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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910888

ABSTRACT

Na?ve CD4 + T cells differentiate into a variety of T helper (Th) subsets that secrete various cytokines to exert biological effects. Th22 cells, a novel identified CD4 + T cell subset, are distinct from Th1, Th2 and Th17 cell subsets. Th22 cells express chemokine receptors CCR4, CCR6 and CCR10, and secrete multiple cytokines such as IL-22, IL-13 and TNF-α, but not IL-17, IL-4 IFN-γ; and IL-22 is considered as major effector cytokine of Th22. The understanding on functions and differentiation mechanisms of Th22 cells have been constantly improved, and Th22 cells play important roles in human common viral infections. The article reviews the current advances about the characteristics, function, differentiation of Th22 cells, the roles of Th22 cells and the key molecules in several human common viral infections, which would provide novel immune strategies for the prevention and treatment of human viral infection.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884831

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by 2019-nCoV, which has become a major global public health event and a serious threat to human health. So far, specific antiviral drugs, safe and effective vaccines for 2019-nCoV are still under development, so there is an urgent need to find alternative strategies for the treatment of COVID-19. Convalescent plasma(CP) contains high titer neutralizing antibodies from patients recovering from infectious diseases, which has been used in the treatment of major infectious diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and achieved satisfactory clinical results. Therefore, CP from COVID-19 patient is a meaningful choice for the treatment of severe or life-threatening COVID-19 patients, but its potential risks need to be studied. This review focuses on the clinical mechanism, collection points, clinical application and potential benefits and risks of clinical treatment of CP from COVID-19 patients, which will provide reference for the clinical application of CP from COVID-19 patients.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922564

ABSTRACT

Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a clinically effective therapy in anemia, for example in patients with malignancies (Shander et al., 2020), bleeding (Odutayo et al., 2017), and preoperative anemia (Padmanabhan et al., 2019). The past few decades have witnessed a shortage of blood for transfusion due to limited health insurance coverage for blood use and the rapid expansion of hospitals (Chen et al., 2011; Shi et al., 2014). Blood donation levels may easily be affected by general changes in the environment, policy, major events such as disasters, and public sentiment (Hu et al., 2019). Meanwhile, the transfusion of allogeneic RBC is a double-edged sword, increasing the possibility of infectious and immunological complications, and also leading to higher morbidity and mortality after transfusion (Frank et al., 2012). Considering that the continual shortfall has been increasingly prominent, identifying the factors associated with RBC transfusion could help blood transfusion departments to improve their supply of blood products as well as their inventory management (O'Donnell et al., 2018).

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-869309

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyse the genetic characteristics of VP1 region and genotypes of enterovirus 71 (EV71) associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in the mainland of China.Methods:The VP1 gene sequences of 3 102 isolates of EV71 from the mainland of China(excluding repetitive sequences)and 30 known EV71 genotypes as reference strains between 1996 and 2018 were obtained from GenBank. Phylogenetic tree, amino acid homology, genetic variation and genotype analyses of the EV71-VP1 protein were performed with MEGA 6.0 software.Results:The amino acid identity was 88.33%-100.00% among the 3 102 EV71 strains, if included reference strains it was 87.34%-100.00%. The amino acid identity was 93.47%-100.00%, compared with vaccine strain H07, and 93.04%-100.00% compared with vaccine strains FY7VP5 or FY-23K-B. Since 2000, the prevalent strains of EV71 were mainly of the C4 genotype; while during 2005 to 2018 the C4a subgenotype was predominant, followed by the C4b, other subgenotypes appeared sporadically. Some amino acid variations in VP1 of EV71 occurred with high frequencies, including A293S (16.75%), S283T (15.73%), A289T (12.44%), E98K (7.22%), H22Q (6.66%), N31D (4.50%) and V249I (4.40%).Conclusion:The C4 genotype of EV71 in China’s mainland matches the vaccine and should effectively control EV71 infection. Genetic characteristics of the EV71-VP1 region should be continuously monitored, which is critical for epidemic control and vaccine design to prevent EV71-HFMD in children.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821924

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the expression levels and clinical significance of serum miRNAs, including miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p and miR-124a-3p, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). @*Methods@#The clinical data, whole blood and serum samples from 39 RA patients hospitalized in our hospital during October 2016 and October 2018 were collected. Whole blood specimens were used to determine erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and serum samples were used to detect rheumatoid factor (RF), C-reaction protein (CRP) and miRNAs. The expression levels of serum miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p and miR-124a-3p in RA patients were detected by SYBR Green real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. @*Results@#The expression levels of serum miR-146a-5p (1.742±1.058) in RA patients before treatment were significantly higher than that in healthy controls (HC, 1.045±0.772), which were positively correlated with DAS28 scores (r=0.836 5,P=0.004 5), ESR (r=0.437 2, P=0.032 5) and RF levels (r=0.733 6,P=0.013 7). However, the expression levels of serum miR-155-5p (U=42.00,P=0.032 9) and miR-124a-3p (U=44.5,P=0.044 5) in RA patients were significantly lower than that in HC, and the expression levels of serum miR-155-5p were negatively correlated with RF levels (r=-0.445 3,P=0.031 6), and the expression levels of serum miR-124a-3p were negatively correlated with DAS28 scores (r=-0.538 7,P=0.025 8) and RF levels (r=-0.436 5,P=0.046 3). After treatment, the expression levels of serum miR-146a-5p (U= 60.00,P=0.003 8) in RA patients were significantly decreased, while the expression levels of serum miR-155-5p (U=64.00,P=0.005 9) and miR-124a-3p (U=85.00,P=0.042 2) were significantly increased. @*Conclusion@#The abnormal expression levels of serum miR-146a-5p, miR-155-5p and miR-124a-3p in RA patients have potential clinical significance for the diagnosis of RA.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-694838

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus isolated from the patients with acute gastroenteritis in Zhejiang province during 2016.Methods The stool samples and clinical data of 1 308 patients with acute gastroenteritis were collected from January to December in 2016.The type Ⅰ and Ⅱ of norovirus in stool samples were detected by one-step double real-time RT-PCR.Some of the positive specimens were selected by stratified sampling and amplified by conventional RT-PCR,and the PCR products were sequenced for genotype identification and phylogenetic analysis.Results Among the samples studied the positive rate of norovirus was 10.55% (138/1 308) in which 12 cases were GⅠ genotype,118 cases were G Ⅱ genotype and 8 cases were mixed infection of G Ⅰ/G Ⅱ genotypes.The positive rate of norovirus in different age groups decreased with the increased age of patients,and became the lowest in the patient group of more than or equal to 60 years old.There was no significant difference for the positive rates of norovirus in different genders.Norovirus infection was distributed throughout all the year with the peak value of positive rate (37.50%) in December.The sequence analysis demonstrated that G Ⅱ.4 and G Ⅱ.17 genotypes were the prevalent strains of G Ⅱ genotypes with proportions of 40.91% (18/44) and 34.09% (15/44),while GⅠ.6 genotype was the prevalent strain of GⅠ genotypes.Conclusion Norovirus should be the important pathogen causing acute gastroenteritis in Zhejiang province during 2016.G Ⅱ.4 and G Ⅱ.17 of norovirus may be the predominant epidemic genotypes.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-514547

ABSTRACT

Human avian-origin influenza A (H7N9)virus is a novel subtype of avian influenza A virus,which firstly emerged at the end of March 2013 in Shanghai and Anhui province.It rapidly spread in China within a short time,causing high morbidity and mortality,arousing fear and panic in public,and attracting extensive attention worldwide.The analysis of human H7N9 avian influenza virus gene shows a high affinity for α-2,6-linked sialic acid receptors expressed on human respiratory epithelial cells.At present,the sporadic cases of human H7N9 avian influenza virusare occasionally reported with an epidemic peaksat winter and spring.This article reviews clinical features,epidemiology and genetic characteristics of H7N9 avian influenza virus,proving scientific evidences foreffective prevention and control of H7N9 virus infection.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-498549

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the molecular characteristics of human pathogenic avian influenza A H7N9 virus.Methods The gene sequences of avian influenza A H7N9 virus (30 human-originated and 15 avian-originated) isolated in Zhejiang province from 2013 to 2015 were downloaded from Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data ( GISAID), and then the evolution characteristics, the sites related to receptor binding, virulence and drug resistance of H7N9 virus were analyzed by MEGA 6.0 software. Results There were minor differences in HA and NA genes between human H7N9 virus strains and poultry reference strains in Zhejiang province with the homology of 98.0%-100.0% and 97.4%-100.0%, respectively.Viral amino acid variation showed that 30 representative strains had mutations at 226 (Q226L/I) and 186(G186V) sites in HA protein, and all strains isolated from 2015 had A134V mutation;one strain had R294K mutation in NA gene;19 strains had E627K mutation in PB2 and 2 strains had D701N mutation;mutation S31N was found in M2 gene in all isolates; and all HA cleavage sites were PEIPKGR↓GLF, indicating low pathogenic strain.Conclusions The homology of HA and NA genes is high between poultry reference strains and human H7N9 virus strains in Zhejiang province during 2013 and 2015.Strains have some significant mutations of amino acid in HA and NA protein.All isolates show ion channel inhibitors ( Amantadine) resistance, and some isolates show resistance mutations with neuraminidase inhibitors.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-439062

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the distribution and clinical characteristics of gastrointestinal virus infection in infants with acute diarrhea.Methods Stool samples and clinical data were collected from 900 infants (≤5 years old) with acute diarrhea in outpatient department of Beilun District People' s Hospital during July 2012 and July 2013.Specimens were tested for 5 gastrointestinal virus including group A/B/C rotavirus (RV),adenovirus (AdV),astrovirus (AstV),sapovirus (SV) and norovirus (NV) by the multiplex PCR assay.Chi-square test was performed to compare the positive rates of virus infection among children with different genders and ages.Results Among 900 stool samples,369 were positive of gastrointestinal virus,of which 291 were positive for single virus and 78 for mixed virus.In single virus infection,NV was detected with the highest positive rate of 19.4% (4.9% for G Ⅰ and 14.6% for G Ⅱ),followed by RV-A (8.2%),SV (2.9%),AstV (1.0%) and AdV (0.8%).RV-B and C type were not found.In 78 cases with mixed infections,RV-A plus NV infection was the most common one with a prevalent rate of 5.8%.The positive rate in age group ≤2 years old was 51.0%,which was significantly higher than that of age group > 2-5 years old (22.1%,x2 =70.404,P < 0.01).In 369 children with positive gastrointestinal virus,fever was present in 24.1%,and vomit in 35.2% of children.Fever,vomit and fever plus vomit was more common symptoms in children with mixed infections (x2 =17.878,21.869 and 14.155,P < 0.01).Conclusion NV and RV-A are the most common pathogens in infants with acute diarrhea in Beilun district,especially in children younger than 2 years old.

12.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 586-588, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-426843

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical effects of transurenthral resection of muscleinvasive bladder tumor (TURBT) in senile. Methods This study was clinical prospective random research.46 senile cases with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated by TURBT was divided into 2 groups:control group and observed group.The observed group was treated with TURBT combined with intravesical instillation of pirarubi 30 mg immediately after TURBT,the bladder wall around tumor was resected thoroughly.The control group underwent radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Results The clinical improvement rate was higher in observed group than control group (85.7% s.63.6%,X2 =5.3008,P=0.021).There was not difference in 3 years recurrence rate between observed group(25.0%) and control group(13.6%) (x2 =S.3008,P>0.05).The 1 year survival rate were 95.8%,90.9% and 3 years survival rate were 79.2%,72.7% in observed group and control group,respectively,and there were no differences between the two groups(X2 =0.262,P=0.609). Conclusions TURBT combined with intravesical instillation of pirarubi can enhance clinical effect and reduce recurrence rate in the treatment of the elderly with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-383152

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a method of nucleic acid extraction and enrichment based on magnetic nanoparticle as medium for elevating the analytical sensitivity of domestic HBV real-time PCR kit and detection of the trace amount HBV DNA. Methods After receiving antiviral treatment, the serum samples of 50 hepatitis B patients with HBV DNA concentration ≤1×104 IU/ml were collected. The WHO HBV DNA calibrator was used as the standard material. Nanometer magnetic beads were used to adsorb and enrich the HBV nucleic acid and increase the concentration of the extracted HBV nucleic acid template. Compared with Roche HBV DNA detection reagent and four domestic reagent with conventional nucleic acid extraction and detection method, the improvement effect of this method on domestic nucleic acid detection reagent was evaluated. Results After application of nanometer magnetic extraction method to domestic regent, the analytical sensitivities of the domestic reagent reached 10 and 50 IU/ml, respectively,which was about the same detection level to 12 IU/ml of the imported Roche reagent. The positive rates of the detection of serum trace amount HBV DNA of hepatitis B patients with four kinds of domestic extraction reagent were 64% ( 32 ), 56% ( 28 ), 62% ( 31 ) and 58% (29), respectively. There were significant statistical differences between Roche reagent and four domestic extraction reagent kits(x2 = 7. 895, 12. 698,9. 013 and 11. 416 ,P <0. 05 ). With nanometer magnetic extraction method combined with domestic reagent kits, the detection rates were 88% (44), 88% (44), 88% (44) and 86% (43) ,respectively. There was no significant difference compared with the imported Roche reagent (x2 = 0. 000, 0. 000, 0. 000 and 0. 088,P >0. 05). Moreover, when the HBV nucleic acid concentration was 101-103 IU/ml, the logarithm value of viral nucleic acid concentration was in reverse correlation to Ct value, but the correlation decreased in the concentration range of 103-106 IU/ml. Conclusions The nucleic acid extraction method based on magnetic nanoparticle as medium can significantly improve the analytical sensitivity of domestic HBV DNA detection reagent, which can be used to monitor the trace amounts HBV DNA in the sera of the hepatitis B patients.

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