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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although Helicobacter pylori is a key cause of gastric cancer development, its eradication rate has been decreasing by standard regimens. For successful eradication, duration of treatment has been issued for overcoming antibiotics resistance. We were to compare the eradication rate of 7-day vs. 14-day treatment in first- and second-line regimens.@*METHODS@#This study was an open-label randomized controlled trial. A total of 369 H. pylori-infected patients were enrolled and assigned either to 7-day or 14-day proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based standard triple therapy (STT; PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin). Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy was used as second-line therapy. Eradication success was defined as a negative ¹³C-urea breath test.@*RESULTS@#In first-line treatment, eradication rate was 78.5% (106/135) and 78.6% (114/143) in the 7-day and 14-day treatment in per-protocol (PP) analysis (P = 0.805). In intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, eradication rate was 64.0% (114/178) and 66.0% (126/191), respectively (P = 0.924). There was no significant difference in drug compliance (81.5% vs. 84.3%, P = 0.320). In second-line therapy, eradication rate was not significantly different in both treatments of PP analysis (91.7% [33/36] vs. 100% [45/45], P = 0.084). In the ITT analysis, eradication rate was 79.6% (35/44) and 90.4% (47/52), respectively (P = 0.080). Drug compliances were not significantly different between the two groups (95.5% vs. 98.1%, P = 0.728).@*CONCLUSION@#PPI-based STT for H. pylori is not efficient as a first-line therapy both in 7 days and 14 days in Korea. Although bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for 14 days as a second line therapy tend to show higher eradication rate compared to 7-day therapy, this should be elucidated by further larger scaled studies.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02487511

2.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 719-726, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897702

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Capsule endoscopy (CE) is recommended as the primary method for the evaluation of unexplained anemia. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of CE in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA) without overt bleeding, and to evaluate their long-term outcomes and related clinical factors. @*Methods@#Data of patients who underwent CE for the evaluation of IDA were reviewed from a CE registry in Korea. Additional clinical data were collected by the involved investigators of each hospital through a review of medical records. @*Results@#Among a total of 144 patients, the diagnostic yield of CE was 34%. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was found in 6.3% (n=9) of the patients (occult bleeding in four patients and overt bleeding in five patients) during a mean follow-up of 17.8 months. Patients with a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) result at the initial diagnosis had a higher rate of GI bleeding after CE (p=0.004). In addition, a positive FOBT result was the only independent predictive factor for GI bleeding (hazard ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–19.85; p=0.013). @*Conclusions@#Positive FOBT is a predictive factor for GI bleeding during follow-up after CE in patients with unexplained IDA without overt bleeding. Thus, patients with positive FOBT need to be more closely followed up.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Although Helicobacter pylori is a key cause of gastric cancer development, its eradication rate has been decreasing by standard regimens. For successful eradication, duration of treatment has been issued for overcoming antibiotics resistance. We were to compare the eradication rate of 7-day vs. 14-day treatment in first- and second-line regimens.@*METHODS@#This study was an open-label randomized controlled trial. A total of 369 H. pylori-infected patients were enrolled and assigned either to 7-day or 14-day proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based standard triple therapy (STT; PPI-clarithromycin-amoxicillin). Bismuth-containing quadruple therapy was used as second-line therapy. Eradication success was defined as a negative ¹³C-urea breath test.@*RESULTS@#In first-line treatment, eradication rate was 78.5% (106/135) and 78.6% (114/143) in the 7-day and 14-day treatment in per-protocol (PP) analysis (P = 0.805). In intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis, eradication rate was 64.0% (114/178) and 66.0% (126/191), respectively (P = 0.924). There was no significant difference in drug compliance (81.5% vs. 84.3%, P = 0.320). In second-line therapy, eradication rate was not significantly different in both treatments of PP analysis (91.7% [33/36] vs. 100% [45/45], P = 0.084). In the ITT analysis, eradication rate was 79.6% (35/44) and 90.4% (47/52), respectively (P = 0.080). Drug compliances were not significantly different between the two groups (95.5% vs. 98.1%, P = 0.728).@*CONCLUSION@#PPI-based STT for H. pylori is not efficient as a first-line therapy both in 7 days and 14 days in Korea. Although bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for 14 days as a second line therapy tend to show higher eradication rate compared to 7-day therapy, this should be elucidated by further larger scaled studies.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02487511

4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 719-726, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889998

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Capsule endoscopy (CE) is recommended as the primary method for the evaluation of unexplained anemia. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic yield of CE in patients with unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA) without overt bleeding, and to evaluate their long-term outcomes and related clinical factors. @*Methods@#Data of patients who underwent CE for the evaluation of IDA were reviewed from a CE registry in Korea. Additional clinical data were collected by the involved investigators of each hospital through a review of medical records. @*Results@#Among a total of 144 patients, the diagnostic yield of CE was 34%. Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was found in 6.3% (n=9) of the patients (occult bleeding in four patients and overt bleeding in five patients) during a mean follow-up of 17.8 months. Patients with a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) result at the initial diagnosis had a higher rate of GI bleeding after CE (p=0.004). In addition, a positive FOBT result was the only independent predictive factor for GI bleeding (hazard ratio, 5.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–19.85; p=0.013). @*Conclusions@#Positive FOBT is a predictive factor for GI bleeding during follow-up after CE in patients with unexplained IDA without overt bleeding. Thus, patients with positive FOBT need to be more closely followed up.

5.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 276-285, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832169

ABSTRACT

The area of endoscopic application has been continuously expanded since its introduction in the last century and the frequency of its use also increased stiffly in the last decades. Because gastrointestinal endoscopy is naturally exposed to diseased internal organs and contact with pathogenic materials, endoscopy mediated infection or disease transmission becomes a major concern in this field. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is not for single use and the proper reprocessing process is a critical factor for safe and reliable endoscopy procedures. What needed in these circumstances is a practical guideline for reprocessing the endoscope and its accessories which is feasible in the real clinical field to guarantee acceptable prevention of pathogen transmission. This guideline contains principles and instructions of the reprocessing procedure according to the step by step. And it newly includes general information and updated knowledge about endoscopy-mediated infection and disinfection. Multiple societies and working groups participated to revise; Korean Association for the Study of the Liver, the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research, the Korean Society of Gastroenterology, Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Cancer, Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases, Korean Pancreatobiliary Association, the Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Nurses and Associates and Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Through this cooperation, we enhanced communication and established a better concordance. We still need more researches in this field and fill up the unproven area. And our guidelines will be renewed accordingly.

7.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 72-75, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739697

ABSTRACT

Squamous papilloma is a common benign tumor of the esophagus. Patients with papilloma are usually asymptomatic, and they are diagnosed incidentally during esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Most papillomas are small and easily removed by forceps biopsy. Recurrence of papilloma after removal is rare. Human papilloma virus infection is supposed to play a role in the development of esophageal papilloma; however, malignant transformation of papilloma is extremely unusual. Here, we report a case of malignant transformation of esophageal squamous papilloma at the gastroesophageal junction into squamous cell carcinoma in situ, which was treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Carcinoma in Situ , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Epithelial Cells , Esophagogastric Junction , Esophagus , Humans , Papilloma , Papillomaviridae , Recurrence , Surgical Instruments
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786609

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal tract is a vast reservoir for internal microbiota; it is exposed directly to various externally introduced microbes, including bacteria, viruses, parasites and others. In immune-compromised conditions, the gastrointestinal tract is frequently affected by infectious diseases that seldom manifest clinically in immune-competent hosts. Immune-compromised conditions result from a variety of reasons, including human immunodeficiency virus infection, anti-cancer chemo-radiotherapy, immune suppressive therapy for autoimmune diseases, and organ transplantations. The stomach is a relatively rare site for opportunistic infections in immune-compromised patients compared to the esophagus and colon, where esophagitis and colitis develop frequently and cause significant clinical consequences. Helicobacter pylori infection is majorly involved in gastric malfunctioning in immune-compromised patients, followed by cytomegalovirus infection. Infections by Cryptosporidium, Mycobacterium avium complex, histoplasmosis, leishmaniasis, aspergillosis, or treponema, have been reported; however, gastric involvement of these agents is extremely rare. This review discusses the general aspects and recent reports on gastric infection in immune-compromised patients.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , Autoimmune Diseases , Bacteria , Colitis , Colon , Communicable Diseases , Cryptosporidium , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Esophagitis , Esophagus , Gastrointestinal Tract , Helicobacter pylori , Histoplasmosis , HIV , Humans , Leishmaniasis , Microbiota , Mycobacterium avium Complex , Opportunistic Infections , Organ Transplantation , Parasites , Stomach , Transplants , Treponema
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761588

ABSTRACT

Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is commonly used to detect the depth of cancer invasion in the preoperative stage. Intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) patterns observed in magnification endoscopy with narrow band image are also known to well demonstrate cancer invasion depth. Here, we report a case of superficial esophageal cancer with massive submucosal invasion, which presented as a superficial esophageal cancer confined to the mucosal layer and with a coincidental hypoechoic submucosal tumor under EUS and IPCL evaluation.


Subject(s)
Capillaries , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Endoscopy , Endosonography , Esophageal Neoplasms
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761576

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia are sequential consequences of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. These conditions are well known to increase the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma development. Gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is also a malignant consequence of H. pylori infection, but the relationship between gastric MALT lymphoma and atrophic gastritis-intestinal metaplasia has not been a focus of interest. We investigated the clinical characteristics of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia in patients with gastric MALT lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study was conducted by reviewing the electronic medical records of patients diagnosed as having gastric MALT lymphoma at an academic institute, the Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, Korea, between January 2001 and December 2018. RESULTS: Fifty-eight subjects were enrolled consecutively during the study period and analyzed retrospectively. The patients' mean age was 56.9 years old. The male-to-female ratio was 1.15 (31/27). On histological examination, background atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were detected in 26.8% (15/58) of cases. Serum pepsinogen I, II and gastrin levels, as serological markers of atrophy, were evaluated in 28 subjects. Three (5.2%) of the 28 cases were compatible with serological atrophic gastritis (pepsinogen I/II ratio of <3 and pepsinogen I level of <70 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with gastric MALT lymphoma, the prevalence of background mucosal atrophy or intestinal metaplasia was 26.8% on histological examination and 5.2% on serological analyses. These rates are lower than those in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. This result suggests a different carcinogenic pathway of gastric MALT lymphoma from that of adenocarcinoma.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Atrophy , Electronic Health Records , Gastrins , Gastritis, Atrophic , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Korea , Lymphoid Tissue , Lymphoma , Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone , Metaplasia , Pepsinogen A , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Stomach
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713655

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Early detection of gastric cancer is important to improve prognosis. Early detection enables local treatment, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Therefore, we investigated whether early detection of gastric cancer could reduce healthcare costs by comparison according to stage and treatment modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical care costs were investigated according to tumor stage and initial treatment modality in 1,188 patients newly diagnosed with gastric cancer at 7 medical institutions from December 2011 to June 2012. Total medical care costs during the first-year after diagnosis (total first-year costs) were examined, including the costs of initial treatment, post-initial treatment, and inpatient and outpatient visits. RESULTS: Stage I (75.3%) was the most common cancer stage. ESD was the second most common treatment following surgery. Total first-year costs increased significantly from stages I to IV. The costs of initial treatment and post-initial treatment were lowest in patients with stage I cancer. Among patients with stage I cancer, total first-year costs were significantly lower when treated by ESD; in particular, initial ESD treatment costs were much lower than others. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of healthcare has increased significantly with increasing cancer stages. ESD can greatly reduce medical care costs of gastric cancer. Thus, early detection of gastric cancer is important to reduce healthcare costs.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Early Detection of Cancer , Health Care Costs , Humans , Inpatients , Neoplasm Staging , Outpatients , Prognosis , Stomach Neoplasms
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738960

ABSTRACT

Lymphangioma of the esophagus is a rare submucosal benign tumor. A 49-year-old man was referred because of a foreign body sensation in the esophagus. In endoscopy, a 10.0×1.0-cm longitudinal, translucent, whitish yellow mass covered with normal esophageal mucosa was found in the lower esophagus. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a heterogeneous, mainly hypoechoic, well-circumscribed lesion located in the third layer. Incisional biopsy was performed, and histologic findings showed multiple dilated lymphatic vessels, consistent with lymphangioma. After 3 months of proton pump inhibitor treatment, the symptom was relieved and the patient is currently asymptomatic and under surveillance.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Endoscopy , Endosonography , Esophagus , Foreign Bodies , Humans , Lymphangioma , Lymphatic Vessels , Middle Aged , Mucous Membrane , Proton Pumps , Sensation
13.
Gut and Liver ; : 575-576, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140069

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Gastritis, Atrophic , Korea , Stomach Neoplasms
14.
Gut and Liver ; : 575-576, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140068

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Gastritis, Atrophic , Korea , Stomach Neoplasms
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 253-260, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-69994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In some cases, chronic diarrhea is unexplained, and small bowel disorders may be one of the causes. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic yield and clinical impact of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in patients with chronic diarrhea. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed records from October 2002 to August 2013 in the VCE nationwide database registry (n=2,964). Ninety-one patients from 15 medical centers (60 males and 31 females; mean age, 47±19 years) were evaluated for VCE as a result of chronic diarrhea. RESULTS: The duration of chronic diarrhea was 8.3±14.7 months. The positive diagnostic yield of VCE was 42.9% (39/91). However, 15.4% (14/91) exhibited an inconsistent result, and 41.8% (38/91) were negative. Abnormal findings consistent with chronic diarrhea included erosions/aphthous ulcers (19.8%), ulcers (17.6%), mucosal erythema (3.3%), edema (1.1%), and luminal narrowing (1.1%). The most common diagnoses were functional diarrhea associated with irritable bowel syndrome in 37 patients (40.7%) and Crohn’s disease in 18 patients (19.8%). After VCE examination, the diagnosis was changed in 34.1% of the patients (31/91). Hematochezia (odds ratio [OR], 8.802; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.126 to 36.441) and hypoalbuminemia (OR, 4.811; 95% CI, 1.241 to 18.655) are predictive factors of a positive diagnostic yield. CONCLUSIONS: VCE had a favorable diagnostic yield and clinical impact on the management of patients with chronic diarrhea.


Subject(s)
Capsule Endoscopy , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Edema , Erythema , Female , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Humans , Hypoalbuminemia , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Male , Phenobarbital , Retrospective Studies , Ulcer
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222506

ABSTRACT

Treatment of choice for early gastric cancer has changed from curative surgery to endoscopic therapy. And the indications for endoscopic treatment of early gastric cancer are expanded. A 70-year-old man was referred for further management of early gastric cancer. In endoscopy, early gastric cancer was suspected at antrum, greater curvature side of gastric body. Endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. Histology revealed a 6.9×2.7-cm-sized tubular adenocarcinoma, moderately differentiated type and resection margin was negative. Following endoscopy was performed annually. Histology has changed from chronic inflammation to chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia, tubular adenoma with low grade dysplasia, tubular adenoma with high grade dysplasia year by year. Laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed. Histologic finding showed well differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma confined in mucosal layer without lymph node metastasis.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Adenoma , Aged , Endoscopy , Gastrectomy , Gastritis , Humans , Inflammation , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Metaplasia , Neoplasm Metastasis , Recurrence , Stomach Neoplasms
17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 327-331, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-176931

ABSTRACT

Possible lymph node metastasis (LNM) and residual cancer are major concerns in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer. To reduce the risk of LNM and cancer recurrence, the proper indications for ESD should be considered. Histology, size, depth of invasion, and presence of ulceration should be thoroughly evaluated before proceeding with ESD. However, with incomplete information, discrepancies often arise between the pathological diagnosis based on the forceps biopsy and that based on the totally resected specimen. In addition, the presence of lymphovascular involvement and histological homogeneity can be clarified only after ESD. If the pathological diagnosis changes after ESD, we should reevaluate the curativeness and reformulate the goal of treatment. Additional surgery is a reasonable strategy for non-curative ESD, but a patient's other health conditions should also be considered. It is simple to read pathological reports before and after ESD, but it can be a complicated art to interpret the report and formulate an optimal approach. In this review, various considerations regarding the pathological diagnosis will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Diagnosis , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm, Residual , Pathology , Recurrence , Stomach Neoplasms , Surgical Instruments , Ulcer
18.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 21-25, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-181526

ABSTRACT

Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) has expanded the range of endoscopic examination of the small bowel. The clinical application of VCE is mainly for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) and small bowel tumor is one of the clinically significant diagnoses of VCE, often requiring subsequent invasive interventions. Small bowel tumors are detected with a frequency of around 4% with VCE in indications of OGIB, iron deficiency anemia, unexplained abdominal pain, and others. Protruding mass with bleeding, mucosal disruption, irregular surface, discolored area, and white villi are suggested as the VCE findings of small bowel tumor. Device assisted enteroscopy (DAE), computed tomography enteroclysis/enterography and magnetic resonance enteroclysis/enterography also have clinical value in small bowel examination and tumor detection, and they can be used with VCE, sequentially or complementarily. Familial adenomatous polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, melanoma, lymphoma, and neuroendocrine tumor with hepatic metastasis are the high risk groups for small bowel tumors, and surveillance programs for small bowel tumors are needed. VCE and radiological imaging have value in screening, and in selected cases, DAE can provide more accurate diagnosis and endoscopic treatment. This review describes the usefulness and clinical impact of VCE on small bowel tumors.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Adenomatous Polyposis Coli , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Capsule Endoscopy , Diagnosis , Hemorrhage , Lymphoma , Mass Screening , Melanoma , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neuroendocrine Tumors , Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome
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