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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248083, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278546

ABSTRACT

Abstract Species of the genus Cordia have shown biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, and antifungal activities. The species Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC. Has no information concerning its phytochemical profile and possible biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate this profile in ethanolic extracts of young, adult and senescent leaves, as well as their antioxidant, photoprotective, antimicrobial, and virucidal potentials. Phytochemical analysis was performed by TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and terpenes. The evaluation by UPLC-MS/MS (Ultra performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer) evidenced the presence of caffeic (3.89 mgL-1), p-cumaric (6.13 mgL-1), and ferulic (0.58 mgL-1) acids, whilst, in GC/MS (Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) analysis there was a greater amount of palmitic (51.17%), stearic (20.34%), linoleic (9.62%), and miristic (8.16%) fatty acids. The DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radicals were used to verify the potential antioxidant activity, observing a better activity for the leaf extract in the adult phenological stage: 54.63 ± 1.06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) and 44.21 ± 1.69 mM (ABTS). The potential photoprotective activity of the extracts was determined by spectrophotometry and the in vitro values of SPF (Sun Protection Factor) in young and adult leaves (5.47 and 5.41, respectively) showed values close to the minimum SPF of 6.0 required by ANVISA (Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency). It was not observed an antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 2000 μgmL-1, however the anti-herpetic assay against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) showed a potent virucidal activity at the tested concentrations with CV50 value <0.195 μgmL-1 and a Selectivity Index (SI = CC50 / CV50) greater than 448. The results obtained in this study suggest that extracts of leaves of C. glabrata in their adult phenological stage have potential antioxidant, photoprotective and virucidal activity, considering in vitro test results.


Resumo Espécies do gênero Cordia apresentam atividades biológicas, como anti-inflamatória, analgésica, antioxidante, antiviral e antifúngica. Para a espécie Cordia glabrata (MART) A.DC., ainda não existem informações sobre seu perfil fitoquímico e possíveis atividades biológicas, deste modo, o presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar este perfil em extratos etanólicos de folhas jovens, adultas e senescentes, bem como o potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetor, antimicrobiano e virucida. A análise fitoquímica foi realizada por CCD (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada), mostrando a presença de flavonóides, taninos e terpenos. Na avaliação por CLAE EM/EM (Cromatografia Líquida de Ultra Eficiência acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) foi evidenciado a presença dos ácidos caféico (3,89 mgL-1), p-cumárico (6,13 mgL-1) e ferúlico (0,58 mgL-1), paralelamente, na CG/EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas) verificou-se maior quantidade dos ácidos graxos palmítico (51,17%), esteárico (20,34%), linoléico (9,62%) e mirístico (8,16%). Os radicais DPPH (2,2-Difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) e ABTS+ (2′-Azino-bis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico)) foram utilizados para verificar o potencial antioxidante, observando-se uma atividade superior para o extrato da folha em sua fase fenológica adulta: 54,63 ± 1,06 µgmL-1 (DPPH) e 44,21 ± 1,69 mM (ABTS+). A potencial atividade fotoprotetora dos extratos foi determinada espectrofotometricamente e os valores in vitro de FPS (Fator de Proteção Solar) em folhas jovens e adultas (5,47 e 5,41 respectivamente) apresentaram valores próximos ao FPS mínimo de 6,0 exigido pela ANVISA (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária). Não foi observada atividade antimicrobiana para Staphylococcus aureus sendo a concentração inibitória mínima de 2000 μgmL-1, no entanto o ensaio anti-herpético contra o vírus Herpes simplex tipo 2 (HSV-2) mostrou uma potente atividade virucida nas concentrações testadas com um valor de CV50 <0,195 μgmL-1 e um Índice de Seletividade (IS = CC50 / CV50) maior que 448. Os resultados obtidos neste estudo sugerem que extratos de folhas de C. glabrata em seu estágio fenológico adulto apresentam potencial antioxidante, fotoprotetora e virucida, considerando os resultados de testes in vitro.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238431, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249246

ABSTRACT

Abstract Viral hepatitis are widely spread infectious diseases caused by a variety of etiological agents that displays liver tropism as a common characteristic. A descriptive, cross-sectional, observational and retrospective study was conducted through the analysis of viral hepatitis medical records treated and diagnosed from 2010 to 2015. The relationship between the variables were made through the chi-square test. 632 viral hepatitis medical records were analyzed. The highest number of cases happened in 2011. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection was predominant. The most affected age group was < 20 years and the highest number of cases observed in this age group was related to HAV (p<0.001). The acute clinical form was predominant, with 70.2% of the cases. 92.3% of which corresponded to HAV infection (p<0.001). Most of the cases occurred in the brown race and male gender. Moreover, regarding the probable source/mechanism of infection, the contact with suspicious water/food for hepatitis A cases was highlighted. The sexual form predominated in HBV infection and previous history of blood transfusion in cases of hepatitis C. Most cases were spotted in the mesoregion of Eastern Alagoas, especially in the capital Maceió. It must be observed the importance of knowing the profile of this disease in order to understand its dissemination and thus have subsidies for the creation of actions and strategies to combat the infection.


Resumo A hepatite viral é uma doença infecciosa amplamente difundida causada por uma variedade de agentes etiológicos que exibem o tropismo hepático como uma característica comum. Um estudo descritivo, transversal, observacional e retrospectivo foi realizado por meio da análise de prontuários de hepatites virais tratados e diagnosticados de 2010 a 2015. A relação entre as variáveis foi feita através do teste qui-quadrado. Foram analisados 632 prontuários de hepatite sustero. O maior número de casos aconteceu em 2011. A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite A (HAV) foi predominante. A faixa etária mais atingida foi < 20 anos e o maior número de casos observados nessa faixa etária foi relacionado ao HAV (p<0,001). A forma clínica aguda foi predominante, com 70,2% dos casos. 92,3% dos quais corresponderam à infecção por HAV (p<0,001). A maioria dos casos ocorreu na raça parda e no sexo masculino. Além disso, quanto à provável fonte/mecanismo de infecção, foi destacado o contato com água/alimento suspeitos para os casos de hepatite A. A forma sexual predominou na infecção pelo HbV e histórico anterior de transfusão de sangue em casos de hepatite C. A maioria dos casos foi avistada na mesorregião do Leste de Alagoas, especialmente na capital Maceió. Deve-se observar a importância de conhecer o perfil dessa doença para entender sua disseminação e, assim, contar com subsídios para a criação de ações e estratégias de combate à infecção.

3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(3): 324-338, may. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1343496

ABSTRACT

In this present study, we investigated the influence of various extraction methods including maceration, sonication, infusion, decoction, and microwave extraction, on the chemical and biological potential of phytochemicals extracted from three medicinal plants (Ageratum conyzoides, Plantago majorand Arctium lappa L). The results were subsequently analyzed by variance analysis. Our results suggested that sonication is the most effective extraction method among the five methods tested herein, for the extraction of phytochemicals that have a high antioxidant potential and high phenolic content. The three plants employed for this study had a high concentration of flavonoids and phenolics which was compatible with the chemosystematics of the species. All the samples possessed a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of less than 6. Interestingly, a maximum reaction time of approximately 20 min was noted for the complexation of AlCl3 with the flavonoids present in the phytochemical extract during analyses of the kinetic parameters. We finally identified that the Ageratum conyzoides extract, prepared by sonication, possessed a significant pharmacological potential against hepatocarcinoma tumour cells, whose result can guide further studies for its therapeutic efficacy.


En el presente estudio, investigamos la influencia de varios métodos de extracción, incluyendo maceración, sonicación, infusión, decocción y extracción por microondas, sobre el potencial químico y biológico de los fitoquímicos extraídos de tres plantas medicinales (Ageratum conyzoides, Plantago majory Arctium lappa L). Los resultados se analizaron posteriormente mediante análisis de varianza. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la sonicación es el método de extracción más eficaz entre los cinco métodos aquí probados, para la extracción de fitoquímicos que tienen un alto potencial antioxidante y un alto contenido fenólico. Las tres plantas empleadas para este estudio tenían una alta concentración de flavonoides y fenólicos que era compatible con la quimiosistemática de las especies. Todas las muestras poseían un factor de protección solar (SPF) menor a 6. Curiosamente, se observó un tiempo máximo de reacción de aproximadamente 20 min para la complejación de AlCl3con los flavonoides presentes en el extracto fitoquímico durante los análisis de los parámetros cinéticos. Finalmente, identificamos que el extracto de Ageratum conyzoides, elaborado por sonicación, posee un importante potencial farmacológico frente a las células tumorales del hepatocarcinoma, cuyo resultado puede orientar nuevos estudios sobre su eficacia terapéutica.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Phenols/isolation & purification , Plantago/chemistry , Flavonoids/isolation & purification , Cell Survival , Analysis of Variance , Ageratum/chemistry , Arctium/chemistry
5.
Psicol. teor. prát ; 21(3): 418-436, sept.-Dec. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040916

ABSTRACT

Autoscopy is a methodological resource that includes video recording procedures with interventional practices, directing the analysis, and self-evaluation to the protagonists of this practice. The objective of this study is to present evidence of the effectiveness of the autoscopy procedure in autism interventions. Autoscopy was an independent variable in two of the experimental single-subject studies. Study A verified the effects of autoscopy on the teacher using pictographic cards to enhance student's communication and waiting for students' responses after their requests . Study B analyzed the effect on the socio-communicative abilities of the mother of the child and the child during the intervention. It was concluded that the responses of the teachers, just as much as the parents, showed significant statistical effects by the autoscopy, attesting to its robustness. The change in the participants' behavior wielded by the autoscopy is discussed.


A autoscopia é um recurso metodológico que inclui procedimentos de videogravação de práticas interventivas, visando a análise e a autoavaliação por um ou mais protagonistas dessa prática. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar evidências de eficácia do procedimento da autoscopia em intervenções com autismo. A autoscopia é utilizada como variável independente em dois estudos experimentais intrassujeitos. O estudo A verificou o efeito da autoscopia sobre os comportamentos de duas professoras que buscavam favorecer a comunicação do aluno com o uso de cartões pictográficos e aguardavam resposta deles após suas solicitações. Já o estudo B analisou o efeito sobre as habilidades sociocomunicativas da mãe de uma criança com autismo e seu filho durante uma intervenção. Concluiu-se que tanto as respostas das professoras quanto a dos pais mostraram efeitos estatisticamente significativos da autoscopia, atestando sua robustez. A mudança nos comportamentos dos participantes exercido pela autoscopia é discutida.


La autoscopia es un recurso metodológico que incluye procedimientos de vídeo con prácticas de intervención, dirigiendo el análisis y la auto-evaluación a los protagonistas de esta práctica. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar evidencia de la efectividad del procedimiento de autoscopia en intervenciones de autismo. La autoscopia se utiliza como una variable independiente en dos de los estudios experimentales. El Estudio A verificó los efectos de la autoscopia en el maestro usando tarjetas pictográficas para mejorar la comunicación del estudiante y esperar las respuestas después de sus solicitudes. El estudio B analizó el efecto sobre las habilidades socio-comunicativas de la madre del niño y del niño durante la intervención. Se concluyó que las respuestas de los profesores, tanto como los padres, mostraron efectos estadísticos significativos por la autoscopia, lo que demuestra su solidez. Se discute el cambio en el comportamiento de los participantes manejado por la autoscopia.

6.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 41(4): 324-335, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011506

ABSTRACT

Objective: To present the essential guidelines for pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. Methods: This is a systematic review of articles retrieved from the MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciELO databases published from 1997 to 2017. Other relevant articles in the literature were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. Results: Of 5,362 articles retrieved, 1,731 abstracts were selected for further reading. The final sample included 74 articles that met all inclusion criteria. The evidence shows that pharmacologic treatment is indicated only after non-pharmacologic approaches have failed. The cause of the agitation, side effects of the medications, and contraindications must guide the medication choice. The oral route should be preferred for drug administration; IV administration must be avoided. All subjects must be monitored before and after medication administration. Conclusion: If non-pharmacological strategies fail, medications are needed to control agitation and violent behavior. Once medicated, the patient should be monitored until a tranquil state is possible without excessive sedation. Systematic review registry number: CRD42017054440.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychomotor Agitation/drug therapy , Antipsychotic Agents/administration & dosage , Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychomotor Agitation/diagnosis , Antipsychotic Agents/classification , Benzodiazepines/classification , Brazil , Disease Management
8.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(2): 153-167, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990823

ABSTRACT

Objective: To present the essential guidelines for non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation in Brazil. Methods: These guidelines were developed based on a systematic review of articles published from 1997 to 2017, retrieved from MEDLINE (PubMed), Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, and SciELO. Other relevant articles identified by searching the reference lists of included studies were also used to develop these guidelines. The search strategy used structured questions formulated using the PICO model, as recommended by the Guidelines Project of the Brazilian Medical Association. Recommendations were summarized according to their level of evidence, which was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system and critical appraisal tools. Results: We initially selected 1,731 abstracts among 5,362 articles. The final sample included 104 articles that fulfilled all the inclusion criteria. The management of agitated patients should always start with the least coercive approach. The initial non-pharmacological measures include a verbal strategy and referral of the patient to the appropriate setting, preferably a facility designed for the care of psychiatric patients with controlled noise, lighting, and safety aspects. Verbal de-escalation techniques have been shown to decrease agitation and reduce the potential for associated violence in the emergency setting. The possibility of underlying medical etiologies must be considered first and foremost. Particular attention should be paid to the patient's appearance and behavior, physical signs, and mental state. If agitation is severe, rapid tranquilization with medications is recommended. Finally, if verbal measures fail to contain the patient, physical restraint should be performed as the ultimate measure for patient protection, and always be accompanied by rapid tranquilization. Healthcare teams must be thoroughly trained to use these techniques and overcome difficulties if the verbal approach fails. It is important that healthcare professionals be trained in non-pharmacological management of patients with psychomotor agitation as part of the requirements for a degree and graduate degree. Conclusion: The non-pharmacological management of agitated patients should follow the hierarchy of less invasive to more invasive and coercive measures, starting with referral of the patient to an appropriate environment, management by a trained team, use of verbal techniques, performance of physical and mental assessment, use of medications, and, if unavoidable, use of the mechanical restraint. Systematic review registry number: CRD42017054440.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychomotor Agitation/diagnosis , Psychomotor Agitation/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Disease Management , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Brazil
9.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 41(2): 101-111, Mar.-Apr. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990827

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare results of positron emission tomography (PET) with carbon-11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PIB) obtained with cerebellar or global brain uptake for voxel intensity normalization, describe the cortical sites with highest tracer uptake in subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and explore possible group differences in 11C-PIB binding to white matter. Methods: 11C-PIB PET scans were acquired from subjects with AD (n=17) and healthy elderly controls (n=19). Voxel-based analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Results: Cerebellar normalization showed higher 11C-PIB uptake in the AD group relative to controls throughout the cerebral cortex, involving the lateral temporal, orbitofrontal, and superior parietal cortices. With global uptake normalization, greatest cortical binding was detected in the orbitofrontal cortex; decreased 11C-PIB uptake in white matter was found in the posterior hippocampal region, corpus callosum, pons, and internal capsule. Conclusion: The present case-control voxelwise 11C-PIB PET comparison highlighted the regional distribution of amyloid deposition in the cerebral cortex of mildly demented AD patients. Tracer uptake was highest in the orbitofrontal cortex. Decreased 11C-PIB uptake in white-matter regions in this patient population may be a marker of white-matter damage in AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Carbon Radioisotopes , Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Positron-Emission Tomography/methods , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging , Severity of Illness Index , Case-Control Studies
10.
Rev. bras. ciênc. mov ; 26(2): 64-72, abr.-jun. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-911348

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa objetivou construir um mapa dos jogos mais praticados por crianças e adolescentes no município de Conde-PB e analisar as relações que os praticantes realizam com os espaços públicos e com os materiais utilizados nas brincadeiras. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, de abordagem qualitativa. Foram realizadas observações nas comunidades de Barra de Gramame, Capim-açu, Caxitu, Garapu, Guaxinduba, Gurugi, Mata da Chica, Mituaçu, Paripe, Pituaçu, Pousada de Conde, Salsa e Utinga. Estas comunidades foram escolhidas devido o acesso as suas localidades, apesar de todas possuírem características rurais semelhantes e estradas de difícil tráfego. Em cada uma das localidades foram feitas duas visitas, cada uma com duração de duas horas, totalizando 52 horas de observações. Foram observados 33 jogos vividos nos mais diferentes espaços: rios, ruas, terrenos, dentre outros espaços. O estudo demonstrou como a diversidade da cultura lúdica infantil ressignifi ca os espaços públicos em espaços de lazer. Foi observado que os terrenos, ruas e rios possuem signifi cados para as crianças porque são continuamente transformados em espaços de socialização. Assim também os materiais que são reutilizados para realizar jogos, a exemplo das cordas, no cabo de guerra e dos papelões nas brincadeiras de casinha. A partir dos resultados encontrados foi construído um mapa, em que se destaca a relação das características rurais do entorno com a produção de jogos pelas crianças, como parte do cotidiano cultural. Estes jogos mapeados se apresentam como propriedade da cultura lúdica local e constituinte do patrimônio cultural universal que é repassado e atualizado de geração a geração, em diferentes comunidades....(AU)


This research aimed to build a map of the most practiced games by children and adolescents in the municipality of Conde-PB and also to analyze the relations that they perform at public spaces and what are the used materials in the games. For that, we used a descriptive-qualitative approach. Observations were made in the communities of Barra de Gramame, Capim-açu, Caxitu, Garapu, Guaxinduba, Gurugi, Mata da Chica, Mituaçu, Paripe, Pituaçu, Pousada de Conde, Salsa and Utinga. These communities were chosen due to the access to their localities, although they all have similar rural characteristics and diffi cult traffi c routes. In each of the locations we madeira two visits, each lasting two hours, totaling 52 hours of observations. There were 33 games played in the most diff erent spaces: rivers, streets, terrains, among other spaces. The study demonstrated how the diversity of children's recreational culture re-signifi espublic spaces in leisure spaces. It was observed that land, streets and rivers have meanings for children because they are continually transformed into spaces of socialization. As well as the materials that are reused to make games, like ropes, turn into the tug of war and the cardboard into house plays. From the results found, a map was constructed, highlighting the relation between the rural characteristics of the environment and the production of games by the children, as part of the cultural daily life. These mapped games are presented as the property of the local play culture and constituent of the universal cultural heritage that passes on to generations and updated from diff erent communities....(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Culture , Leisure Activities , Play and Playthings , Physical Education and Training
11.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 59(n.esp): 33-42, 2018. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-986957

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia y factores de riesgo asociados para sobrepeso y obesidad en la población adulta de la ciudad de La Paz, gestión 2014 MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Es un estudio transversal analítico, en 470 individuos de los 7 Macrodistritos de la ciudad de La Paz; Cotahuma, Max Paredes, Periférica, Centro, San Antonio, Sur y Mallasa. Se aplicó una encuesta desarrollada bajo el método STEPwise de vigilancia de los factores de riesgo de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles que consiste en dar un enfoque estandarizado de la OMS. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad es 60,8% (IC95%: 56.4%­65.2%), en mujeres fue de 62,6% (IC95%: 57.2%­68.0%) y en varones 57,6% (IC95%: 50.1%­65.1%). El riesgo de presentar sobrepeso y obesidad fue mayor según aumentaba la edad, OR=2.3 (IC95% 1.6-3.3 p=0.00), en las personas que dormían menos de 8 horas diarias, OR=2.53 (IC95% 1.7-3.7 p=0.00), en personas que fumaban OR=1.6 (IC95% 1.0-2.5 p=0.04), en personas que cursaron solo la primaria, OR=2.9 (IC95% 1.8-4.9 p=0.00), en las personas con hábitos alimentarios no saludables OR=5.6 (IC95% 2.6-9.8 p=0.00), en las personas que tienen una percepción de la imagen corporal que desacuerda con su estado nutricional actual OR=5.7 (IC95% 3.8­8.5 p=0.00), en las personas que están casadas o tienen pareja de hecho OR=2.5 (IC95% 1.7­3.8 p=0.00). CONCLUSIONES: La población estudiada presenta una elevada prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad, la misma observándose más en mujeres que en varones. Son factores de riesgo asociados para presentar sobrepeso y obesidad en la población adulta; las horas de sueño, habito de haber fumado, percepción de la imagen corporal, actividad física, estado civil, nivel de instrucción y los hábitos alimentarios.


OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors for overweight and obesity in the adult population of the city of La Paz, term 2014 MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a transversal analytical observational study, of 470 Individuals in the city of La Paz, on 7 Macrodistricts: Cotahuma, Max Paredes, Periférica, Centro, San Antonio, Sur and Mallasa. A survey was carried out under the STEPwise approach to survey risk factors for chronic non communicable diseases to provide a simple and standardized WHO approach. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is 60.8% (95% CI: 56.4% -65.2%), in women it was 62.6% (95% CI: 57.2% -68.0%) and in men 57.6% (50.1% -65.1%). The risk of overweight and obesity was higher as age increased, OR=2.3 (95% CI 1.6-3.3 p=0.00) in those who slept less than 8 hours per day, OR=2.5 (95% CI 1.7-3.7 p=0.00), in nonsmokers OR=1.6 (95% CI 1.0-2.5 p=0.04) in persons who completed only primary education, OR=2.9 (95% CI 1.8-4.9 p=0.00) in those with no healthy dietary habits OR=5.6 (95% CI 2.6-9.8 p=0.00) in those who have a perception of body image in disagreement with their current nutritional status OR=5.6 (95% CI 3.8-8.5 p=0.00), in people who are married or living with a partner OR=2.5 (95% CI 1.7-3.8 p=0.00). CONCLUSIONS: The study population has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, which is more noticeable in women than in men. They are risk factors associated with being overweight and obesity in the adult population; the hours of sleep, smoking, and perception of body image, physical activity, marital status, education level and eating habits.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Body Mass Index , Overweight/diagnosis , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Health Statistics , Feeding Behavior
12.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 27(6): 729-738, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-898723

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The metabolism of ethanol occurs mainly in the liver, promoting increase of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, leading to redox imbalance. Therefore, antioxidants can be seen as an alternative to reestablish the oxidizing/reducing equilibrium. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC., Asteraceae, in a model of hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol. The extract was characterized and in vitro tests were conducted in HepG2 cells. It was evaluated the cells viability exposed to aqueous extract for 24 h, ability to scavenging the radical DPPH, besides the production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, and the influence on the transcriptional activity of transcription factor Nrf2 (12 and 24 h) after exposure to 200 mM ethanol. The results showed that aqueous extract was non-cytotoxic in any concentration tested; moreover, it was observed a decrease in ROS and NO production, also promoting the transcriptional activity of Nrf2. In vivo, we pretreatment male rats Fisher with 600 mg/kg of aqueous extract and 1 h later 5 ml/kg of absolute ethanol was administrated. After two days of treatment, the animals were euthanized and lipid profile, hepatic and renal functions, antioxidant status and oxidative damage were evaluated. The treatment with extract improved liver function and lipid profile, reflecting the reduction of lipid microvesicules in the liver. It also promoted an increase of glutathione peroxidase activity, decrease of oxidative damage and MMP-2 activity. These results, analyzed together, suggest the hepatoprotective effect of B. trimera aqueous extract.

13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(10): 1091-1100, out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-895337

ABSTRACT

The bacterium Pasteurella multocida is a frequent cause of porcine respiratory disease complex in finishing pigs. Historically, the bacterium is recognized as an opportunistic agent, causing secondary bacterial pneumonia in pigs. Several Brazilian reports have suggested the ability of P. multocida to cause primary pulmonary infection that leads to the death of finishing pigs prior to slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate anatomopathological pulmonary findings associated with P. multocida infection that were obtained from animals with clinical respiratory disease and from animals at slaughter. Twenty-five lung samples from 14 herds of finishing pigs with acute clinical respiratory disease and 19 lungs collected at slaughter from a different set of 14 herds were studied. In all lung samples, bacterial isolation was performed, and only samples with pure P. multocida growth were included in the study. Gross and histopathological lesions were evaluated, as well as Influenza A, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae co-infections. Pleuritis and pericarditis were more often observed in clinical samples (P<0.05). Moreover, there was a numerical trend indicating that pericarditis, lymphadenomegaly and cavity exudates were more often present in clinical samples. Thirteen lung samples were negative to M. hyopneumoniae, Influenza A and PCV2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), with only P. multocida identified. In these cases, gross lesions such as pleuritis, pericarditis and lymphadenomegaly were always present, and no histologic lesions indicative of other agents such as Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus suis or Haemophilus parasuis were observed. These findings suggest the ability of some P. multocida isolates to cause primary respiratory and systemic infection. However, in this study, it was not possible to determine specific virulence markers to explain these findings.


A bactéria Pasteurella multocida é causa frequente do Complexo de Doenças Respiratórias dos suínos em animais de terminação. Historicamente, a bactéria é reconhecida como agente oportunista, causando pneumonia bacteriana secundária. Diversos relatos brasileiros sugerem a habilidade da P. multocida de causar infecção pulmonar primária que leva a mortalidade de animais de terminação antes do abate. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar achados anatomopatológicos pulmonares associados com infecção por P. multocida, obtidas de animais acometidos clinicamente por doença respiratória e de animais ao abate. Avaliou-se 25 amostras de pulmão de 14 rebanhos obtidas de animais de terminação com sinais clínicos de doença respiratória aguda, e 19 pulmões coletados ao abate de 14 rebanhos diferentes. Em todos os pulmões, realizou-se isolamento bacteriano, e apenas amostras com crescimento puro de P. multocida foram incluídas no trabalho. Avaliou-se as lesões macro e microscopicamente, assim como co-infecções por Influenza A, Circovirus suíno tipo 2 (PCV2) e Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Pleurite e pericardite foram mais frequentemente observadas em amostras clinicas (P<0,05). Ainda, houve tendência numérica indicando a ocorrência de linfadenomegalia e exsudação cavitária, mais presentes em amostras clínicas. Treze amostras de pulmão foram negativas para M. hyopneumoniae, Influenza A e PCV2 por imunoistoquímica (IHQ), com identificação de apenas P. multocida. Nestes casos, lesões macroscópicas como pleurite, pericardite e linfadenomegalia foram sempre presentes, sem lesões histológicas indicativas de outros agentes como Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Actinobacillus suis ou Haemophilus parasuis. Estes achados sugerem a habilidade de alguns isolados de P. multocida de causarem quadro respiratório primário e infecção sistêmica. No entanto, neste estudo, não foi possível determinar marcadores de virulência específicos para justificar tais achados.


Subject(s)
Pasteurella Infections/veterinary , Pasteurella multocida , Pneumonia/veterinary , Sus scrofa/anatomy & histology
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(10): 1057-1063, out. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-895335

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasmal pneumonia is an important disease in the pig industry. Due to the controversial role of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in this disease, confirmation of the presence of this bacterium and the identification of its roles in respiratory disease remain major challenges. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of M. hyorhinis in early cases of mycoplasmal pneumonia and to determine the usefulness of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the diagnosis of respiratory mycoplasmosis in naturally infected pigs. Ninety M. hyopneumoniae and/or M. hyorhinis-infected lung tissue samples based on diagnostic mosaic (DM) were used. The average age of the animals was 116 and 57 days (P<0.01) for groups 1 (positive-M. hyopneumoniae only) and 2 (positive-M. hyorhinis only), respectively. These findings suggest that development of lesions caused by M. hyorhinis occurs earlier than for M. hyopneumoniae. Using the DM as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FISH for M. hyopneumoniae were 75 and 100%, respectively, and were 40 and 73.3% for the immunohistochemistry (IHC). The sensitivity and specificity of FISH for M. hyorhinis were 76.7 and 100%, respectively. These findings demonstrate that FISH can be a useful tool for diagnosing mycoplasmosis. Viral antigens (PCV2 or influenza A) were detected in 53.3% (16/30) of the samples in group 2 (M. hyorhinis-PCR positive) and 13.3% (4/30) of the samples in group 1 (M. hyopneumoniae-PCR positive). This finding indicates that the association of M. hyorhinis and viral infection in nursery pigs likely starts due to a viral immunosuppressive condition.(AU)


A pneumonia micoplásmica causada por bactérias do gênero Mycoplasma é uma enfermidade de grande importância para indústria suinícola, sendo ainda controverso o papel desempenhado por Mycoplasma hyorhinis nessa doença. A confirmação da presença dessas bactérias bem como a identificação de seus papéis em doenças respiratórias continua sendo um grande desafio. Os objetivos desse estudo foram comparar diferentes técnicas, em especial a de hibridização fluorescente in situ (FISH), para diagnóstico de micoplasmoses respiratória em suínos naturalmente infectados e avaliar a presença do M. hyorhinis em casos precoces de pneumonia micoplásmica. Foram utilizadas 90 amostras de tecido pulmonar infectado para cada um ou ambos os agentes (M. hyopneumoniae e M. hyorhinis) determinados pelo mosaico de diagnóstico (sinais clínicos, lesões macroscópicas e microscópicas e pela PCR). No grupo de animais positivos pela PCR apenas para M. hyorhinis (Grupo 2) a média da idade foi de 57,32 dias e no grupo apenas positivo para M. hyopneumoniae (Grupo 1) a média foi de 116,31 dias (P<0,01). Estes achados sugerem que a colonização e o aparecimento de lesões causadas pelo M. hyorhinis seja mais precoce do que aquelas causadas pelo M. hyopneumoniae. As alterações microscópicas foram estatisticamente (P<0,01) mais intensas no grupo 1 do que no grupo 2. Usando o mosaico de diagnóstico como padrão ouro, a sensibilidade e especificidade na FISH para M. hyopneumoniae foi de 75 e 100%, respectivamente, e 40 e 73,3%, na imuno-histoquímica. A sensibilidade e especificidade da FISH para M. hyorhinis foi de 76,7 e 100%. Esses valores demonstram que a FISH pode ser uma ferramenta útil para diagnóstico de micoplasmoses. Foi detectada a presença de agentes virais (PCV2 ou influenza) em 53,3% das amostras do grupo 2 (M. hyorhinis) e em 13,3% das amostras do grupo 1 (M. hyopneumoniae).(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sus scrofa/microbiology , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Mycoplasma hyorhinis , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/diagnosis , Mycoplasma Infections/veterinary , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/veterinary
15.
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 10(4): 150-153, oct. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-999026

ABSTRACT

A case study of a 41 years old woman with cyclic hypercortisolism is explained. AT the beginning, its manegment was shrinking the tumor, however afterward she needs medical treatment during cycles. The fluctuating clinical and discrepant bioquemical findings make it hard to diagnose. A review of this rare disorder is explained.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Pituitary Neoplasms/complications , Adenoma/complications , Cushing Syndrome/diagnosis , Cushing Syndrome/etiology , Pituitary Neoplasms/diagnosis , Time Factors , Adenoma/diagnosis , Adrenocortical Hyperfunction/diagnosis , Adrenocortical Hyperfunction/etiology
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(10): 1101-1107, out. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-895346

ABSTRACT

Disenteria Suína e Colite Espiroquetal são duas enfermidades importantes em suínos causados pela Brachyspira hyodysenteriae e Brachyspira pilosicoli, respectivamente. O diagnóstico eficaz dessas espécies é extremamente importante para a adoção de estratégias adequadas para o controle. Propõe-se avaliar a técnica de hibridização in situ de fluorescência (FISH) para detecção de B. hyodysenteriae e B. pilosicoli em fragmentos histopatológicos de intestino de suínos e compará-la ao PCR duplex. Foram analisadas amostras de fezes e intestinos de suínos de terminação com histórico de diarreia pelas técnicas de reação em cadeia da polimerase duplex (dPCR), hibridização in situ fluorescente (FISH) para diagnóstico dessas bactérias. Foram utilizadas 34 amostras de intestino de suínos de campo positivos para alguma das duas espécies de Brachyspira sp. nos testes de FISH ou PCR. Das 34 amostras analisadas, foram detectadas 28 (82,35%) positivas na PCR e no FISH. Dentre as 29 amostras positivas para B. hyodysenteriae, 23 (79,3%) foram positivas à PCR e 21 (72,4%) no FISH. Os resultados de FISH e PCR não diferiram estatisticamente entre si. Baseado no fato dessa técnica poder ser realizada em tecidos formolizados, ser prática, rápida e associar a marcação especifica do agente com lesões histológicas, o FISH demonstrou ser mais uma alternativa no diagnóstico de Brachyspira hyodysenteriae e B. pilosicoli.(AU)


Growing and finishing pigs are affected by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Brachyspira sp., which cause a significant economic impact due to direct and indirect losses. Thus, efficient diagnosis of these species enables better technical intervention to prevent or treat diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the diagnosis of B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli in histopathologic fragments of pig's intestine and compare it to the duplex PCR. Thirty-four samples collected from pigs positive for these species in at least one of the tests were used in the study. Out of the 34 analyzed intestine samples, 28 (82.35%) were positive by PCR and FISH. Among the 29 B. hyodysenteriae positive samples, 23 (79.3%) were positive by PCR and 21 (72.4%) by FISH. There was no statistical difference among the detection rate of the used tests. Based on the fact this technique can be performed in formalin fixed tissue samples, it is practical, fast and allows the association of labeling a specific agent with histological lesions, FISH has become an alternative diagnostic method for Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Brachyspira hyodysenteriae , Brachyspira , Sus scrofa , Dysentery/veterinary , Feces/microbiology
17.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 27(4): 445-452, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-898681

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae, native to Brazil, is referred to as "pimento-rosa" and is used to treat inflammatory disease in folk medicine. Studies have reported important pharmacological properties, but these effects have still not been fully exploited. This study reports that the crude extract and isolated compounds of S. terebinthifolius (leaves) have in vitro antioxidant, antiproliferative, and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities. The samples were evaluated for antioxidant activity using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, β-carotene/linoleic acid and 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid reagents. The anti-inflammatory effects were assayed against a carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in mice to test doses of 10, 100 and 300 mg/kg at different time points in addition to myeloperoxidase activity analysis. The antiproliferative activity was evaluated using ten human tumour cell lines. Two derivatives of gallic acid and four flavonoids were isolated and exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. The extract and its compounds showed selectivity towards ovarian cancer cells, with growth inhibitory activity values ranging from 1.9 to 6.5 µg/ml. Sample extracts and methyl gallate significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced oedema in the mice paw oedema experimental model. The calculated topological polar surface area for methyl gallate (86.98 Å2) showed good intestinal absorption. The effects reported herein are be related to the presence of flavonoids and the galloyl phenolic derivative content.

18.
Rev. colomb. biotecnol ; 19(1): 21-28, ene.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-900418

ABSTRACT

Resumen El fósforo es un elemento esencial para el cultivo de café, sin embargo la mayoría de los suelos en Colombia presentan niveles bajos de este nutriente. La presencia de microorganismos solubilizadores de fosfatos (MSF) es una de las estrategias para suplir su demanda, en ese sentido se aislaron 26 bacterias rizosféricas de Typic melanudans de Cajibío (Cauca, Colombia), en tres agroecosistemas: café sin sombra, café con sombra y relicto de bosque secundario, evaluándoles la eficiencia solubilizadora de P (ESF) en Ca-P, Al-P, Fe-P en medios Pikovskaya sólido y líquido, obteniendo la secuencia de solubilización Ca-P > Al-P > Fe-P. Los dos aislamientos bacterianos con mayor ESF se identificaron por extracción del ADN y análisis del gen 16S rRNA como Kocuria sp, y Bacillus subtilis. Posteriormente se cuantificaron e identificaron los ácidos orgánicos presentes en las tres fuentes de fosforo por HPLC, siendo ellos los ácidos cítrico, glucónico, D- y L-málico, D- y L-láctico con mayor presencia en Ca-P- Kocuria sp. En todas las condiciones, se observó que ocurrió acidificación de los medios, siendo más fuerte en Fe-P y Al-P.


Abstract Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for coffee growing, however, in Colombia most of the soils have low concentrations of this element. A strategy to supply the demand is the use of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM), in that order, 26 rhizospheric bacteria of Typic melanudans soil of Cajibío (Cauca, Colombia) were isolated, in three agroecosystems: coffee at full sun exposure, coffee with shade and relic secondary forest, evaluating the phosphate solubilizing efficiency (PSE) for Ca-P, Al-P, Fe-P in the solid and liquid Pikovskaya media. It showed the following solubilization sequence: Ca-P> Al-P> Fe-P. Two isolated bacteria were identified by DNA extraction and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene as Kocuria sp, and Bacillus subtilis. Later, using HPLC were identified organic acids present in the three phosphorus sources as: citric, gluconic, D- and L-malic, D- and L-lactic acid with higher presence in Ca-P-Kocuria sp. Strong acidification was observed for Fe-P and Al-P in all conditions.

19.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(2): 127-134, Apr.-June 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-784307

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and dimensions of depression in a sample of clinically depressed patients. Methods: A sample of 217 patients from a mood-disorder outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the CORE Assessment of Psychomotor Change, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A previous latent model identifying six depressive dimensions was used for analysis. Path analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) models were used to investigate associations between general childhood trauma and childhood maltreatment modalities (emotional, sexual, and physical abuse; emotional and physical neglect) with dimensions of depression (sexual, cognition, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/retardation, and agitation). Results: The overall childhood trauma index was uniquely associated with cognitive aspects of depression, but not with any other depressive dimension. An investigation of childhood maltreatment modalities revealed that emotional abuse was consistently associated with depression severity in the cognitive dimension. Conclusion: Childhood trauma, and specifically emotional abuse, could be significant risk factors for the subsequent development of cognitive symptoms of major depression. These influences might be specific to this depressive dimension and not found in any other dimension, which might have conceptual and therapeutic implications for clinicians and researchers alike.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adult , Child Abuse/psychology , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/psychology , Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders/complications , Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders/psychology , Personality Inventory , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Child Abuse/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders/diagnosis , Middle Aged
20.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(4): 339-344, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787567

ABSTRACT

O objetivo detse artigo é de descrever um protocolo de isolamento das células mononucleares da medula óssea de coelhos, seguido de purificação celular por depleção negativa com o anticorpo monoclonal CD45 e posterior expansão em meio de cultura MesenCult®. Dez coelhos machos adultos, da raça Nova Zelândia, com idade média de 1,0±0,2 anos e peso médio 3,5±0,24kg, foram utilizados para padronização da metodologia. O isolamento das células mononuclares da medula óssea foi realizado pelo gradiente de densidade Ficoll-paque® e a purificação e obtenção das células- pela depleção negativa com o anticorpo monoclonal CD45 em base imunomagnética. A população celular obtida foi expandida posteriormente em meio de cultura MesenCult®. No isolamento pelo gradiente de icoll-Paque® foi obtido um rendimento médio de 7,31x106 células/mL. Após purificação e obtenção das possíveis células-tronco mesenquimais pela base imunomagnética, houve um decréscimo do rendimento para 2,28x106 células/mL, mas o processo de expansão foi incrementado pelo cultivo celular. Os resultados indicaram que as células obtidas da fração mononuclear da medula óssea, cultivadas in vitro foram capazes de gerar células aderentes 24 horas após o cultivo, com predominância de células fibroblastóides sugestivas de células-tronco mesenquimais. Concluiu-se que a obtenção de células-tronco mesenquimais pode ser alcançada após purificação das células mononucleares da medula óssea de coelhos pelo método imunomagético, o meio de cultura MesenCult® proporciona um ambiente adequado para a rápida expansão in vitro e o número de passagens exerce influência negativa sobre as características morfológicas das células.


The objective of this study was to describe guidelines for the isolation of bone marrow mononuclear cells from rabbits, followed by cell purification by negative depletion with CD45 monoclonal antibody, and further expansion in MesenCult® medium. Ten adult male New Zealand White rabbits, age average of 1.0±0.2 years and weighting 3.5±0.24kg, were used to obtain a standardized method. The mononuclear cells of the bone marrow were isolated with Ficoll-paque® density gradient centrifugation, and the cell purification and acquisition was completed by negative depletion with CD45 monoclonal antibody in immunomagnetic base. The cell population obtained was expanded in MesenCult® medium. Through isolation with Ficoll-paque® density gradient was possible to obtain an average yield of 7.31x106 cells/mL. After purification and acquisiton of potential mesenchymal stem cells by the immunomagnetic base, there was a yield decrease to 2.28x106 cells/mL; however the expansion process was increased in cell culture. The results indicated that cells obtained from the mononuclear fraction of bone marrow and cultivated in vitro were capable to generate adherent cells 24 hours after culture, with predominance of fibroblastoid cells suggestive of mesenchymal stem cells. It can be concluded that mesenchymal stem cells can be achieved with purified rabbit bone marrow mononuclear cells through the immunomagnetic method, as the MesenCult® medium provides a suitable environment for a quick in vitro expansion, and the number of passages exerts negative influence on the morphological characteristics.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Adult Stem Cells , Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Bone Marrow Cells , Cell Separation/veterinary , Lagomorpha , Immunomagnetic Separation/veterinary , In Vitro Techniques/veterinary
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