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Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 558-562, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986890


The patient was a 55-year-old man who was admitted to hospital with "progressive myalgia and weakness for 4 months, and exacerbated for 1 month". Four months ago, he presented with persistent shoulder girdle myalgia and elevated creatine kinase (CK) at routine physical examination, which fluctuated from 1 271 to 2 963 U/L after discontinuation of statin treatment. Progressive myalgia and weakness worsened seriously to breath-holding and profuse sweating 1 month ago. The patient was post-operative for renal cancer, had previous diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease medical history, had a stent implanted by percutaneous coronary intervention and was on long-term medication with aspirin, atorvastatin and metoprolol. Neurological examination showed pressure pain in the scapularis and pelvic girdle muscles, and V- grade muscle strength in the proximal extremities. Strongly positive of anti-HMGCR antibody was detected. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted image and short time inversion recovery sequences (STIR) showed high signals in the right vastus lateralis and semimembranosus muscles. There was a small amount of myofibrillar degeneration and necrosis, CD4 positive inflammatory cells around the vessels and among myofibrils, MHC-Ⅰ infiltration, and multifocal lamellar deposition of C5b9 in non-necrotic myofibrils of the right quadriceps muscle pathological manifestation. According to the clinical manifestation, imageological change, increased CK, blood specific anti-HMGCR antibody and biopsy pathological immune-mediated evidence, the diagnosis of anti-HMGCR immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy was unequivocal. Methylprednisolone was administrated as 48 mg daily orally, and was reduced to medication discontinuation gradually. The patient's complaint of myalgia and breathlessness completely disappeared after 2 weeks, the weakness relief with no residual clinical symptoms 2 months later. Follow-up to date, there was no myalgia or weakness with slightly increasing CK rechecked. The case was a classical anti-HMGCR-IMNM without swallowing difficulties, joint symptoms, rash, lung symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, heart failure and Raynaud's phenomenon. The other clinical characters of the disease included CK as mean levels >10 times of upper limit of normal, active myogenic damage in electromyography, predominant edema and steatosis of gluteus and external rotator groups in T2WI and/or STIR at advanced disease phase except axial muscles. The symptoms may occasionally improve with discontinuation of statins, but glucocorticoids are usually required, and other treatments include a variety of immunosuppressive therapies such as methotrexate, rituximab and intravenous gammaglobulin.

Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Autoantibodies , Myositis/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Necrosis/pathology , Muscular Diseases/drug therapy
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 283-291, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986850


OBJECTIVE@#To characterize the paraspinal muscles of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients, and to further explore its etiology.@*METHODS@#Clinical records and paraspinal muscle biopsies at the apex vertebra region during posterior scoliosis correction surgery of 18 AIS were collected from November 2018 to August 2019. Following standardized processing of fresh muscle tissue biopsy, serial sections with conventional hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and histochemical and immunohistochemical (IHC) with antibody Dystrophin-1 (R-domain), Dystrophin-2 (C-terminal), Dystrophin-3 (N-terminal), Dystrophin-total, Myosin (fast), major histocompatibility complex 1 (MHC-1), CD4, CD8, CD20, and CD68 staining were obtained. Biopsy samples were grouped according to the subjects' median Cobb angle (Cobb angle ≥ 55° as severe AIS group and Cobb angle < 55° as mild AIS group) and Nash-Moe's classification respectively, and the corresponding pathological changes were compared between the groups statistically.@*RESULTS@#Among the 18 AIS patients, 8 were in the severe AIS group (Cobb angle ≥55°) and 10 in the mild AIS group (Cobb angle < 55°). Both severe and mild AIS groups presented various of atrophy and degeneration of paraspinal muscles, varying degrees and staining patterns of immune-expression of Dystrophin-3 loss, especially Dystrophin-2 loss in severe AIS group with significant differences, as well as among the Nash-Moe classification subgroups. Besides, infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the paraspinal muscles and tendons was observed in all the patients while CD20+ cells were null. The expression of MHC-1 on myolemma was present in some muscle fibers.@*CONCLUSION@#The histologic of paraspinal muscle biopsy in AIS had similar characteristic changes, the expression of Dystrophin protein was significantly reduced and correlated with the severity of scoliosis, suggesting that Dystrophin protein dysfunctions might contribute to the development of scoliosis. Meanwhile, the inflammatory changes of AIS were mainly manifested by T cell infiltration, and there seemed to be a certain correlation between inflammatory cell infiltration, MHC-1 expression and abnormal expression of Dystrophin. Further research along the lines of this result may open up new ideas for the diagnosis of scoliosis and the treatment of paraspinal myopathy.

Humans , Adolescent , Scoliosis/surgery , Paraspinal Muscles/pathology , Dystrophin , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Kyphosis/pathology , Biopsy
Chinese Journal of Pathology ; (12): 292-298, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-233466


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate mutation status of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and IDH2 genes in Chinese patients with gliomas in correlation with clinicopathological characteristics.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of 234 gliomas were collected including the matched blood samples in 30 patients. DNA was extracted, followed by PCR-Sanger sequencing to detect IDH1 and IDH2 gene mutations. Immunohistochemistry was performed using mutation-specific antibody recognizing IDH1R132H mutation. Immunostains for p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were also performed. Oligodendroglial tumors with IDH mutation were double stained with IDH1R132H and GFAP by immunofluorescence to investigate the location of IDH1R132H expression.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) By IDH1 heterozygous somatic mutation analysis, Arg132His (c: G395A) was found in 31.6% (74 of 234) of the cases. IDH mutations were more frequent in oligoastrocytomas (9/13), anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (7/11), oligodendrogliomas(18/26, 69.2%), anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (8/10), and less frequent in diffuse astrocytomas (17/47, 36.2%), anaplastic astrocytomas (5/18), and glioblastomas (10/69, 14.5%). The mutation rate inversely correlated with the tumor grade in a linear fashion in astrocytic tumors (P = 0.007). Primary glioblastomas were characterized by a lower frequency of mutations than secondary glioblastomas (5/55 vs. 5/14, P = 0.036); IDH mutation was not detected in pilocytic astrocytoma and ependymoma. No IDH2 mutation was identified in this study cohort. (2) Immunohistochemistry of IDH1R132H demonstrated a strong cytoplasmic staining in 80 cases, which was highly correlated with IDH mutation status (P = 0.001). IDH1R132H was highly specific to tumor cells. (3) p53 immunostain was significantly correlated the IDH mutation in diffuse astrocytoma, anaplastic astrocytoma and secondary glioblastomas (P = 0.007, 0.026, 0.038 respectively). (4) No correlation between EGFR and IDH mutation was found.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>High prevalence of IDH heterozygous somatic mutation occurs in the earlier stage of gliomas, which can be detected by mutation-specific antibody IDH1R132H. Furthermore, evaluation of p53 and EGFR expression combined with IDH mutation analysis may significantly aid in the diagnosis and differential diagnoses of gliomas in Chinese patients.</p>

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Astrocytoma , Genetics , Metabolism , Brain Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Ependymoma , Genetics , Metabolism , Glioblastoma , Genetics , Metabolism , Glioma , Genetics , Metabolism , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Metabolism , Oligodendroglioma , Genetics , Metabolism , Point Mutation , ErbB Receptors , Metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Metabolism