Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 83
Filter
1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(5): 943-956, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286797

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis is a rare disease in developed countries but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A crucial prognostic factor is the presence of inguinal lymph node metastases (ILNM) at the time of diagnosis. At least 25% of cases have micrometastases at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, we performed a literature review of studies evaluating factors, both clinical and pathological, predictive of lymph node metastases in penile SCC. Materials and methods: Studies were identified using PubMed and search terms included the following: penile cancer, penile tumor, penile neoplasm, penile squamous cell carcinoma, inguinal lymph node metastasis, lymph node metastases, nodal metastasis, inguinal node metastasis, inguinal lymph node involvement, predictors, and predictive factor. The number of patients and predictive factors were identified for each study based on OR, HR, or RR in multivariate analyses, as well as their respective significance values. These were compiled to generate a single body of evidence supportive of factors predictive of ILNM in penile SCC. Results: We identified 31 studies, both original articles and meta-analyses, which identified factors predictive of metastases in penile SCC. The following clinical factors were predictive of ILNM in penile SCC: lymphovascular invasion (LVI), increased grade, increased stage (both clinical and pathological), infiltrative and reticular invasion, increased depth of invasion, perineural invasion, and younger patient age at diagnosis. Biochemically, overexpression of p53, SOD2, Ki-67, and ID1 were associated with spread of SCC to inguinal lymph nodes. Diffuse PD-L1 expression, increased SCC-Ag expression, increased NLR, and CRP >20 were also associated with increased ILNM. Conclusions: A multitude of factors are associated with metastasis of SCC of the penis to inguinal lymph nodes, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The above factors, most strongly LVI, grade, and node positivity, may be considered when constructing a nomogram to risk-stratify patients and determine eligibility for prophylactic inguinal lymphadenectomy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Penile Neoplasms/surgery , Prognosis , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Lymphatic Metastasis
2.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 107-112, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874471

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To determine if patients with a positive intraoperative cholangiogram (IOC) who undergo a subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) have an increased risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) compared to those who undergo ERCP directly for suspected common bile duct stones. @*Methods@#A retrospective case-control study was performed from 2010 to 2016. Cases included inpatients with a positive IOC at cholecystectomy who underwent subsequent ERCP. The control group included age-sex matched cohorts who underwent ERCP for choledocholithiasis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between PEP and positive IOC, adjusting for matching variables and additional potential confounders. @*Results@#Of the 116 patients that met the inclusion criteria, there were 91 women (78%) in each group. Nine patients (7.8%) developed PEP in the IOC group, compared to 3 patients in the control group (2.6%). The use of pancreatic duct stents and rectal indomethacin was similar in both groups. After adjusting for age, sex, total bilirubin levels, and any stent placement, patients with a positive IOC had a significantly increased risk of PEP (odds ratio, 4.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–21.89; p<0.05). @*Conclusions@#In this single-center case-control study, there was a five-fold increased risk of PEP following a positive IOC compared to an age-sex matched cohort.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 3740-3755, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922437

ABSTRACT

Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, which is safe at therapeutic doses but can cause severe liver injury and even liver failure after overdoses. The mouse model of APAP hepatotoxicity recapitulates closely the human pathophysiology. As a result, this clinically relevant model is frequently used to study mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury and even more so to test potential therapeutic interventions. However, the complexity of the model requires a thorough understanding of the pathophysiology to obtain valid results and mechanistic information that is translatable to the clinic. However, many studies using this model are flawed, which jeopardizes the scientific and clinical relevance. The purpose of this review is to provide a framework of the model where mechanistically sound and clinically relevant data can be obtained. The discussion provides insight into the injury mechanisms and how to study it including the critical roles of drug metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, necrotic cell death, autophagy and the sterile inflammatory response. In addition, the most frequently made mistakes when using this model are discussed. Thus, considering these recommendations when studying APAP hepatotoxicity will facilitate the discovery of more clinically relevant interventions.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893864

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Combined medial tibiofemoral and symptomatic patellofemoral osteoarthritis is not amenable to unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). Total knee replacement (TKR) is an invasive option in younger adults with high functional demands. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients who have undergone UKR, bicompartmental knee replacement (BKR) and TKR up to 2 years post-operatively. @*Materials and methods@#This prospective study comprised 133 subjects including 30 patients in the medial UKR group, 53 patients in the BKR group (combined medial UKR with patellofemoral joint replacement) and 50 patients in the TKR group. All subjects were evaluated using the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Patients in each group were assessed using both scoring systems pre-operatively and 6 months, 1 year and 2 years post-operatively. @*Results@#Significant improvement of OKS was found at 6 months compared to baseline for UKR (22.7 to 38.1, p = 0.046), BKR (22.6 to 36.8, p < 0.001) and TKR (16.6 to 34.5, p< 0.001). Significant improvement was also found for the WOMAC sub-scores for all three groups during this time period. After 6 months, there was no further statistically significant improvement in either outcome score in any of the groups up to the 2-year follow-up results. There was no significant difference in either outcome score post-operatively between the three groups. @*Conclusion@#The magnitude of clinical improvement following knee replacement is greatest at 6 months; thereafter, only modest improvements continue to occur. This study also found no significant differences of outcomes at 2 years after surgery among UKR, BKR and TKR. BKR is a good alternative option for combined symptomatic medial and patellofemoral arthritis of the knee.

6.
Journal of Stroke ; : 377-386, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834676

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Speedy decision-making is important for optimal outcomes from endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Figural decision aids facilitate rapid review of treatment benefits and harms, but have not yet been developed for late-presenting patients selected for EVT based on multimodal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. @*Methods@#For combined pooled study-level randomized trial (DAWN and DEFUSE 3) data, as well as each trial singly, 100 person-icon arrays (Kuiper-Marshall personographs) were generated showing beneficial and adverse effects of EVT for patients with AIS and large vessel occlusion using automated (algorithmic) and expert-guided joint outcome table specification. @*Results@#Among imaging-selected patients 6 to 24 hours from last known well, for the full 7-category modified Rankin Scale (mRS), EVT had number needed to treat to benefit 1.9 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.9 to 2.1) and number needed to harm 40.0 (IQR, 29.2 to 58.3). Visual displays of treatment effects among 100 patients showed that, with EVT: 52 patients have better disability outcome, including 32 more achieving functional independence (mRS 0 to 2); three patients have worse disability outcome, including one more experiencing severe disability or death (mRS 5 to 6), mediated by symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and infarct in new territory. Similar features were present in person-icon figures based on a 6-level mRS (levels 5 and 6 combined) rather than 7-level mRS, and based on the DAWN trial alone and DEFUSE 3 trial alone. @*Conclusions@#Personograph visual decision aids are now available to rapidly educate patients, family, and healthcare providers regarding benefits and risks of EVT for late-presenting, imaging-selected AIS patients.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901568

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Combined medial tibiofemoral and symptomatic patellofemoral osteoarthritis is not amenable to unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR). Total knee replacement (TKR) is an invasive option in younger adults with high functional demands. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients who have undergone UKR, bicompartmental knee replacement (BKR) and TKR up to 2 years post-operatively. @*Materials and methods@#This prospective study comprised 133 subjects including 30 patients in the medial UKR group, 53 patients in the BKR group (combined medial UKR with patellofemoral joint replacement) and 50 patients in the TKR group. All subjects were evaluated using the Oxford Knee Score (OKS) and the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Patients in each group were assessed using both scoring systems pre-operatively and 6 months, 1 year and 2 years post-operatively. @*Results@#Significant improvement of OKS was found at 6 months compared to baseline for UKR (22.7 to 38.1, p = 0.046), BKR (22.6 to 36.8, p < 0.001) and TKR (16.6 to 34.5, p< 0.001). Significant improvement was also found for the WOMAC sub-scores for all three groups during this time period. After 6 months, there was no further statistically significant improvement in either outcome score in any of the groups up to the 2-year follow-up results. There was no significant difference in either outcome score post-operatively between the three groups. @*Conclusion@#The magnitude of clinical improvement following knee replacement is greatest at 6 months; thereafter, only modest improvements continue to occur. This study also found no significant differences of outcomes at 2 years after surgery among UKR, BKR and TKR. BKR is a good alternative option for combined symptomatic medial and patellofemoral arthritis of the knee.

8.
Rev. ecuat. neurol ; 28(3): 25-32, sep.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058470

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Las secuencias de difusión en resonancia magnética, incluido el coeficiente de difusión aparente (ADC), representan una herramienta fundamental para el radiólogo en el diagnóstico clínico. Sin embargo, no existe estandarización para las medidas entre los límites normales o un rango de valores normales del ADC. Objetivo: Determinar valores normales del ADC en el tejido encefálico para la población clínica y radiológicamente sana. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal sobre datos retrospectivos, se midieron valores del ADC para 21 regiones encefálicas (sustancia gris frontal, parietal y temporal, sustancia blanca frontal y parietal, núcleo caudado, putamen, tálamo, cápsula interna, hemisferios cerebelosos bilateralmente y puente del tallo cerebral) en 90 sujetos clínica y radiológicamente sanos, en dos clínicas privadas de Bogotá. Resultados: Valores normales del ADC, en población clínica y radiológicamente sana, en 21 territorios encefálicos, análisis comparativo de los resultados según el sexo y edad de los pacientes, y correlación entre las mediciones realizadas por dos investigadores. Conclusiones: Los hallazgos sirven como referencia para la población colombiana y latinoamericana normal, establecen un punto de comparación para la evaluación de patologías intracraneanas, y abre la posibilidad a desarrollar nuevos proyectos de investigación que busquen determinar valores de ADC en población enferma.


Abstract Introduction: The diffusion sequences in magnetic resonance, including the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), represent a fundamental tool for the radiologist in the clinical diagnosis. However, there is no standardization for measurements between normal limits or a range of normal ADC values. Objective: To determine normal ADC values ​​in the brain tissue for the clinical and radiologically healthy population. Methods: Cross-sectional study on retrospective data, ADC values ​​were measured for 21 encephalic regions (frontal gray, parietal and temporal substance, frontal and parietal white matter, caudate nucleus, putamen, thalamus, internal capsule, cerebellar hemispheres bilaterally and bridge of the brainstem) in 90 clinically and radiologically healthy subjects, in two private clinics in Bogotá. Results: Normal ADC values, in a clinical and radiologically healthy population, in 21 encephalic territories, comparative analysis of the results according to the sex and age of the patients, and correlation between the measurements made by two researchers. Conclusions: The findings serve as a reference for the Colombian and normal Latin American population, establish a point of comparison for the evaluation of intracranial pathologies, and open the possibility to develop new research projects that seek to determine ADC values ​​in sick population.

9.
Indian J Med Ethics ; 2019 JUL; 4(3): 183-193
Article | IMSEAR | ID: sea-195213

ABSTRACT

This paper provides a review of Purdue Pharma, LP’s development and marketing of the long-acting oral narcotic OxyContin®. Within five years of the drug’s launch, OxyContin® became the number-one prescribed Schedule II narcotic in the United States. This commercial success was in part the result of a marketing campaign that promoted questionably “distinctive” benefits and minimised the very real dangers of OxyContin®, which include abuse, addiction, overdose, and death. The marketing was based on scientifically invalid or unproven claims of safety and efficacy, inappropriate, off-label marketing, and inadequate warnings. When the FDA belatedly asked for changes to some of the marketing language, Purdue exploited these changes to further marketing objectives and misled healthcare practitioners. This case highlights questions of industry and governmental/regulatory accountability and responsibility for the production, marketing and sale of pharmaceutical products that increase risk while driving enhanced profits

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917437

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Enhanced recovery protocols (ERP) provide optimal perioperative care for surgical patients. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is common after colorectal surgery (CRS). We aim to compare the efficacy of aprepitant to a cost-effective alternative, perphenazine, as components of triple antiemetic prophylaxis in ERP patients.@*METHODS@#Patients who underwent ERP CRS at a single institution from July 2015 to July 2017 were evaluated retrospectively. Only subjects who received aprepitant (Group 1) or perphenazine (Group 2) preoperatively for PONV prophylaxis were included. Patient characteristics, simplified Apfel PONV scores, perioperative medications, and PONV incidence were compared between the groups. PONV was defined as the need for rescue antiemetics on postoperative days (POD) 0–5.@*RESULTS@#Five hundred ninety-seven patients underwent CRS of which 498 met the inclusion criteria. Two hundred thirty-one (46.4%) received aprepitant and 267 (53.6%) received perphenazine. The incidence of early PONV (POD 0–1) was comparable between the two groups: 44.2% in Group 1 and 44.6% in Group 2 (P = 0.926). Late PONV (POD 2–5) occurred less often in Group 1 than Group 2, respectively (35.9% vs. 45.7%, P = 0.027). After matching the groups for preoperative, procedural, and anesthesia characteristics (164 pairs), no difference in early or late PONV could be demonstrated between the groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The incidence of PONV remains high despite most patients receiving three prophylactic antiemetic medications. Perphenazine can be considered a cost-effective alternative to oral aprepitant for prophylaxis of PONV in patients undergoing CRS within an ERP.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery protocols (ERP) provide optimal perioperative care for surgical patients. Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is common after colorectal surgery (CRS). We aim to compare the efficacy of aprepitant to a cost-effective alternative, perphenazine, as components of triple antiemetic prophylaxis in ERP patients. METHODS: Patients who underwent ERP CRS at a single institution from July 2015 to July 2017 were evaluated retrospectively. Only subjects who received aprepitant (Group 1) or perphenazine (Group 2) preoperatively for PONV prophylaxis were included. Patient characteristics, simplified Apfel PONV scores, perioperative medications, and PONV incidence were compared between the groups. PONV was defined as the need for rescue antiemetics on postoperative days (POD) 0–5. RESULTS: Five hundred ninety-seven patients underwent CRS of which 498 met the inclusion criteria. Two hundred thirty-one (46.4%) received aprepitant and 267 (53.6%) received perphenazine. The incidence of early PONV (POD 0–1) was comparable between the two groups: 44.2% in Group 1 and 44.6% in Group 2 (P = 0.926). Late PONV (POD 2–5) occurred less often in Group 1 than Group 2, respectively (35.9% vs. 45.7%, P = 0.027). After matching the groups for preoperative, procedural, and anesthesia characteristics (164 pairs), no difference in early or late PONV could be demonstrated between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of PONV remains high despite most patients receiving three prophylactic antiemetic medications. Perphenazine can be considered a cost-effective alternative to oral aprepitant for prophylaxis of PONV in patients undergoing CRS within an ERP.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Antiemetics , Colectomy , Colorectal Surgery , Humans , Incidence , Perioperative Care , Perphenazine , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting , Retrospective Studies
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(6): 1077-1084, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955446

ABSTRACT

The histological and molecular analysis of biopsy samples are fundamental steps for the understanding of physiopathology, diagnosis and prognosis of the diseases. However, harvest of tissue biopsies from hoof lamellar tissue is a procedure with limitations due to lack of effective surgical instruments and techniques. The aim of the current study is to develop and test in vivo a surgical instrument with the specific purpose of harvesting lamellar tissue in cattle. A prototype called Falcão-Faleiros' lamellotome (INPIBR102013018765-8) was designed, produced and tested. After sedation, five adult cattle were restrained in lateral recumbency and locally anesthetized in two digits. The stratum corneum was worn down using a rotary tool coupled to a 3/8" high-speed cutter until the soft tissue proximity was reached. Next, the inner edge of the worn area was bounded with a scalpel. The lamellotome was introduced to obtain and hold the sample. The histological specimens of 16mm length by 6mm depth were stained with HE, PAS, Masson's thricome and Shorr. The structures of interest were differentiated in the histological analysis without technical artifacts and a mean number of 85 epidermal laminae per sample were counted. No relevant lameness or wound complication were seen following the procedure. In conclusion the technique using the lamellotme was effective in obtaining lamellar tissue biopsy samples without causing clinical harm in cattle. The procedure showed potential to be used in clinical research or even as a supplementary diagnosis method for routine bovine podiatry.(AU)


A avaliação das propriedades histológicas e da expressão de genes e proteínas em biópsias tem sido determinante para o entendimento da fisiopatologia, o diagnóstico e o prognóstico das enfermidades. Entretanto, a obtenção de biópsias do casco é um procedimento com limitações devido à ausência de técnicas e instrumentos específicos. O objetivo foi desenvolver e testar, na espécie bovina, um instrumento cirúrgico especificamente desenvolvido para realização de biópsias de casco nominado lamelótomo de Falcão-Faleiros (INPI, BR102013018765-8). Utilizaram-se cinco bovinos adultos que foram sedados, contidos em decúbito lateral e tiveram dois dígitos anestesiados. Em seguida, uma serra circular acoplada a uma microretífica foi usada para o desgaste do estrato córneo na parede dorsal até próximo do estrato lamelar. Após incisões retilíneas delimitando a borda interna da área desgastada, utilizou-se o lamelótomo para obtenção da amostra. Os fragmentos de 16mm de comprimento e 6mm de profundidade foram fixados em formalina e processados para histologia com colorações HE, PAS, Shorr e tricrômico de Masson. Nenhum dos animais apresentou claudicação ou complicação relevantes no período pós-opertório. As amostras foram consideradas adequadas quanto à integridade das lâminas e à preservação de sua arquitetura. Obtiveram-se média de 85 lâminas epidérmicas viáveis por biópsia. Conclui-se que o lamelótomo de Falcão-Faleiros é apropriado e seguro para a obtenção de biópsias de casco em bovinos, se mostrando promissor para uso em estudos clínicos e na rotina de diagnóstico de problemas podais em bovinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Cattle/surgery , Feasibility Studies , Hoof and Claw/abnormalities , Surgical Instruments/statistics & numerical data
13.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(4): 3083-3092, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886857

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Coffee is one of the most important Brazilian agricultural commodities exported, and Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States are the main coffee producers. Scale insects are important coffee pests, and 73 species of Cerococcidae (3), Coccidae (18), Diaspididae (6), Eriococcidae (1), Ortheziidae (3), Pseudococcidae (21), Putoidae (2) and Rhizoecidae (19) have been associated with roots, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of Arabica coffee in the Neotropics. Eight species were found associated with Arabica coffee in Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States in this study, and Coccidae was the most frequent family. Coccus alpinus, Cc. celatus, Cc. lizeri, Cc. viridis, and Saissetia coffeae (Coccidae) were found in both states; Alecanochiton marquesi, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Diaspididae), and Dysmicoccus texensis (Pseudococcidae) were only found in Minas Gerais. Alecanochiton marquesi and P. trilobitiformis are first reported in Minas Gerais, and Cc. alpinus in Espírito Santo, on Arabica coffee. All scale insect species were associated with coffee leaves and branches, except D. texensis, associated with coffee roots. Fourty seven scale insect species have been found occurring in Brazilian Arabica coffee, and in Espírito Santo (28) and Minas Gerais (23). Widespread and geographical distribution of each species found are discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coffee/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Tropical Climate , Brazil , Animal Distribution , Plant Dispersal , Hemiptera/classification
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The outcome for older stroke patients who undergo endovascular revascularization remains unsatisfactory. We aimed to determine the effect of the extent of baseline ischemia on outcome according to age, testing the hypothesis that the restorative capacity for recovery is only marginal in older patients. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen patients who underwent endovascular revascularization due to occlusion in the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery (with or without internal carotid artery occlusions) were selected for analysis. Patients were categorized into three age groups: group A (75 years). Using pretreatment diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) and lesion volume were independently measured and analyzed in relation to a favorable outcome. RESULTS: A favorable outcome was achieved in 111 of 213 patients overall: in 60 of the 94 (63.8%) patients in group A, in 36 of the 70 (51.4%) patients in group B, and in 15 of the 49 (30.6%) patients in group C (p=0.001). In older stroke patients (group C), a DWI ASPECTS ≥9 and lesion volume ≤5 mL were found to predict a favorable outcome, which was more restrictive than the cutoffs for their younger counterparts (groups A and B; DWI ASPECTS ≥8 and lesion volume ≤20 mL). CONCLUSIONS: The age-adjusted pretreatment DWI lesion volume and ASPECTS may represent useful surrogate markers for functional outcome according to age. The use of more-restrictive inclusion criteria for older stroke patients could be warranted, although larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Aging , Alberta , Biomarkers , Carotid Artery, Internal , Diffusion , Humans , Ischemia , Middle Cerebral Artery , Reperfusion , Stroke
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Only a few studies have investigated the relationship between different subtypes and disease progression or prognosis in patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Since a localized injury often produces more focal signs than a diffuse injury, we hypothesized that the clinical characteristics differ between patients with bvFTD who show diffuse frontal lobe atrophy (D-type) on axial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans versus those with focal or circumscribed frontal lobe atrophy (F-type). METHODS: In total, 94 MRI scans (74 scans from bvFTD and 20 scans from age-matched normal controls) were classified into 35 D- and 39 F-type bvFTD cases based on an axial MRI visual rating scale. We compared baseline clinical characteristics, progression in motor and cognitive symptoms, and survival times between D- and F-types. Survival analyses were performed for 62 of the 74 patients. RESULTS: While D-type performed better on neuropsychological tests than F-type at baseline, D-type had higher baseline scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III. Evaluations of motor progression showed that the disease duration with motor symptoms was shorter in D-type than F-type. Moreover, the survival time was shorter in D-type (6.9 years) than F-type (9.4 years). Cox regression analyses revealed that a high UPDRS Part III score at baseline contributed to an increased risk of mortality, regardless of the pattern of atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis is worse for D-type than for those with F-type. Shorter survival in D-type may be associated with the earlier appearance of motor symptoms.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Disease Progression , Frontal Lobe , Frontotemporal Dementia , Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mortality , Neurobehavioral Manifestations , Neuropsychological Tests , Parkinson Disease , Prognosis
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42080

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is present in up to 84% of patients presenting with acute stroke, and a smaller proportion of patients have blood pressures that are below typical values in the context of cerebral ischemia. Outcomes are generally worse in those who present with either low or severely elevated blood pressure. Several studies have provided valuable information about malignant trends in blood pressure during the transition from the acute to the subacute phase of stroke. It is not uncommon for practitioners in clinical practice to identify what appear to be pressure-dependent neurologic deficits. Despite physiologic and clinical data suggesting the importance of blood pressure modulation to support cerebral blood flow to ischemic tissue, randomized controlled trials have not yielded robust evidence for this in acute ischemic stroke. We highlight previous studies involving acute-stroke patients that have defined trends in blood pressure and that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of blood-pressure modulation in acute ischemic stroke. This overview reports the current status of this topic from the perspective of a stroke neurologist and provides a framework for future research.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Brain Ischemia , Humans , Hypertension , Hypotension , Neurologic Manifestations , Stroke
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Constrictive pericarditis is an uncommon condition that could be easily confused with congestive heart failure. In symptomatic patients, septal "wobble" on echocardiography may be an important sign of constrictive physiology. This study was planned to investigate the effects of constriction on septal motion as identified by echocardiography. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, nine consecutive patients with constriction underwent careful echocardiographic analysis of the interventricular septum (IVS) with slow motion 2-dimensional echocardiography and inspiratory manoeuvres. Six patients who had undergone cardiac magnetic resonance imaging underwent similar analysis. Findings were correlated with haemodynamic data in five patients who had undergone cardiac catheterisation studies. RESULTS: In mild cases of constriction a single wobble of the IVS was seen during normal respiration. In more moderate cases a double motion of the septum (termed "double wobble") was seen where the septum bowed initially into the left ventricle (LV) cavity in diastole then relaxed to the middle only to deviate again into the LV cavity late in diastole after atrial contraction. In severe cases, the septum bowed into the LV cavity for the full duration of diastole (pan-diastolic motion). We describe how inspiration also helped to characterize the severity of constriction especially in mild to moderate cases. CONCLUSION: Echocardiography appears a simple tool to help diagnose constriction and grade its severity. Larger studies are needed to confirm whether the type of wobble motions helps to grade the severity of constrictive pericarditis.


Subject(s)
Classification , Constriction , Diastole , Echocardiography , Heart Failure , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Observational Study , Pericarditis, Constrictive , Physiology , Respiration , Retrospective Studies
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL