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1.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 29-35, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968700

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The gastric extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (gastric MALT lymphoma) are mostly related to Helicobacter pylori infections. However, chromosomal aberration involving translocation t(11;18) is also frequently reported in these patients. @*Methods@#The study was a retrospective review and analysis of electronic medical records to assess the factors which affect complete remission (CR) in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma. Based on the medical records, subjects with gastric MALT lymphoma were enrolled consecutively from January 2004 to December 2021. @*Results@#Among the 77 subjects who were found with gastric MALT lymphoma in the database, 65 cases with complete records were analyzed. Of these, 66.2% (43/65) were H. pylori positive. Genetic analyses for t(11:18) were done on 41 subjects. The t(11:18) chromosomal translocation with MALT1:BIRC3 fusion was found in 31.7% (13/41) of the subjects. With H. pylori eradication therapy, 75% (21/28) of the subjects without t(11:18) achieved CR. However, only 23.1% (3/13) subjects with t(11:18) could achieve CR (p-value=0.009). In the H. pylori-positive group, 85.7% (18/21) subjects without t(11:18) achieved CR with eradication therapy, but 71.4% (5/7) subjects with t(11:18) failed to achieve CR (p-value=0.004). In the H. pylori-negative group, 42.3% (3/7) of the subjects without t(11:18) achieved CR with eradication therapy. However, 83.3% (5/6) of H. pylori-negative subjects with t(11:18) failed to achieve CR with eradication therapy and needed additional radiotherapy (p-value=0.396). @*Conclusions@#H. pylori negativity and the presence of t(11:18) were both risk factors for failure to achieve CR with H. pylori eradication therapy as the first line of treatment.

2.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 265-269, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002945

ABSTRACT

This paper reports a 70-year-old female with gastric extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (gastric MALT lymphoma) as a rare case of gastric outlet obstruction. Five years earlier, she initially presented with weight loss and anemia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed multiple gastric and duodenal ulcers with a pyloric deformity, while histology revealed chronic active inflammation and a Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Three years earlier, she underwent EGD per the National Cancer Screening Program and was diagnosed with antral and duodenal ulcers. A forceps biopsy specimen from one of the ulcers showed the findings of gastric MALT lymphoma, but she did not visit the hospital for proper management. She visited complaining of a loss of appetite. EGD revealed a gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) caused by antral deformity and pyloric narrowing. A staged workup with CT and PET revealed full-layered, encircling antral wall thickening and several enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. She was finally diagnosed with a gastric MALT lymphoma at Ann Arbor stage I1E with translocation t(11;18). She was treated with palliative surgery for GOO and systemic chemotherapy with a CHOP regimen. This paper reports a gastric MALT lymphoma that progressed from superficial mucosal lesions to an overt mass with regional lymph node metastasis for five years. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2023;81:265 -269)

3.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 470-478, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000031

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Metachronous recurrence incidences and risk factors following endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for gastric adenocarcinoma and dysplasias were investigated. @*Methods@#Retrospective review of electronic medical records of patients who underwent gastric ESD at The Catholic University of Korea, Yeouido St. Mary’s Hospital. @*Results@#A total of 190 subjects were enrolled for analysis during the study period. The mean age was 64.4 years-old and the male sex occupied 73.7%. The mean observation period following ESD was 3.45 years. The annual incidence rate of metachronous gastric neoplasms (MGN) was about 3.96%. The annual incidence rate was 5.36% for the low-grade dysplasia group, 6.47% for the high-grade dysplasia group, and 2.74% for the EGC group. MGN was more frequent in the dysplasia group than in the EGC group (p<0.05). For those with MGN development, the mean time interval from ESD to MGN was 4.1 (±1.8) years. By using the Kaplan–Meier model, the estimated mean MGN free survival time was 9.97 years (95% confidence interval, 8.53–11.40) The histological types of MGN were not related to the primary histology types. @*Conclusions@#MGN following ESD developed in 3.96% annually and MGN was more frequent in the dysplasia group. The histological types of MGN did not correlate with those of primary neoplasm.

4.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 210-216, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926983

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study evaluated the incidence of iatrogenic colonic perforation (ICP) in a high-volume center and analyzed the clinical outcomes and associated factors. @*Methods@#As a retrospective study of the electronic medical records, the whole data of patients who underwent colonoscopy from June 2004 to May 2020 were reviewed. @*Results@#During 16 years, 69,458 procedures were performed, of which 60,288 were diagnostic and 9,170 were therapeutic. ICP occurred in 0.027% (16/60,288) for diagnostic colonoscopies and in 0.076% (7/9,170) for therapeutic purposes (p=0.015; hazard ratio 2.878; 95% CI, 1.184-6.997). Fifty-two percent (12 cases) were managed with endoscopic clip closure, and 43.5% (10 cases) required surgery. The reasons for the procedure and the procedure timing appeared to affect the treatment decision. Perforations during therapeutic colonoscopy were treated with surgery more often than those for diagnostic purposes (66.7% [4/6] vs. 37.5% [6/16], p=0.221). Regarding the timing of the procedure, ICP that occurred in the afternoon session was more likely treated surgically (56.3% [9/16] vs. 0/5, p=0.027). Mortality occurred in two patients (2/23, 8.7%). Both were aged (mean age 84.0±1.4 vs. 65.7±10.5, p<0.001) and lately recognized (mean elapsed time [hours], 43.8±52.5 vs. 1.5±3.0, p<0.001) than the surviving patients. @*Conclusions@#ICP occurs in less than 0.1% of cases. The events that occurred during the morning session were more likely managed endoscopically. Age over 80 years and a longer time before perforation recognition were associated with mortality.

5.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 276-285, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832169

ABSTRACT

The area of endoscopic application has been continuously expanded since its introduction in the last century and the frequency of its use also increased stiffly in the last decades. Because gastrointestinal endoscopy is naturally exposed to diseased internal organs and contact with pathogenic materials, endoscopy mediated infection or disease transmission becomes a major concern in this field. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is not for single use and the proper reprocessing process is a critical factor for safe and reliable endoscopy procedures. What needed in these circumstances is a practical guideline for reprocessing the endoscope and its accessories which is feasible in the real clinical field to guarantee acceptable prevention of pathogen transmission. This guideline contains principles and instructions of the reprocessing procedure according to the step by step. And it newly includes general information and updated knowledge about endoscopy-mediated infection and disinfection. Multiple societies and working groups participated to revise; Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, the Korean Society of Gastroenterology, Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Nurses and Associates and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Through this cooperation, we enhanced communication and established a better concordance. We still need more researches in this field and fill up the unproven area. And our guidelines will be renewed accordingly.

6.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e33-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although Helicobacter pylori is a key cause of gastric cancer development, its eradication rate has been decreasing by standard regimens. For successful eradication, duration of treatment has been issued for overcoming antibiotics resistance. We were to compare the eradication rate of 7-day vs. 14-day treatment in first- and second-line regimens.@*METHODS@#This study was an open-label randomized controlled trial. A total of 369 H. pylori-infected patients were enrolled and assigned either to 7-day or 14-day proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based standard triple therapy (STT; PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin). Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy was used as second-line therapy. Eradication success was defined as a negative ¹³C-urea breath test.@*RESULTS@#In first-line treatment, eradication rate was 78.5% (106/135) and 78.6% (114/143) in the 7-day and 14-day treatment in per-protocol (PP) analysis (P = 0.805). In intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, eradication rate was 64.0% (114/178) and 66.0% (126/191), respectively (P = 0.924). There was no significant difference in drug compliance (81.5% vs. 84.3%, P = 0.320). In second-line therapy, eradication rate was not significantly different in both treatments of PP analysis (91.7% [33/36] vs. 100% [45/45], P = 0.084). In the ITT analysis, eradication rate was 79.6% (35/44) and 90.4% (47/52), respectively (P = 0.080). Drug compliances were not significantly different between the two groups (95.5% vs. 98.1%, P = 0.728).@*CONCLUSION@#PPI-based STT for H. pylori is not efficient as a first-line therapy both in 7 days and 14 days in Korea. Although bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for 14 days as a second line therapy tend to show higher eradication rate compared to 7-day therapy, this should be elucidated by further larger scaled studies.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02487511

7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 719-726, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897702

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Capsule endoscopy (CE) is recommended as the primary method for the evaluation of unexplained anemia. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of CE in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA) without overt bleeding, and to evaluate their long-term outcomes and related clinical factors. @*Methods@#Data of patients who underwent CE for the evaluation of IDA were reviewed from a CE registry in Korea. Additional clinical data were collected by the involved investigators of each hospital through a review of medical records. @*Results@#Among a total of 144 patients, the diagnostic yield of CE was 34%. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was found in 6.3% (n=9) of the patients (occult bleeding in four patients and overt bleeding in five patients) during a mean follow-up of 17.8 months. Patients with a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) result at the initial diagnosis had a higher rate of GI bleeding after CE (p=0.004). In addition, a positive FOBT result was the only independent predictive factor for GI bleeding (hazard ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–19.85; p=0.013). @*Conclusions@#Positive FOBT is a predictive factor for GI bleeding during follow-up after CE in patients with unexplained IDA without overt bleeding. Thus, patients with positive FOBT need to be more closely followed up.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e33-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although Helicobacter pylori is a key cause of gastric cancer development, its eradication rate has been decreasing by standard regimens. For successful eradication, duration of treatment has been issued for overcoming antibiotics resistance. We were to compare the eradication rate of 7-day vs. 14-day treatment in first- and second-line regimens.@*METHODS@#This study was an open-label randomized controlled trial. A total of 369 H. pylori-infected patients were enrolled and assigned either to 7-day or 14-day proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based standard triple therapy (STT; PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin). Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy was used as second-line therapy. Eradication success was defined as a negative ¹³C-urea breath test.@*RESULTS@#In first-line treatment, eradication rate was 78.5% (106/135) and 78.6% (114/143) in the 7-day and 14-day treatment in per-protocol (PP) analysis (P = 0.805). In intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, eradication rate was 64.0% (114/178) and 66.0% (126/191), respectively (P = 0.924). There was no significant difference in drug compliance (81.5% vs. 84.3%, P = 0.320). In second-line therapy, eradication rate was not significantly different in both treatments of PP analysis (91.7% [33/36] vs. 100% [45/45], P = 0.084). In the ITT analysis, eradication rate was 79.6% (35/44) and 90.4% (47/52), respectively (P = 0.080). Drug compliances were not significantly different between the two groups (95.5% vs. 98.1%, P = 0.728).@*CONCLUSION@#PPI-based STT for H. pylori is not efficient as a first-line therapy both in 7 days and 14 days in Korea. Although bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for 14 days as a second line therapy tend to show higher eradication rate compared to 7-day therapy, this should be elucidated by further larger scaled studies.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02487511

9.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 719-726, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889998

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Capsule endoscopy (CE) is recommended as the primary method for the evaluation of unexplained anemia. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of CE in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA) without overt bleeding, and to evaluate their long-term outcomes and related clinical factors. @*Methods@#Data of patients who underwent CE for the evaluation of IDA were reviewed from a CE registry in Korea. Additional clinical data were collected by the involved investigators of each hospital through a review of medical records. @*Results@#Among a total of 144 patients, the diagnostic yield of CE was 34%. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was found in 6.3% (n=9) of the patients (occult bleeding in four patients and overt bleeding in five patients) during a mean follow-up of 17.8 months. Patients with a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) result at the initial diagnosis had a higher rate of GI bleeding after CE (p=0.004). In addition, a positive FOBT result was the only independent predictive factor for GI bleeding (hazard ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–19.85; p=0.013). @*Conclusions@#Positive FOBT is a predictive factor for GI bleeding during follow-up after CE in patients with unexplained IDA without overt bleeding. Thus, patients with positive FOBT need to be more closely followed up.

11.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 72-75, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739697

ABSTRACT

Squamous papilloma is a common benign tumor of the esophagus. Patients with papilloma are usually asymptomatic, and they are diagnosed incidentally during esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Most papillomas are small and easily removed by forceps biopsy. Recurrence of papilloma after removal is rare. Human papilloma virus infection is supposed to play a role in the development of esophageal papilloma; however, malignant transformation of papilloma is extremely unusual. Here, we report a case of malignant transformation of esophageal squamous papilloma at the gastroesophageal junction into squamous cell carcinoma in situ, which was treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Carcinoma in Situ , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Epithelial Cells , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Papilloma , Papillomaviridae , Recurrence , Surgical Instruments
12.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 193-197, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761588

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is commonly used to detect the depth of cancer invasion in the preoperative stage. Intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) patterns observed in magnification endoscopy with narrow band image are also known to well demonstrate cancer invasion depth. Here, we report a case of superficial esophageal cancer with massive submucosal invasion, which presented as a superficial esophageal cancer confined to the mucosal layer and with a coincidental hypoechoic submucosal tumor under EUS and IPCL evaluation.


Subject(s)
Capillaries , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Endoscopy , Endosonography , Esophageal Neoplasms
13.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 115-119, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are sequential consequences of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. These conditions are well known to increase the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is also a malignant consequence of H. pylori infection, but the relationship between gastric MALT lymphoma and atrophic gastritis-intestinal metaplasia has not been a focus of interest. We investigated the clinical characteristics of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study was conducted by reviewing the electronic medical records of patients diagnosed as having gastric MALT lymphoma at an academic institute, the Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Korea, between January 2001 and December 2018. RESULTS: Fifty-eight subjects were enrolled consecutively during the study period and analyzed retrospectively. The patients' mean age was 56.9 years old. The male-to-female ratio was 1.15 (31/27). On histological examination, background atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were detected in 26.8% (15/58) of cases. Serum pepsinogen I, II and gastrin levels, as serological markers of atrophy, were evaluated in 28 subjects. Three (5.2%) of the 28 cases were compatible with serological atrophic gastritis (pepsinogen I/II ratio of <3 and pepsinogen I level of <70 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, the prevalence of background mucosal atrophy or intestinal metaplasia was 26.8% on histological examination and 5.2% on serological analyses. These rates are lower than those in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. This result suggests a different carcinogenic pathway of gastric MALT lymphoma from that of adenocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adenocarcinoma , Atrophy , Electronic Health Records , Gastrins , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Korea , Lymphoid Tissue , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Metaplasia , Pepsinogen A , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Stomach
14.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 38-41, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786609

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal tract is a vast reservoir for internal microbiota; it is exposed directly to various externally introduced microbes, including bacteria, viruses, parasites and others. In immune-compromised conditions, the gastrointestinal tract is frequently affected by infectious diseases that seldom manifest clinically in immune-competent hosts. Immune-compromised conditions result from a variety of reasons, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, anti-cancer chemo-radiotherapy, immune suppressive therapy for autoimmune diseases, and organ transplantations. The stomach is a relatively rare site for opportunistic infections in immune-compromised patients compared to the esophagus and colon, where esophagitis and colitis develop frequently and cause significant clinical consequences. Helicobacter pylori infection is majorly involved in gastric malfunctioning in immune-compromised patients, followed by cytomegalovirus infection. Infections by Cryptosporidium, Mycobacterium avium complex, histoplasmosis, leishmaniasis, aspergillosis, or treponema, have been reported; however, gastric involvement of these agents is extremely rare. This review discusses the general aspects and recent reports on gastric infection in immune-compromised patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspergillosis , Autoimmune Diseases , Bacteria , Colitis , Colon , Communicable Diseases , Cryptosporidium , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Gastrointestinal Tract , Helicobacter pylori , Histoplasmosis , HIV , Leishmaniasis , Microbiota , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Opportunistic Infections , Organ Transplantation , Parasites , Stomach , Transplants , Treponema
15.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 82-89, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713655

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Early detection of gastric cancer is important to improve prognosis. Early detection enables local treatment, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Therefore, we investigated whether early detection of gastric cancer could reduce healthcare costs by comparison according to stage and treatment modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical care costs were investigated according to tumor stage and initial treatment modality in 1,188 patients newly diagnosed with gastric cancer at 7 medical institutions from December 2011 to June 2012. Total medical care costs during the first-year after diagnosis (total first-year costs) were examined, including the costs of initial treatment, post-initial treatment, and inpatient and outpatient visits. RESULTS: Stage I (75.3%) was the most common cancer stage. ESD was the second most common treatment following surgery. Total first-year costs increased significantly from stages I to IV. The costs of initial treatment and post-initial treatment were lowest in patients with stage I cancer. Among patients with stage I cancer, total first-year costs were significantly lower when treated by ESD; in particular, initial ESD treatment costs were much lower than others. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of healthcare has increased significantly with increasing cancer stages. ESD can greatly reduce medical care costs of gastric cancer. Thus, early detection of gastric cancer is important to reduce healthcare costs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Health Care Costs , Inpatients , Neoplasm Staging , Outpatients , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms
16.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 127-130, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738960

ABSTRACT

Lymphangioma of the esophagus is a rare submucosal benign tumor. A 49-year-old man was referred because of a foreign body sensation in the esophagus. In endoscopy, a 10.0×1.0-cm longitudinal, translucent, whitish yellow mass covered with normal esophageal mucosa was found in the lower esophagus. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a heterogeneous, mainly hypoechoic, well-circumscribed lesion located in the third layer. Incisional biopsy was performed, and histologic findings showed multiple dilated lymphatic vessels, consistent with lymphangioma. After 3 months of proton pump inhibitor treatment, the symptom was relieved and the patient is currently asymptomatic and under surveillance.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Biopsy , Endoscopy , Endosonography , Esophagus , Foreign Bodies , Lymphangioma , Lymphatic Vessels , Mucous Membrane , Proton Pumps , Sensation
17.
Gut and Liver ; : 575-576, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140069

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Gastritis, Atrophic , Korea , Stomach Neoplasms
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 575-576, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140068

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Gastritis, Atrophic , Korea , Stomach Neoplasms
19.
Gut and Liver ; : 253-260, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In some cases, chronic diarrhea is unexplained, and small bowel disorders may be one of the causes. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield and clinical impact of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in patients with chronic diarrhea. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed records from October 2002 to August 2013 in the VCE nationwide database registry (n=2,964). Ninety-one patients from 15 medical centers (60 males and 31 females; mean age, 47±19 years) were evaluated for VCE as a result of chronic diarrhea. RESULTS: The duration of chronic diarrhea was 8.3±14.7 months. The positive diagnostic yield of VCE was 42.9% (39/91). However, 15.4% (14/91) exhibited an inconsistent result, and 41.8% (38/91) were negative. Abnormal findings consistent with chronic diarrhea included erosions/aphthous ulcers (19.8%), ulcers (17.6%), mucosal erythema (3.3%), edema (1.1%), and luminal narrowing (1.1%). The most common diagnoses were functional diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome in 37 patients (40.7%) and Crohn’s disease in 18 patients (19.8%). After VCE examination, the diagnosis was changed in 34.1% of the patients (31/91). Hematochezia (odds ratio [OR], 8.802; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.126 to 36.441) and hypoalbuminemia (OR, 4.811; 95% CI, 1.241 to 18.655) are predictive factors of a positive diagnostic yield. CONCLUSIONS: VCE had a favorable diagnostic yield and clinical impact on the management of patients with chronic diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Capsule Endoscopy , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Edema , Erythema , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hypoalbuminemia , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Phenobarbital , Retrospective Studies , Ulcer
20.
Gut and Liver ; : 323-324, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171006

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic
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