Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 41
Filter
1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881088

ABSTRACT

Huashi Baidu prescription (HSBDF), recommended in the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia (On Trials, the Seventh Edition), was clinically used to treat severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with cough, blood-stained sputum, inhibited defecation, red tongue etc. symptoms. This study was aimed to elucidate and profile the knowledge on its chemical constituents and the potential anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In the study, the chemical constituents in extract of HSBDF were characterized by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in both negative and positive modes, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to determine the effects of HSBDF in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that a total of 217 chemical constituents were tentativedly characterized in HSBDF. Moreover, HSBDF could alleviate the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the cell models, indicating that the antiviral effects of HSBDF might be associated with regulation of the inflammatory cytokines production in RAW264.7 cells. We hope that the results could be served as the basic data for further study of HSBDF on anti-COVID-19 effect.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881072

ABSTRACT

In this study, a high performance thin-layer chromatography/single quadrupole mass spectrometry QDa (HPTLC-QDa) method for robust authentication of Ganoderma lucidum, a popular and valuable herbal medicine, has been developed. This method is simple and practical, which allows direct generation of characteristic mass spectra from the HPTLC plates automatically with the application of in situ solvent desorption interface. The HPTLC silica gel plates were developed with toluene-ethyl formate-formic acid (5 : 5 : 0.2, V/V) and all bands were transferred to QDa system directly in situ using 80% methanol with 0.1% formic acid as desorption solvent. The acquired HPTLC-QDa spectra showed that luminous yellow band b3, containing ganoderic acid B/G/H and ganodeneric acid B, the major active components of Ganoderma, could be found only in G. lucidum and G. lucidum (Antler-shaped), but not in G. sinense and G. applanatum. Moreover, bands b13 and b14 with m/z 475/477 and m/z 475/491/495, respectively, could be detected in G. lucidum (Antler-shaped), but not in G. lucidum, thus allowing simple and robust authentication of G. lucidum with confused species. This method is proved to be simple, practical and reproducible, which can be extended to analyze other herbal medicines.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881050

ABSTRACT

Pesticides' overuse and misuse have been reported to induce ingredient variations in herbal medicine, which is now gaining attention in the medicinal field as a form of alternative medicine. To date, available studies on pesticide-induced ingredient variations of herbal medicine are limited only on a few compounds and remain most others unexamined. In this study, a plant metabolomics-based strategy was performed to systematically explore the effects of two frequently used insecticides on the comprehensive constituents of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF), the flower buds of Lonicera japonica Thunb. Field trials were designed on a cultivating plot of L. japonica with controls and treatments of imidacloprid (IMI) and compound flonicamid and acetamiprid (CFA). Unbiased metabolite profiling was conducted by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. After data pretreatment by automatic extraction and screening, a data matrix of metabolite features was submitted for statistical analyses. Consequently, 29 metabolic markers, including chlorogenic acids, iridoids and organic acid-glucosides were obtained and characterized. The relative quantitative assay was subsequently performed to monitor their variations across flowering developments. This is the first study that systematically explored the insecticide-induced metabolite variations of LJF while taking into account the inherent variability of flowering development. The results were beneficial for holistic quality assessment of LJF and significant for guiding scientific use of pesticides in the large-scale cultivation.

4.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1469-1492, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888815

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been an indispensable source of drugs for curing various human diseases. However, the inherent chemical diversity and complexity of TCM restricted the safety and efficacy of its usage. Over the past few decades, the combination of liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry has contributed greatly to the TCM qualitative analysis. And novel approaches have been continuously introduced to improve the analytical performance, including both the data acquisition methods to generate a large and informative dataset, and the data post-processing tools to extract the structure-related MS information. Furthermore, the fast-developing computer techniques and big data analytics have markedly enriched the data processing tools, bringing benefits of high efficiency and accuracy. To provide an up-to-date review of the latest techniques on the TCM qualitative analysis, multiple data-independent acquisition methods and data-dependent acquisition methods (precursor ion list, dynamic exclusion, mass tag, precursor ion scan, neutral loss scan, and multiple reaction monitoring) and post-processing techniques (mass defect filtering, diagnostic ion filtering, neutral loss filtering, mass spectral trees similarity filter, molecular networking, statistical analysis, database matching, etc.) were summarized and categorized. Applications of each technique and integrated analytical strategies were highlighted, discussion and future perspectives were proposed as well.

5.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 229-241, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829101

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Lung-toxin Dispelling Formula No. 1, referred to as Respiratory Detox Shot (RDS), was developed based on a classical prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the theoretical understanding of herbal properties within TCM. Therapeutic benefits of using RDS for both disease control and prevention, in the effort to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have been shown. However, the biochemically active constituents of RDS and their mechanisms of action are still unclear. The goal of the present study is to clarify the material foundation and action mechanism of RDS.@*METHODS@#To conduct an analysis of RDS, an integrative analytical platform was constructed, including target prediction, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and cluster analysis; further, the hub genes involved in the disease-related pathways were identified, and the their corresponding compounds were used for in vitro validation of molecular docking predictions. The presence of these validated compounds was also measured in samples of the RDS formula to quantify the abundance of the biochemically active constituents. In our network pharmacological study, a total of 26 bioinformatic programs and databases were used, and six networks, covering the entire Zang-fu viscera, were constructed to comprehensively analyze the intricate connections among the compounds-targets-disease pathways-meridians of RDS.@*RESULTS@#For all 1071 known chemical constituents of the nine ingredients in RDS, identified from established TCM databases, 157 passed drug-likeness screening and led to 339 predicted targets in the constituent-target network. Forty-two hub genes with core regulatory effects were extracted from the PPI network, and 134 compounds and 29 crucial disease pathways were implicated in the target-constituent-disease network. Twelve disease pathways attributed to the Lung-Large Intestine meridians, with six and five attributed to the Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, respectively. One-hundred and eighteen candidate constituents showed a high binding affinity with SARS-coronavirus-2 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL), as indicated by molecular docking using computational pattern recognition. The in vitro activity of 22 chemical constituents of RDS was validated using the 3CL inhibition assay. Finally, using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in data-independent analysis mode, the presence of seven out of these 22 constituents was confirmed and validated in an aqueous decoction of RDS, using reference standards in both non-targeted and targeted approaches.@*CONCLUSION@#RDS acts primarily in the Lung-Large Intestine, Kidney-Urinary Bladder and Stomach-Spleen meridians, with other Zang-fu viscera strategically covered by all nine ingredients. In the context of TCM meridian theory, the multiple components and targets of RDS contribute to RDS's dual effects of health-strengthening and pathogen-eliminating. This results in general therapeutic effects for early COVID-19 control and prevention.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Betacoronavirus , Chemistry , Coronavirus Infections , Drug Therapy , Virology , Cysteine Endopeptidases , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Drug Therapy , Virology , Protein Interaction Maps , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Chemistry
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776854

ABSTRACT

Characterization of aqueous extract in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is challenging due to the poor retention of the analytes on conventional C columns. This study presents a systematic characterization method based on a rapid chromatographic separation (8 min) on a polar-modified C (Waters Cortecs T3) column of aqueous extract of Cordyceps sinensis. UHPLC-HRMS method was used to profile components in both untargeted and targeted manners by full MS/PIL/dd-MS acquisition approach. The components were identified or tentatively identified by reference standards comparison, fragmentation rules elucidation and available databases search. A total of 91 components, including 10 nucleobases, 20 nucleosides, 39 dipeptides, 18 amino acids and derivatives and 4 other components, were characterized from the aqueous extract of C. sinensis. And this was the first time to systematically report the presence of nucleosides and dipeptides in C. sinensis, especially for modified nucleosides. The chemical basis inquiry of this work would be beneficial to mechanism exploration and quality control of C. sinensis and related products. Meanwhile, this work also provided an effective solution for characterization of aqueous extract in TCM.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773632

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the chemical constituents of the stem tuber of Pinellia pedatisecta. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Three new alkaloids (compounds 1, 2, and 3) were obtained and identified as 9-((5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-9H-purin-6-amine (1), 4-(2-(2, 5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl)phenyl acetate (2), and N-(9-((5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-9H-purin-6-yl)acetamide (3). These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Compounds 1 and 3 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells with IC values being 3.02 ± 0.54 and 7.16 ± 0.62 μmol·L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , HeLa Cells , Humans , Pinellia , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Plant Tubers , Chemistry
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773560

ABSTRACT

Shenshao Tablet (SST), prepared from Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) and total ginsenoside of Ginseng Stems and Leaves (GSL), is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation prescribed to treat coronary heart disease. However, its chemical composition and the components that can migrate into blood potentially exerting the therapeutic effects have rarely been elucidated. We developed an HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS approach aiming to comprehensively profile and identify both the chemical components of SST and its absorbed ingredients (and metabolites) in rat plasma and urine. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C column using acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. MS detection was conducted in both negative and positive ESI modes to yield more structure information. Comparison with reference compounds (t, MS), interpretation of the fragmentation pathways, and searching of in-house database, were utilized for more reliable structure elucidation. A total of 82 components, including 21 monoterpene glycosides, four galloyl glucoses, two phenols from PRA, and 55 ginsenosides from GSL, were identified or tentatively characterized from the 70% ethanolic extract of SST. Amongst them, seven and 24 prototype compounds could be detectable in the plasma and urine samples, respectively, after oral administration of an SST extract (4 g·kg) in rats. No metabolites were observed in the rat samples. The findings of this work first unveiled the chemical complexity of SST and its absorbed components, which would be beneficial to understanding the therapeutic basis and quality control of SST.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Methods , Tablets , Chemistry
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812422

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to determine the chemical constituents of the stem tuber of Pinellia pedatisecta. The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data. Three new alkaloids (compounds 1, 2, and 3) were obtained and identified as 9-((5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-9H-purin-6-amine (1), 4-(2-(2, 5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)ethyl)phenyl acetate (2), and N-(9-((5-methoxypyridin-2-yl)methyl)-9H-purin-6-yl)acetamide (3). These compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Compounds 1 and 3 significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells with IC values being 3.02 ± 0.54 and 7.16 ± 0.62 μmol·L, respectively.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Cell Proliferation , HeLa Cells , Humans , Pinellia , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Plant Tubers , Chemistry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812349

ABSTRACT

Shenshao Tablet (SST), prepared from Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) and total ginsenoside of Ginseng Stems and Leaves (GSL), is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation prescribed to treat coronary heart disease. However, its chemical composition and the components that can migrate into blood potentially exerting the therapeutic effects have rarely been elucidated. We developed an HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS approach aiming to comprehensively profile and identify both the chemical components of SST and its absorbed ingredients (and metabolites) in rat plasma and urine. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C column using acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. MS detection was conducted in both negative and positive ESI modes to yield more structure information. Comparison with reference compounds (t, MS), interpretation of the fragmentation pathways, and searching of in-house database, were utilized for more reliable structure elucidation. A total of 82 components, including 21 monoterpene glycosides, four galloyl glucoses, two phenols from PRA, and 55 ginsenosides from GSL, were identified or tentatively characterized from the 70% ethanolic extract of SST. Amongst them, seven and 24 prototype compounds could be detectable in the plasma and urine samples, respectively, after oral administration of an SST extract (4 g·kg) in rats. No metabolites were observed in the rat samples. The findings of this work first unveiled the chemical complexity of SST and its absorbed components, which would be beneficial to understanding the therapeutic basis and quality control of SST.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Methods , Tablets , Chemistry
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812111

ABSTRACT

Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata (Fuzi) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine in clinic for its potency in restoring yang and rescuing from collapse. Aconiti alkaloids, mainly including monoester-diterpenoidaconitines (MDAs) and diester-diterpenoidaconitines (DDAs), are considered to act as both bioactive and toxic constituents. In the present study, a feasible, economical, and accurate HPLC method for simultaneous determination of six alkaloid markers using the Single Standard for Determination of Multi-Components (SSDMC) method was developed and fully validated. Benzoylmesaconine was used as the unique reference standard. This method was proven as accurate (recovery varying between 97.5%-101.8%, RSD 0.999 9) over the concentration ranges, and subsequently applied to quantitative evaluation of 62 batches of samples, among which 45 batches were from good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and 17 batches from the drug market. The contents were then analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and homogeneity test. The present study provided valuable information for improving the quality standard of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata. The developed method also has the potential in analysis of other Aconitum species, such as Aconitum carmichaelii (prepared parent root) and Aconitum kusnezoffii (prepared root).


Subject(s)
Aconitine , Chemistry , Aconitum , Chemistry , Alkaloids , Biomarkers , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Economics , Methods , Diterpenes , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Feasibility Studies , Molecular Structure
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812058

ABSTRACT

Euphorbia kansui is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of edema, pleural effusion, and asthma, etc. According to the previous researches, terpenoids in E. kansui possess various biological activities, e.g., anti-virus, anti-allergy, antitumor effects. In this work, twenty five terpenoids were isolated from E. kansui, including thirteen ingenane- and eight jatrophane-type diterpenoids (with two new compounds, kansuinin P and Q) and four triterpenoids. Eighteen of them were analyzed by MTS assay for in vitro anticancer activity in five human cancer cell lines. Structure-activity relationship for 12 ingenane-type diterpenoids in colorectal cancer Colo205 cells were preliminary studied. Significant anti-proliferation activities were observed in human melanoma cells breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells and Colo205 cells. More than half of the isolated ingenane-type diterpenoids showed inhibitory activities in MDA-MB-435 cells. Eight ingenane- and one jatrophane-type diterpenoids possessed much lower IC values in MDA-MB-435 cells than positive control staurosporine. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis showed that substituent on position 20 was important for the activity of ingenane-type diterpenoids in Colo205 cells and substituent on position 3 contributed more significant biological activity of the compounds than that on position 5 in both MDA-MB-435 and Colo205 cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Euphorbia , Chemistry , Humans , Molecular Structure , Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Structure-Activity Relationship , Terpenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology
13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 568-575, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256793

ABSTRACT

To differentiate traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) derived from congeneric species in TCM compound preparations is usually challenging. The roots of(PG),(PQ) and(PN) are used as popular TCM. They contain similar triterpenoid saponins (ginsenosides) as the major bioactive constituents. Thus far, only a few chemical markers have been discovered to differentiate these three species. Herein we present a multiple marker detection approach to effectively differentiate the threespecies, and to identify them in compound preparations. Firstly, 85 batches of crude drug samples (including 32 PG, 30 PQ, and 23 PN) were analyzed by monitoring 40 major ginsenosides in the extracted ion chromatograms (EICs) using a validated LC-MS fingerprinting method. Secondly, the samples were clustered into different groups by pattern recognition chemometric approaches using PLS-DA and OPLS-DA models, and 17 diagnostic chemical markers were discovered. Aside from the previously known Rf and p-F, ginsenoside Rscould be a new marker to differentiate PG from PQ. Finally, the above multiple chemical markers were used to identify thespecies in 60 batches of TCM compound preparations.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812574

ABSTRACT

The sea dragon Solenognathus hardwickii has long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases, such as male impotency. To gain a comprehensive insight into the protein components of the sea dragon, shotgun proteomic analysis of its protein expression profiling was conducted in the present study. Proteins were extracted from dried sea dragon using a trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation method and then separated by SDS-PAGE. The protein bands were cut from the gel and digested by trypsin to generate peptide mixture. The peptide fragments were then analyzed using nano liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI MS/MS). 810 proteins and 1 577 peptides were identified in the dried sea dragon. The identified proteins exhibited molecular weight values ranging from 1 900 to 3 516 900 Da and pI values from 3.8 to 12.18. Bioinformatic analysis was conducted using the DAVID Bioinformatics Resources 6.7 Gene Ontology (GO) analysis tool to explore possible functions of the identified proteins. Ascribed functions of the proteins mainly included intracellular non-membrane-bound organelle, non-membrane-bounded organelle, cytoskeleton, structural molecule activity, calcium ion binding and etc. Furthermore, possible signal networks of the identified proteins were predicted using STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes) database. Ribosomal protein synthesis was found to play an important role in the signal network. The results of this study, to best of our knowledge, were the first to provide a reference proteome profile for the sea dragon, and would aid in the understanding of the expression and functions of the identified proteins.


Subject(s)
Animals , Computational Biology , Fish Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Fishes , Genetics , Metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Peptides , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Proteomics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812567

ABSTRACT

Arisaema heterophyllum Blume is one of the three medicinal plants known as traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma Arisaematis (RA). RA has been popularly used to treat patients with convulsions, inflammation, and cancer for a long time. However, the underlying mechanisms for RA effects are still unclear. The present study was designed to determine the cytotoxicity of agglutinin isolated from Arisema heterophyllum Blume (AHA) and explore the possible mechanisms in human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. AHA with purity up to 95% was isolated and purified from Arisaema heterophyllum Blume using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. AHA dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells and induced G phase cell cycle arrest. AHA induced apoptosis by up-regulating pro-apoptotic Bax, decreasing anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, and activating caspase-9 and caspase-3. In A549 cells treated with AHA, the PI3K/Akt pathway was inhibited. Furthermore, AHA induced increase in the levels of ER stress markers such as phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (p-eIF2α), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), and phosphorylated c-Jun NH-terminal kinase (p-JNK). AHA also induced autophagy in A549 cells. Staining of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and increase in the levels of LC3II and ATG7 were observed in AHA-treated cells. These findings suggested that AHA might be one of the active components with anti-cancer effects in Arisaema heterophyllum Blume. In conclusion, cytotoxicity of AHA on cancer cells might be related to its effects on apoptosis and autophagy through inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway and induction of ER stress.


Subject(s)
A549 Cells , Agglutinins , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Arisaema , Chemistry , Autophagy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Genetics , Metabolism , Phosphorylation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt , Genetics , Metabolism
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812535

ABSTRACT

Polysaccharides from numerous traditional Chinese medicines have been proven as the bioactive ingredients and are hence used as the quality control markers. However, the assessment criteria always show a poor specificity, due to the lack of systematic comparison among the analogous herbs. In the present study, two similar materials, namely sea-tangle and sargassum, were selected as the model herbs to develop more specific methods for quality control. Two well-established methods, determination of the total polysaccharides content and monosaccharides composition analysis, were both employed. Based upon the quantitative results, the evaluation criteria of the polysaccharides contents of not less than 2.0% and 1.7% were proposed for sea-tangle and sargassum, respectively. Nine identical monosaccharide derivatives appeared on the HPLC chromatograms of the hydrolysis and derivatized solutions of the two drugs. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis using the peak areas of monosaccharides derivatives as the variables were performed, and the results indicated that mannuronic acid and xylose with the opposite concentrations in the two drugs were the differential components. A discriminative criterion using the peak area ratio of these two monosaccharides derivatives was proposed for the qualitative identification. In conclusion, a more specific and quantitative quality control method was developed for sea-tangle and sargassum.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Laminaria , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Polysaccharides , Chemistry , Quality Control , Sargassum , Chemistry , Seaweed , Chemistry
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812470

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to systematically investigate the ESI-MS(n) behavior of a complex 3, 7-O-glycosyl flavonol, kaempferol 3-O-α-L-[2,3-di-O-β-D-(6-E-p-coumaroyl)glucopyranosyl]-rhamnopyranosyl-7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (KO) isolated from Epimedium wushanense, and to address the elimination priority among different glycosylation sites and different sugars/substituents. The direct-infusion ESI-MS(n) experiment of KO was performed on a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap Velos Pro mass spectrometer in both negative and positive ion modes by three different fragmentation mechanisms (CID, HCD, and PQD). The CID, HCD, and PQD analyses of KO exhibited remarkable discrimination in respect of the scan range, richness, and distribution of product ions through the entire spectra. KO experienced different fragmentation pathways between two ionization modes: the negative mode CID of KO eliminated the glycosyl portions (priority: 7-sugar > 3-substituent and terminal substituents > inner sugar) and produced aglycone product ions at m/z 284.03/285.04; however, abundant sodium-adduct B(3)2 together with subsequent (i,j)X(3)0 cleavages were found characteristic for the positive mode CID-MS(n). The fragmentation pathways by CID for KO were proposed by analyzing the high accuracy ESI-MS(n) data. Complementary structural information of KO regarding the aglycone and glycosyl portions was obtained by analyzing the ESI-MS(n) data in both ionization modes. In conclusion, the LTQ-Orbitrap method facilitates highly reliable qualitative analysis of bioactive flavonoids with three alternative fragmentation modes.


Subject(s)
Epimedium , Chemistry , Flavonols , Glycosides , Glycosylation , Herbal Medicine , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812175

ABSTRACT

Gambogic acid (GA) is an anticancer agent in phase ‖b clinical trial in China but its mechanism of action has not been fully clarified. The present study was designed to search the possible target-related proteins of GA in cancer cells using proteomic method and establish possible network using bioinformatic analysis. Cytotoxicity and anti-migration effects of GA in MDA-MB-231 cells were checked using MTT assay, flow cytometry, wound migration assay, and chamber migration assay. Possible target-related proteins of GA at early (3 h) and late stage (24 h) of treatment were searched using a proteomic technology, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The possible network of GA was established using bioinformatic analysis. The intracellular expression levels of vimentin, keratin 18, and calumenin were determined using Western blotting. GA inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, GA exhibited anti-migration effects at non-toxic doses. In 2-DE analysis, totally 23 possible GA targeted proteins were found, including those with functions in cytoskeleton and transport, regulation of redox state, metabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome system, transcription and translation, protein transport and modification, and cytokine. Network analysis of these proteins suggested that cytoskeleton-related proteins might play important roles in the effects of GA. Results of Western blotting confirmed the cleavage of vimentin, increase in keratin 18, and decrease in calumenin levels in GA-treated cells. In summary, GA is a multi-target compound and its anti-cancer effects may be based on several target-related proteins such as cytoskeleton-related proteins.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacokinetics , Apoptosis , Breast Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Calcium-Binding Proteins , Genetics , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Migration Assays , Cell Migration Inhibition , Cell Proliferation , Computational Biology , Methods , Cytoskeleton , Metabolism , Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression , Humans , Keratin-18 , Genetics , Oxidation-Reduction , Protein Biosynthesis , Protein Transport , Proteomics , Methods , Transcription, Genetic , Ubiquitin-Specific Proteases , Pharmacokinetics , Vimentin , Genetics , Xanthones , Pharmacokinetics
19.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1169-1174, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-299151

ABSTRACT

The preliminary metabolic profile of total diterpene acid (TDA) isolated from Pseudolarix kaempferi was investigated by using in vivo and in vitro tests. Pseudolaric acid C2 (PC2) was identified as the predominant metabolite in plasma, urine, bile and feces after both oral and intravenous administrations to rats using HPLC-UV and HPLC-ESI/MS(n), and demethoxydeacetoxypseudolaric acid B (DDPB), a metabolite proposed to be the glucoside of PC2 (PC2G), as well as pseudolaric acid C (PC), pseudolaric acid A (PA), pseudolaric acid A O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PAG), pseudolaric acid B O-beta-D glucopyranoside (PBG) and deacetylpseudolaric acid A (DPA) originated from TDA could also be detected. It was demonstrated by tests that the metabolism of TDA is independent of intestinal microflora, and neither of pepsin and trypsin is in charge of metabolism of TDA, TDA is also stable in both pH environments of gastric tract and intestinal tract. The metabolites of TDA in whole blood in vitro incubation were found to be PC2, DDPB and PC2G, which demonstrated that the metabolic reaction of TDA in vivo is mainly occurred in blood and contributed to be the hydrolysis of plasma esterase to ester bond, as well as the glucosylation reaction. These results clarified the metabolic pathway of TDA for the first time, which is of great significance to the in vivo active form and acting mechanism research of P. kaempferi.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Diterpenes , Metabolism , Glucosides , Metabolism , Hydrolysis , Mass Spectrometry , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Pinaceae , Chemistry , Rats
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287579

ABSTRACT

Based on the research goal of "traditional Chinese medicine standards lead in the international standard-setting", scientific strategies for the elaboration of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) comprehensive quality standard system were introduced. TCM is a complex multi-component system which was used under the guidance of traditional Chinese medical theory. The present paper has put forward the basic principle of " deep research and simplified standard" to construct the quality standards of TCM. " Deep research" refers to systematic, thorough investigations on active constituents and biological mechanisms. On the basis of deep research, "simplified standard" means to establish a scientific and feasible standard, which should be practical and less complicated, to control the quality of Chinese herbs. Three key issues related to the elaboration of the quality standards are suggested. For reference substances, we propose the research methodology using reference extract to develop the qualitative and quantitative determination methods. Compared with that of using reference compounds, the preparation of reference extract is more accessible, economical and practical. Moreover, compared with reference crude drugs, the reference extract showed better batch-to-batch consistency. For identification, in addition to conventional methods, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), chemical fingerprints and characteristic chromatogram are proposed, in which more major marker compounds are monitored. And then LC-MS technique is employed to comprehensively analyze and characterize the peaks in the fingerprint. For multi-component quantification, the method of single standard to determine multi-components (SSDMC) is suggested, providing solutions for the lack of reference standards in quality evaluation. The SSDMC method uses a single reference standard to simultaneously determine the content of multiple compounds. In general, the integrate quality control standard of TCM is established based on combining innovative technology with practical applications.


Subject(s)
Chemistry Techniques, Analytical , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Reference Standards , Quality Control , Reference Standards
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL