis, H&E stains were evaluated for liver and spleen tissues obtained in the early (2 h) and later (20 h) stages after exposure to LPS; no significant differences were observed between the three stocks. mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines were assessed for evaluating inflammatory reactions, and were found to increase in a dose-dependent manner in most DBA/2 mice after LPS treatment. However, no changes were observed in the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines at 20 h after LPS exposure in the DBA/2A stock. The induction of inflammation-mediated factors by LPS exposure did not induce alterations in the mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS in all three DBA/2 stocks. Our results indicate that response of DBA/2Korl to LPS-induced sepsis is similar to the two commercial DBA/2 stocks, thus representing its potential as a useful biological resource established in Korea.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894947

ABSTRACT

Background@#Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic human diseases that are challenging to cure and are often unable to be resolved. The inbred mouse strain C57BL/ 6 N has been used in investigations of IBD as an experimental animal model. The purpose of the current study was to compare the inflammatory responsiveness of C57BL/6NKorl mice, a sub-strain recently established by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS), with those of C57BL/6 N mice from two different sources using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. @*Results@#Male mice (8 weeks old) were administered DSS (0, 1, 2, or 3%) in drinking water for 7 days. DSS significantly decreased body weight and colon length and increased the colon weight-to-length ratio. Moreover, severe colitisrelated clinical signs including diarrhea and rectal bleeding were observed beginning on day 4 in mice administered DSS at a concentration of 3%. DSS led to edema, epithelial layer disruption, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytokine induction (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-1β) in the colon tissues. However, no significant differences in DSS-promoted abnormal symptoms or their severity were found between the three sub-strains. @*Conclusions@#These results indicate that C57BL/6NKorl mice responded to DSS-induced colitis similar to the generally used C57BL6/N mice, thus this newly developed mouse sub-strain provides a useful animal model of IBD.

7.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 307-319, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918407

ABSTRACT

Background@#To determine whether the background of BALB/c substrains affects the response to anti-tumor drugs, we measured for alterations in tumor growth, histopathological structure of the tumor, and expressions of tumorrelated proteins in three BALB/c substrains derived from different sources (BALB/cKorl, BALB/cA and BALB/cB), after exposure to varying concentrations of cisplatin (0.1, 1 and 5 mg/kg). @*Results@#Cisplatin treatment induced similar responses for body and organ weights, serum analyzing factors, and blood analyzing factors in all BALB/c substrains with CT26 syngeneic tumor. Few differences were detected in the volume and histopathological structure of the CT26 tumor. Growth inhibition of CT26 tumors after exposure to cisplatin was greater in the BALB/cB substrain than BALB/cKorl and BALB/cA substrains, and a similar pattern was observed in the histopathological structure of tumors. However, the expression levels of other tumor-related factors, including Ki67, p27, p53, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), caspase-3 (Cas-3), matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins, were constantly maintained in the tumors of all three substrains after cisplatin treatment. A similar decrease pattern was observed for the expressions of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-10, in the CT26 tumors of the three BALB/c substrains. @*Conclusions@#Taken together, results of the present study indicate that the genetic background of the three BALB/c substrains has no major effect on the therapeutic responsiveness of cisplatin, except growth and histopathology of the CT26 syngeneic tumor.

8.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 285-293, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918403

ABSTRACT

Background@#The oral administration of polystyrene-microplastics (PS-MPs) causes chronic constipation of ICR mice, but there are no reports on their effects on the inflammatory response in the colon. To determine if the oral administration of MPs causes inflammation in the colon, the changes in the apoptosis-associated speck like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC)-inflammasome pathway, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling pathway, and inflammatory cytokine expression were evaluated in the mid colon of ICR mice treated with 0.5 μm size PS-MPs for two weeks. @*Results@#The thicknesses of the mucosa, muscle, flat luminal surface, and crypt layer were decreased significantly (p < 0.01) in the mid colon of the MPs treated group compared to the Vehicle treated group. On the other hand, a remarkable increase in the expression levels of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein (NLRP) 3, ASC, and Cleaved Caspase (Cas)-1 protein was observed in the MPs treated group. In addition, similar increasing pattern in the levels of p-NF-κB and phospho-inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (p-IkB) α protein was detected. Four inflammatory cytokines, including NF-κB, interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β, showed an increased expression level after the MPs treatment. @*Conclusions@#Therefore, the present study suggests that PS-MPs can be a novel cause of an inflammatory response in the mid colon of ICR mice.

9.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 294-306, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918402

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study was undertaken to compare the sensitivities of mice strains during tumor induction by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN)-mediated Trp53 mutant gene. Alterations of their tumorigenic phenotypes including survival rate, tumor formation and tumor spectrum, were assessed in FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl and C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl knockout (KO) mice over 16 weeks. @*Results@#Most of the physiological phenotypes factors were observed to be higher in FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice than C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl KO mice, although there were significant differences in the body weight, immune organ weight, number of red blood cells, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), platelet count (PLT), total bilirubin (Bil-T) and glucose (Glu) levels in the KO mice relative to the wild type (WT) mice. Furthermore, numerous solid tumors were also observed in various regions of the surface skin of FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice, but were not detected in C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl KO mice. The most frequently observed tumor in both the Trp53 KO mice was malignant lymphoma, while soft tissue teratomas and hemangiosarcomas were only detected in the FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice. @*Conclusions@#Our results indicate that the spectrum and incidence of tumors induced by the TALEN-mediated Trp53 mutant gene is greater in FVB/N-Trp53 em2Hwl /Korl KO mice than C57BL/6-Trp53 em1Hwl /Korl KO mice over 16 weeks.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902640

ABSTRACT

To investigate the role of complement C3 (C3) convertase on the strain difference for C3 protein expression in three inbred mice strains, we compared the levels of C2, C3 and C4 mRNA, as well as C3 protein and C3 convertase activity in the serum and liver tissue of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice. The level of mRNA, inactive form (InACF) and active form (ACF) for C3 showed a regular pattern, which they were higher in the FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. However, the level of C3b fragments (C3bα and β) derived from C3 protein were constantly maintained in the liver of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice in spite of the strain difference on the transcriptional and translation level of C3. Especially, a reverse pattern of the level of mRNA, InACF and ACF for C3 was observed on the activity level of C3 convertase activity. The highest level of C3 convertase activity was measured in C3H/HeN mice, followed by C57BL/6N and FVB/N mice. In case of C3 convertase components, the level of C2 mRNA was higher in C3H/HeN mice than FVB/N and C57BL/6 N mice, while levels of C4 mRNA were higher in FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. The current study results provide the first scientific evidence that C3 convertase may play complementary role to overcome the strain difference on the C3 protein expression in FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice.

11.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 303-309, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902633

ABSTRACT

The kainic acid-induced seizure mouse model is widely used in epilepsy research. In this study, we applied kainic acid to the subcutaneous injections of three different sources of DBA/2 mice to compare and evaluate the seizure response. The three mouse sources consisted of DBA/2Kor1 (Korea FDA source), DBA/2A (USA source), and DBA/2 (Japan source), and were purchased from different vendors. To compare the responses of DBA/2 mice to kainic acid injections, we examined the survival rate, seizure phenotype scoring, and behavioral changes. We also evaluated brain lesions using histopathological analysis. Following the administration of kainic acid, almost half of the cohort survived, and the seizure phenotype displayed a moderate level of sensitivity (2 ~ 4 out of 6). In the histopathologic analysis, there was no change in morphological features, and levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) increased in the kainic acid-treated groups. However, there was no difference in the neuronal nuclei (NeuN) expression level. All the data showed that the responses in the kainic acid-treated group were similar across the three strains. In conclusion, our results suggest that the three sources of DBA/2 mice (DBA/2Kor1, DBA/2A, and DBA/2B) have similar pathological responses to kainic acid-induced seizures.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894936

ABSTRACT

To investigate the role of complement C3 (C3) convertase on the strain difference for C3 protein expression in three inbred mice strains, we compared the levels of C2, C3 and C4 mRNA, as well as C3 protein and C3 convertase activity in the serum and liver tissue of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice. The level of mRNA, inactive form (InACF) and active form (ACF) for C3 showed a regular pattern, which they were higher in the FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. However, the level of C3b fragments (C3bα and β) derived from C3 protein were constantly maintained in the liver of FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice in spite of the strain difference on the transcriptional and translation level of C3. Especially, a reverse pattern of the level of mRNA, InACF and ACF for C3 was observed on the activity level of C3 convertase activity. The highest level of C3 convertase activity was measured in C3H/HeN mice, followed by C57BL/6N and FVB/N mice. In case of C3 convertase components, the level of C2 mRNA was higher in C3H/HeN mice than FVB/N and C57BL/6 N mice, while levels of C4 mRNA were higher in FVB/N and C57BL/6N mice than C3H/HeN mice. The current study results provide the first scientific evidence that C3 convertase may play complementary role to overcome the strain difference on the C3 protein expression in FVB/N, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6N mice.

13.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 303-309, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894929

ABSTRACT

The kainic acid-induced seizure mouse model is widely used in epilepsy research. In this study, we applied kainic acid to the subcutaneous injections of three different sources of DBA/2 mice to compare and evaluate the seizure response. The three mouse sources consisted of DBA/2Kor1 (Korea FDA source), DBA/2A (USA source), and DBA/2 (Japan source), and were purchased from different vendors. To compare the responses of DBA/2 mice to kainic acid injections, we examined the survival rate, seizure phenotype scoring, and behavioral changes. We also evaluated brain lesions using histopathological analysis. Following the administration of kainic acid, almost half of the cohort survived, and the seizure phenotype displayed a moderate level of sensitivity (2 ~ 4 out of 6). In the histopathologic analysis, there was no change in morphological features, and levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1) increased in the kainic acid-treated groups. However, there was no difference in the neuronal nuclei (NeuN) expression level. All the data showed that the responses in the kainic acid-treated group were similar across the three strains. In conclusion, our results suggest that the three sources of DBA/2 mice (DBA/2Kor1, DBA/2A, and DBA/2B) have similar pathological responses to kainic acid-induced seizures.

14.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 177-187, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836910

ABSTRACT

Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) has recently received a great attention due to it play a critical role as SARS-CoV receptor in the infection of human body. However, no further analysis for gene regulation has been performed in target tissues of model mice during hACE2 overproduction. To characterize changes in global gene expression in the hearts and kidneys of rtTA/hACE2 double transgenic (dTg) mice in response to hACE2 overexpression, total RNA extracted from these tissues from dTg mice after doxycycline (Dox) treatment was hybridized to oligonucleotide microarrays. Briefly, dTg mice were generated by cross-mating pα-MHC/rtTA Tg mice with pTRE/hACE2 Tg mice. The expression level of hACE2 protein was determined to be high in hearts, kidneys, and brains of dTg mice, whereas lung, liver, and testis tissues expressed low levels. The level of hACE2 was significantly enhanced in hearts and kidneys of the Dox+dTg group compared to that in Vehicle+dTg mice although consistent levels of mouse ACE2 (mACE2) remained in the same tissues. Based on the microarray analysis of heart tissue, 385 genes were differentially expressed, including 168 upregulated and 217 downregulated, when comparing non-Tg and Vehicle+dTg mice, whereas 216 genes were differentially expressed, including 136 upregulated and 80 downregulated, between Vehicle+dTg and Dox+dTg mice. In the kidneys, 402 genes were differentially expressed, including 159 upregulated and 243 downregulated, between non-Tg and Vehicle+dTg mice. Dox-treated dTg mice exhibited the differential expression of 4735 genes including 1636 upregulated and 3109 downregulated. Taken together, these findings suggested that several functional groups and individual genes can be considered biomarkers that respond to hACE2 overexpression in dTg mice. Moreover, our results provided a lot of useful information to predict physiological responses when these dTg mice are applied as a susceptible model for novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV, COVID-19) in both vaccine and drug development.

15.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 239-247, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836904

ABSTRACT

C57BL/6NKorl mice are a novel mouse stock recently developed by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation in Korea. Extensive research into the nature of C57BL/6NKorl mice is being conducted. However, there is no scientific evidence for the phenotypic response to restraint stress (RST), a stress paradigm for modeling depressive disorders, in rodents. In this study, we investigated the repeated RST-induced depressive-like phenotypes in C57BL/6 N mouse substrains (viz., C57BL/6NKorl mice from Korea, C57BL/6NA mice from the United States, and C57BL/6NB mice from Japan) obtained from different sources. The results showed that C57BL/6 N mice derived from various sources exposed to repeated RST resulted in depressive-like phenotypes reflected by a similar degree of behavioral modification and susceptibility to oxidative stress in a duration-dependent manner, except for the distinctive features (increased body weight (BW) and tolerance to the suppression of BW gain by exposure to repeated RST) in C57BL/6NKorl mice. Taken together, the duration-dependent alteration in depressive-like phenotypes by repeated exposure to RST observed in this study may provide valuable insights into the nature of C57BL/6NKorl mice as an alternative animal resource for better understanding of the etiology of depressive disorders and the mechanisms of antidepressant actions.

16.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 248-259, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836903

ABSTRACT

Differences in responsiveness of BALB/c substrains have been investigated in various fields, including diabetes induction, corpus callosum deficiency, virus-induced demyelinating disease, aggressive behavior and osteonecrosis. However, induction efficacy of skin tumor remains untried. We therefore investigated the influence of BALB/c substrain backgrounds on the skin tumor induction efficacy in response to DMBA (7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene) and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate) cotreatment. Alterations in the levels of tumor growth related factors, histopathological structure, and the expression to tumor related proteins were measured in three BALB/c substrains (BALB/cKorl, BALB/cA and BALB/cB) after exposure to DMBA (25 μg/kg) and three different doses of TPA (2, 4 and 8 μg/kg). The average number and induction efficacy of tumors in response to DMBA+TPA treatment were significantly greater in the BALB/cKorl substrain than in BALB/cA and BALB/cB. However, cotreatment with DMBA+TPA induced similar responses for body and organ weights of all three substrains. Few differences were detected in the serum analyzing factors, while similar responsiveness was observed for blood analyzing factors after DMBA+TPA treatment. Furthermore, the three BALB/c substrains exhibited similar patterns in their histopathological structure in DMBA+TPA-induced tumors. The expression levels of apoptotic proteins and tumor related proteins were constantly maintained in all three BALB/c substrains treated with DMBA+TPA. In addition, the responsiveness to cisplatin treatment was overall very similar in the three BALB/c substrains with DMBA+TPA-induced tumors. Taken together, these results indicate that genetic background of the three BALB/c substrains does not have a major effect on the DMBA+TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis and therapeutic responsiveness of cisplatin, except induction efficacy.

17.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 238-247, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786398

ABSTRACT

The butanol extract of Asparagus cochinchinensis roots fermented with Weissella cibaria (BAW) effectively prevents inflammation and remodeling of airway in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. To characterize biomarkers that can predict the anti-asthmatic effects induced by BAW treatment, we measured the alteration of endogenous metabolites in the serum of OVA-induced asthma mice after administration of low concentration BAW (BAWLo, 250 mg/kg) and high concentration BAW (BAWHi, 500 mg/kg) using ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectral data. The number of immune cells and serum concentration of IgE as well as thickness of the respiratory epithelium and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the airway significantly recovered in the OVA+BAW treated group as compared to the OVA+Vehicle treated group. In the metabolic profile analysis, the pattern recognition showed completely separate clustering of serum analysis parameters between the OVA+Vehicle and OVA+BAW treated groups. Of the total endogenous metabolites, 19 metabolites were upregulated or downregulated in the OVA+Vehicle treated group as compared to the Control treated group. However, only 4 amino acids (alanine, glycine, methionine and tryptophan) were significantly recovered after BAWLo and BAWHi treatment. This study provides the first results pertaining to metabolic changes in the asthma model mice treated with OVA+BAW. Additionally, these findings show that 4 metabolites can be used as one of biomarkers to predict the anti-asthmatic effects.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Animals , Asthma , Biomarkers , Fermentation , Glycine , Immunoglobulin E , Inflammation , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methionine , Mice , Ovalbumin , Respiratory Mucosa , Therapeutic Uses , Weissella
18.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 107-113, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786397

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen (APAP) is the most common antipyretic analgesic worldwide. However, APAP overdose causes severe liver injury, especially centrilobular necrosis, in humans and experimental animals. At therapeutic dosage, APAP is mainly metabolized by sulfation and glucuronidation, and partly by cytochrome P450–mediated oxidation. However, APAP overdose results in production of excess reactive metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), by cytochromes P450; NAPQI overwhelms the level of glutathione (GSH), which could otherwise detoxify it. NAPQI binds covalently to proteins, leading to cell death. A number of studies aimed at the prevention and treatment of APAP-induced toxicity are underway. Rats are more resistant than mice to APAP hepatotoxicity, and thus mouse models are mainly used. In the present study, we compared the toxic responses induced by APAP overdose in the liver of ICR mice obtained from three different sources and evaluated the usability of the Korl:ICR stock established by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation in Korea. Administration of APAP (300 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection into male ICR mice enhanced CYP2E1 protein expression and depleted hepatic GSH level 2 h after treatment accompanied with significantly increased level of hepatic malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation. Regardless of the source of the mice, hepatotoxicity, as evidenced by activity of serum alanine aminotransferase, increased from 8 h and peaked at 24 h after APAP treatment. In summary, hepatotoxicity was induced after the onset of oxidative stress by overdose of APAP, and the response was the same over time among mice of different origins.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Alanine Transaminase , Animals , Cell Death , Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 , Cytochromes , Glutathione , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Korea , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Male , Malondialdehyde , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Necrosis , Oxidative Stress , Rats
19.
Laboratory Animal Research ; : 114-123, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786396

ABSTRACT

In our efforts to understand the systemic features of tumors, the importance of animal models is increasing due to the recent growth in the development of immunotherapy and targeted therapies. This has resulted in increased attention towards tumor animal models using C57BL/6N, which are mainly used in immunological studies. In this study, the C57BL/6NKorl stock and two other commercial stocks (C57BL/6NA and C57BL/N6B) are evaluated by comparing the occurrence of tumors using the syngeneic model; furthermore, we compare the response to anti-cancer drugs in the syngeneic model by evaluating survival, growth of tumors, proliferation and molecular biology analysis. In the syngeneic model using LLC (Lewis lung carcinoma) cells, the survival of mice and growth of the tumor showed a better response in the C57BL/6NKorl stock, and was dependent on the cell concentration of the dosing tumor, as compared to the other C57BL/6N stocks. However, the Ki-67 staining showed only little difference in cell proliferation within the tumor tissue each mouse stocks. Comparing the sensitivity to anti-cancer drug by examining changes in growth, volume and weight revealed that cisplatin treatment for tumor-bearing C57BL/6NKorl was more dependent on concentration. The Ki-67 staining, however, showed no difference among the C57BL/6N stocks after cisplatin treatment. The expressions of p27 and p53 tumor suppressor proteins, caspase-3 and Bax showed dose-dependent increase after exposure to cisplatin, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expressions of MMP-2 and VEGF involved in metastasis, as well as inflammatory genes IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10, showed dose-dependent decrease in tumor tissue after cisplatin exposure. Differences observed among the C57BL/6N stocks were not significant. Taken together, our studies reveal that C57BL/6NKorl has the potential of being a useful biological resource established in Korea, as it does not differ from the two commercially available C57BL/6N stocks when considering response to tumor generation and sensitivity to anti-cancer drugs using the syngeneic tumor model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 3 , Cell Proliferation , Cisplatin , Immunotherapy , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Korea , Lung , Mice , Models, Animal , Molecular Biology , Neoplasm Metastasis , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918398

ABSTRACT

Red Liriope platyphylla (RLP) is a known herbal medicine used in the treatment of some chronic diseases including constipation, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes and obesity. To determine and characterize putative biomarkers that predict the laxative effects induced by RLP treatment, alteration of endogenous metabolites was measured in the serum of loperamide (Lop)-induced constipation rats after administration of RLP extract (EtRLP) using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectral data. The urine volume and amounts, and weights and water contents of stools were significantly recovered in the Lop + EtRLP treated group as compared to the No group, whereas body weight and food intake maintained constant levels. Also, significant recoveries in the thickness of mucosa and muscle were detected in the colon of the Lop + EtRLP treated group. Furthermore, pattern recognition showed absolutely different clustering of the serum analysis parameters when comparing the Lop treated group and Lop + EtRLP treated group. Of the 33 endogenous metabolites, 7 amino acids (alanine, arginine, glutamate, glutamine, glycine, threonine and valine) and 8 endogenous metabolites (betaine, creatine, glucose, taurine, ethanol, lactate, glycerol and succinate) were dramatically increased in the Lop + EtRLP treated SD rats. These results provide the first evidence pertaining to metabolic changes in the constipation rats treated with Lop + EtRLP. Additionally, these findings correlate with changes observed in 15 metabolites during the laxative effects of EtRLP.

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