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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2020 Mar; 68(3): 516-517
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197843
4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Dec; 67(12): 1993-1995
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197643

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To present histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of idiopathic inflammatory diseases of orbit and ocular adnexa. Methods: Design- A retrospective laboratory-based study. The study was carried out in an ocular pathology laboratory in a tertiary institute of northeast India where analysis of 93 cases was done in 5 years, during the period from 2011 to 2016. Hematoxylin--eosin and special stains were done for the diagnoses. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel was also carried out. For infectious pathology, Grocott's methenamine silver (GMS) stain for fungus, tissue Gram's stain for bacteria's, and acid-fast stains for tubercular bacilli were done. IHC panels were done for CD 20 (B-cells), CD-3 (T-cells), CD-45 (Leukocyte common antigen, LCA), BCL-2, CD-138 (Plasma cells), Kappa, Lambda, IgG-4 in tissue, IgG-4 in serum, etc. IHCs were done using kit methods (standardized) and adequate controls were taken for each sample. Results: 93 cases of nonspecific orbital inflammation were reported out of 1,467 specimens. Orbital pseudotumors (idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease, IOID) were seen in 27 cases (sclerosing variety-6); benign lymphoid hyperplasia in two cases; reactive lymphoid hyperplasia in 10 cases; atypical plasma lymphoproliferative reactive (polyclonal immunophenotypically, IgG4 negative) lesions in four cases; IgG-4 related disease in one case; nonspecific inflammatory reactions (conjunctiva, sclera, and lid) in 49 cases. In all the diagnoses, infections and lymphomas were excluded. Conclusion: Biopsy supported study on nonspecific orbital inflammation was important to know the pattern.

5.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196400

ABSTRACT

Sympathetic ophthalmia (SO) is a rare bilateral diffuse granulomatous panuveitis that occurs in few days to several years after penetrating injury. This intraocular inflammation can occur in any age group without a sex predilection. Pathology and immunohistochemistry-supported evidence is important to know the disease in a better way. We present a case of a 24-year-old female with clinical diagnosis of SO with an atypical past history of chicken pox in that eye and residual corneal opacity.

7.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul; 67(7): 1217-1219
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197405

ABSTRACT

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is a systemic disorder causing bilateral panuveitis. Histopathological documentation along with molecular diagnostic evidence in VKH eye is a rarity. We present a 46-year-old woman with VKH with several ocular complications and subsequently enucleation of the right eye was done because of painful blind eye. Patient had clinical complications of VKH and some of the complications were observed in histopathology. Pathology of the case showed nongranulomatous uveitis, indicating the disease in chronic recurrent stage. Immunohistochemistry showed predominant T-cell involvement in this case. The case showed clinicopathological and immunohistochemistry correlation in a case of VKH disease.

8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jul; 67(7): 1167-1168
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197371
9.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Feb; 67(2): 213-216
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197137

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To evaluate the difficulty perceived of each step of phacoemulsification and analyze the factors affecting them. Methods: Overall, 12 trainee residents were allotted 10 cases of phacoemulsification of eyes with senile cataract, under a single observer, and the steps of each surgery were rated from very easy to very difficult with a questionnaire. The completion rates of steps and complications of each surgery were noted. Principal component analysis of the responses to the difficulty level questionnaire was conducted to obtain factors resulting in the perceived difficulty. Results: The lowest difficulty scores were for initial step of incision creation (1.63 � 0.84), followed by intraocular lens insertion (2.51 � 0.8). The most difficult step was divide/chop of the nucleus (3.74 � 0.97) followed by phacoemulsification (3.32 � 0.82). Highest completion rates were seen for the initial steps of the surgery and the lowest for divide/chop. We identified two major patterns of difficulty among the trainees � one for steps involving high amount of binocularity and the other, for steps involving high precision of hand control. The rate of complication of our study was within acceptable range. Conclusion: Although trainees have practiced phacoemulsification steps on simulation, real-life situation may bring in unprecedented level of difficulty and challenges, which may be documented and used for targeted improvement of surgical skills. Stereopsis and hand control training should form a major part of training modules of cataract surgery both on simulation and real-life scenarios.

10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Feb; 67(2): 282-285
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-197126

ABSTRACT

An 80-year-old male reported to the clinic with complaints of diminished vision, foreign body sensation, and occasionally some black object moving in front of the right eye. Detailed ocular examination revealed three slender creamy white live worms in the conjunctival sac of the right eye. Total three worms were retrieved and sent to the pathology department for detailed examination. The worm was identified as gravid Thelazia callipaeda. As per the search results in PubMed and Cochrane search engine, this is the first report of human case of gravid Thelazia infestation with simultaneous existence of embryonated or ensheathed eggs and primary-stage larvae in the same worm.

12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Sep; 66(9): 1345-1349
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196892

ABSTRACT

Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy associated with irreversible loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC). This emblematic localized retinal nerve fiber layer defect (RNFLD) can be the earliest sign to detect the ongoing glaucomatous damage. Slitlamp biomicroscopy [90D & 78D], colour and redfree fundus photography, OCT & HRT are used conventionally for early detection of RNFLD. Multicolour Imaging (MCI) is a new non-invasive retinal imaging modality available in Spectralis platform which simultaneously acquires three reflectance images of the retina using three individual lasers producing a composite image thereby allowing analysis of changes at various levels within the retina. MCI provides sharper image, enables imaging through small pupil and hazy media. Current report describes 2 cases where in MCI proved superior to CFP and conventional redfree photograph in delineating area of RNFLD. This is the first report of MCI in RNFL imaging. The present report highlights the role of MCI in detection of RNFLD.

13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Aug; 66(8): 1220-1223
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196856

ABSTRACT

Thelazia callipaeda or the oriental eye worm infects a wide variety of hosts including dogs, cats, foxes, rabbits, and humans through the Drosophila flies. We report here a case of a 42-year-old female who presented with pain, redness, and cystic swelling in the right lacrimal sac area for 8 months. Ocular examination was within normal limits. Excision biopsy of the cyst revealed a live worm. In humans, the worm is usually found in the conjunctival sac, lacrimal canaliculi, or the lacrimal sac leading to a disease which can be subclinical or symptomatic. Thus, we report a rare presentation of thelaziasis, that is, periocular involvement. This case presentation is first of its kind in the Indian literature.

14.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Feb; 66(2): 317-319
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-196614

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of spontaneous hyphema associated with anterior uveitis presents in a 69-year old female as the prominent sign of the intraocular spread of systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). She had a history of diabetes and initially misdiagnosed as neovascular glaucoma. Clinical history of systemic lymphoma, characteristic findings on B-scan ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging scan, and identification of atypical lymphoid cells in aqueous sample established the diagnosis of intraocular metastasis of systemic DLBCL. Therefore, this report highlights that life-threatening malignant systemic lymphoma may masquerade as anterior segment ocular inflammation or neovascular glaucoma.

15.
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195450

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Ocular and adnexal tumours are important causes of morbidity in India and globally. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a vital molecular pathology tool, which helps to diagnose a tumour with more accuracy. The present study was undertaken to document the profile of ocular and adnexal tumour with IHC at a tertiary eye care center in Northeast India. Methods: This was a prospective and laboratory-based study. Histopathological and IHC study of the ocular and adnexal tumour was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Selection of pathological cases was made on the result of the histological diagnosis. All samples were subjected to IHC using kits for different antibodies as per indications. Results: In total, 645 tumours were included in our study, with 449 benign conditions and 196 were malignant tumours. Total IHCs were done in 87 tumours and 238 of antibodies were used. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-cell, low-to-intermediate type and mucosal-associated lymphoid tumours) were the most common tumor. Interpretation & conclusions: Clinical utility of the IHCs in different ophthalmic tumours can enable pathologists to make an accurate diagnosis and thus help in the overall management of the patient care. IHC may be carried out using various methods and some of the methods practiced are time consuming and tedious. In this study, kit methods were used which were found to be simpler and less time-consuming.

16.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Feb ; 33 (5_Suppl):s53-58
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157044

ABSTRACT

Purpose: For antibiotic susceptibility results, conventional culture and sensitivity methods takes 48 hours after a blood culture is fl agged positive by automated systems. Early initiation of targeted antibiotic therapy is essential for effective management of sepsis to reduce morbidity, mortality, cost of treatment and prevent antibiotic resistance. Objective of this study was to evaluate Direct Sensitivity Test (DST) as a potential tool to get reliable antibiotic susceptibility results 24 hours earlier. Materials and Methods: Blood cultures fl agged positive between May 2011 to December 2012 by BacT/ALERT were Gram stained. All uni-microbial gram-negative blood cultures were simultaneously cultured and processed for DST from broth using disk diffusion method using British Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) guidelines. DST results available next day were compared with conventional antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) performed by Vitek-2 on isolated colonies. Results of DST (test method) and AST (reference method) were compared for agreements or errors. Results: Of the 840 antibiotic gram-negative organism combinations tested, Categorical and essential agreements were 83.7% and 96.2% respectively. Minor, major and very major errors were 12.5%, 3.33% and 0.47%, respectively. Conclusions: DST using disk diffusion from positive blood culture broths helps to initiate early targeted antibiotic therapy. There is high concordance between DST and AST.

17.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2015 Jan-Mar ; 33 (1): 92-95
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156996

ABSTRACT

Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to fi nd the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. Materials and Methods: At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram’s stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identifi cation of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud’s dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA) medium. Results: Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82%) women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54%) women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33%) with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59%) and non albicans Candida (37.28%) in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08%) showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66%) strains showed higher Pz value of < 0.70 (++++). Conclusion: Although there may be typical clinical presentation of Candidiasis. all the patients did not show laboratory evidence of infection. Pregnancy was found to be major risk factor for development of VVC. C. albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

18.
Indian J Cancer ; 2014 Oct-Dec; 51(4): 620-621
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-172671
19.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2014 Jul-Sept ; 32 (3): 331-332
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-156931

ABSTRACT

Accurate etiological diagnosis is the key to prevention of ocular morbidity in endophthalmitis cases. A 66 year old male was suffering from chronic endophthalmitis post-cataract surgery. Polymerase chain reaction examination on anterior chamber fluid was positive for Propionibacterium acnes but negative for the panfungal genome. He was advised vitrectomy with intravitreal injections. Polymerase chain reaction of vitreous aspirate was positive for P.acnes as well as panfungal genome. The vitreous sample also grew yeast in culture which was identified as Candida pseudotropicalis. Patient was treated on an alternate day regimen of intravitreal Vancomycin and Amphotericin B in the post-operative period. There was improvement in vision at final follow up. Chronic endophthalmitis can have polymicrobial etiology which will require appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The role of molecular testing is vital in these cases as growth in culture is often negative.

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