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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872778

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the ecological environment and associated plants of mountain cultivated Panax ginseng were investigated in Xifeng county,Kuandian Manchu autonomous county and Huanren Manchu autonomous county of Liaoning province,in order to provided suggestions on the development of the mountain cultivated P. ginseng in these areas and necessary reference materials for the analysis of ecological suitability of mountain cultivated P. ginseng. Method:The field survey was conducted through sample plot survey in the survey pattern ofbased on representative area-sample plot-quadrat,literature review and data collation, were conducted to record indicators, calculate relevant parameters and make summary. Result:The associated plants were investigated based on 42 samples of mountain cultivated ginseng collected. A total of 95 plant species were identified. The correlation analysis was made on the six main species with an occurrence frequency of higher than 33%, and they were all positively correlated. Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum was the strongest,which was followed by Schisandra chinensis, and Tilia tuan was the strongest in the arbor layer. The survey also found many problems in these areas,such as fewer large-scale planting bases, more scattered households,mixed germplasms,irregular planting techniques,simple planting mode and less sources of economic income generation. Conclusion:Xifeng county,Kuandian county and Huanren county of Liaoning province boast a superior ecological environment and abundant resources of mountain cultivated P. ginseng. The survey gets the whole picture of the ecological environment and associated plants of mountain cultivated P. ginseng in representative areas of Liaoning province,so as to provide the basis for the further development of mountain cultivated P. ginseng cultivation industry and the promotion of mountain cultivated Panax ginseng economy.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776914

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have revealed that the property of drug is mainly associated with the body's substance and energy metabolism. The present study aimed to evaluate the drug property of Poria, called Fuling (FL) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in terms of its effects on the substance and energy metabolism in rat models of cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency syndromes, compared with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, called Fuzi (FZ) in TCM, with hot property, and Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, called Zhimu (ZM) in TCM, with cold property, as reference drugs, respectively. The appearance score, toe and rectal temperatures of the animals treated were assessed at different time points. Several indices in vivo correlated with substance and energy metabolism (glucokinas, phosphoglycerate kinase, cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome c oxydase, and Na-K-ATPase), endocrine system (triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid), nervous system (acetylcholin esterase), and cyclic nucleotide system were determined. The changes in appearance score and indices in vivo suggested the successful establishment of cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency syndrome models. FZ reversed the decreased levels of indices (substance and energy metabolism and endocrine system) and alleviated the syndrome of cold-deficiency model, and ZM showed obviously therapeutic effect on heat-deficiency syndrome (appearance score, substance and energy metabolism, and endocrine system). FL could alleviate cold-deficiency syndrome and raise the decreased levels of glucokinas, phosphoglycerate kinase, cytochrome c reductase and triiodothyronine in cold-deficiency model, but had no significant effect on heat-deficiency syndrome. Drug property of FL was inferred as trending to "flat and warm", which still need further study. It was advisable to adopt both cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency models to study the drugs with "flat" property.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cold Temperature , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Male , Poria , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Treatment Outcome , Yang Deficiency , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Yin Deficiency , Drug Therapy , Metabolism
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812336

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have revealed that the property of drug is mainly associated with the body's substance and energy metabolism. The present study aimed to evaluate the drug property of Poria, called Fuling (FL) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in terms of its effects on the substance and energy metabolism in rat models of cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency syndromes, compared with Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparaia, called Fuzi (FZ) in TCM, with hot property, and Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, called Zhimu (ZM) in TCM, with cold property, as reference drugs, respectively. The appearance score, toe and rectal temperatures of the animals treated were assessed at different time points. Several indices in vivo correlated with substance and energy metabolism (glucokinas, phosphoglycerate kinase, cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome c oxydase, and Na-K-ATPase), endocrine system (triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid), nervous system (acetylcholin esterase), and cyclic nucleotide system were determined. The changes in appearance score and indices in vivo suggested the successful establishment of cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency syndrome models. FZ reversed the decreased levels of indices (substance and energy metabolism and endocrine system) and alleviated the syndrome of cold-deficiency model, and ZM showed obviously therapeutic effect on heat-deficiency syndrome (appearance score, substance and energy metabolism, and endocrine system). FL could alleviate cold-deficiency syndrome and raise the decreased levels of glucokinas, phosphoglycerate kinase, cytochrome c reductase and triiodothyronine in cold-deficiency model, but had no significant effect on heat-deficiency syndrome. Drug property of FL was inferred as trending to "flat and warm", which still need further study. It was advisable to adopt both cold-deficiency and heat-deficiency models to study the drugs with "flat" property.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cold Temperature , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Male , Poria , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Treatment Outcome , Yang Deficiency , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Yin Deficiency , Drug Therapy , Metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-337893

ABSTRACT

Because of the rapid action and high bioavailability, traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs) had been widely used in clinical critical field. In recent years, with the increasing reports of clinical adverse reaction, more and more attention was paid to them, and acute allergic reaction was the main adverse reaction. Acute allergic reaction included type-I anaphylaxis reaction and anaphylactoid reaction, the latter had been found in a variety of TCMIs and accounted for 77% of adverse reaction. But the mechanism of anaphylactoid reaction was not completely understood, the standard animal model for TCMIs was not established, and the technical guidance for anaphylactoid reaction was not formulated. Thus the three aspects included mechanism, evaluation index and evaluation methods of TCMIs for anaphylactoid were reviewed. Five ways including direct stimulating pathway, complement pathway, coagulation pathway, kallikrein-kinin pathway and acute allergic pathway were the main mechanism of anaphylactoid reaction; whole animal model and cell model were the main evaluation methods; the occurrence index and effect index were reviewed for the evaluation index analysis.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Animals , Drug Hypersensitivity , Diagnosis , Humans , Injections , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341879

ABSTRACT

Nine triterpenes compounds were isolated from the male flowers of Eucommia ulmoides by recrystallization and chromatographic techniques over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and RP-18 gel. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectral analysis and as 3-oxo-12-en-ursane-28-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl (1 --> 6) -β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 2α, 3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid(28 --> 1) -β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (2), ursolic acid (3), α-amyrin (4), uvaol (5), ursolic acid acetate (6), 3-O-acetate oleanoic acid (7), betulinic acid (8), and betulinol (9). Compound 1 was a new compound, and compounds 2, 4-7 were isolated from the Eucommiu genus for the first time. Cytotoxic activity was tested for all the compounds against K562 and HepG2 cells. The results showed that only compound 3, exhibited cytotoxic activity.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , K562 Cells , Triterpenes , Pharmacology
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287586

ABSTRACT

With the combined applications of steam distillation, water extraction and alcohol precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction and column chromatography over macroporous resin, a splitted-fractions method of the chemical constituents of Poria cocos was established. The unoverlapping property of the fractions of P. cocos was qualitatively analysed by using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. With angle cosine, squared euclidean distance and the overlapping analysis of peak area of crude herbs, the unoverlapping property of the fractions of P. cocos was half-quantitatively analysed. The chemical components of P. cocos was divided into the fractions of polysaccharide, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, alcohol eluate from macroporous resin and water eluate from macroporous resin. Non similarity degree among each chemical fraction was above 80% and main chemical components were identified. The established method for splitting fractions of P. cocos has good stability and repeatability and all chemical components in P. cocos could be completely divided into six fractions. It is the first time that the author half-quantitatively analyse the unoverlapping property of the chemical fractions of P. cocos.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cluster Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Poria , Chemistry
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812694

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To investigate the chemical constituents from the leaves of Broussonetia papyrifera.@*METHODS@#The chemical constituents were isolated and purified by macroporous adsorptive resin D101, silica gel, and ODS column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR analyses. In addition, their cytotoxic activity against human hepatoma carcinoma cells (HepG-2) were evaluated by the MTT method. Furthermore, RP-HPLC and colorimetric methods were used for the analysis of cosmosiin and total flavonoids.@*RESULTS@#A new lignan, together with five known compounds were obtained, and their structures were characterized as (+)-pinoresinol-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-4″-O-β-D-apiofuranoside (1), cosmosiin (2), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), liriodendrin (4), 3, 5, 4'-trihydroxy-bibenzyl-3-O-β-D-glucoside (5), and apigenin-6-C-β-D-glucopyranside (6). Furthermore, RP-HPLC and colorimetric methods were established for the analysis of cosmosiin and total flavonoids.@*CONCLUSION@#Compound 1 was a new lignan, and compounds 5 and 6 were isolated for the first time from the title plant. Compounds 1, 4 and 6 showed definite activities against HepG-2, while the other compounds didn't show inhibitory effects. The optimal harvest time of B. papyrifera (L.) Vent. is September.


Subject(s)
Broussonetia , Chemistry , Cell Proliferation , Cytotoxins , Chemistry , Toxicity , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Lignans , Chemistry , Toxicity , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Toxicity , Plant Leaves , Chemistry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-318711

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the plasma protein binding rate of arctiin and arctigenin.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The ultrafiltration combined with HPLC was employed to determine the plasma protein binding rate of arctiin and arctigenin as well as rat plasma and healthy human plasma proteins.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The plasma protein binding rate of arctiin with rat plasma at the concentrations of 64. 29, 32.14, 16.07 mg x L(-1) were (71.2 +/- 2.0)%, (73.4 +/- 0.61)%, (78.2 +/- 1.9)%, respectively; while the plasma protein binding rate of arctiin with healthy human plasma at the above concentrations were (64.8 +/- 3.1)%, (64.5 +/- 2.5)%, (77.5 +/- 1.7)%, respectively. The plasma protein binding rate of arctigenin with rat plasma at the concentrations of 77.42, 38.71, 19.36 mg x L(-1) were (96.7 +/- 0.41)%, (96.8 +/- 1.6)%, (97.3 +/- 0.46)%, respectively; while the plasma protein binding rate of arctigenin with normal human plasma at the above concentrations were (94.7 +/- 3.1)%, (96.8 +/- 1.6)%, (97.9 +/- 1.3)%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The binding rate of arctiin with rat plasma protein was moderate, which is slightly higher than the binding rate of arctiin with healthy human plasma protein. The plasma protein binding rates of arctigenin with both rat plasma and healthy human plasma are very high.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Binding, Competitive , Blood Proteins , Metabolism , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Furans , Metabolism , Glucosides , Metabolism , Humans , Lignans , Metabolism , Male , Protein Binding , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Ultrafiltration , Methods
9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 358-360, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-271427

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To isolate triterpene saponins of polygalacic acid type from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq.) A. DC and to identify their structures.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The compounds were separated by means of extraction, chromatography on silica gel, MPLC and HPLC, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analyses (FAB-MS, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR etc.).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Three triterpene saponins were isolated from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum. They were identified as 3-O-beta-D-laminaribiosyl polygalacic acid (I), 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl polygalacic acid (II), polygalacin D (III), separately.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compound I is a new compound, compounds II, III are known triterpene saponins. The compound I and II were isolated from the plant for the first time, which is also the monodesmoside from the plant for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Molecular Conformation , Molecular Structure , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Platycodon , Chemistry , Saponins , Chemistry
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287279

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the chemical composition of Opuntia dillenii.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Many kinds of chromatography methods were used in the isolation procedure, while the structures of isolated compounds were determined on the aids of NMR and MS spectral analysis.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>A new compound, together with five known compounds, was isolated form the 80% ethanolic extract of its stems.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The new compound was characterized as opuntioside. Four compounds were obtained for the first from the genus Opuntia, and they were daucosterol, p-hydroxybenzoicacid, L-(-)-malic acid, (E)-ferulic acid. Opuntiol was also separated for the first from the plant.</p>


Subject(s)
Coumaric Acids , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Monosaccharides , Chemistry , Opuntia , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Sitosterols , Chemistry
11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 332-336, 2005.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-353502

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study the effects of ginsenoside-Ro on cell proliferation and cytokine production in murine splenocytes.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The effect of ginsenoside-Ro on murine splenocytes proliferation was studied using [3H] thymidine incorporation assay. Effects of ginsenoside-Ro on the production of cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) from murine splenocytes were detected by ELISA method. Effects of ginsenoside-Ro on mRNA level of Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma and Th2 cytokine IL-4 were evaluated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Ginsenoside-Ro showed no mitogenic effect on unstimulated murine splenocytes. It enhanced the proliferation of Con A-induced murine splenocytes and the production of IL-2 at concentrations of 1-10 micromol x L(-1). Moreover, ginsenoside-Ro increased the production and expression of Th2 cytokine IL-4 and decreased the production and expression of Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma in Con A-induced murine splenocytes at concentrations of 2-10 micromol x L(-1).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Ginsenoside-Ro showed immunomodulatory effects by regulating the production and expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in murine splenocytes.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Proliferation , Ginsenosides , Pharmacology , Interferon-gamma , Genetics , Interleukin-2 , Metabolism , Interleukin-4 , Genetics , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Panax , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Spleen , Cell Biology , Metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272780

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the chemical constituents from the rhizomes of Smilax glabra.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The compounds were isolated by column chromatography with silica gel, Diaion HP-20 and ODS as packing materials, and HPLC. Their structures were determined on the basis of their spectral evidence.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>5 dihydro-flavonol glycosides were identified as: astilbin (1), neoastilbin (2), isoastilbin (3), neoisoastilbin (4), (2R, 3R)-taxifolin-3'-O-beta-D-pyranglucoside (5).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compounds 2, 4, 5 were isolated from this plant for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Flavonols , Chemistry , Glucosides , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Quercetin , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry , Smilax , Chemistry , Stereoisomerism
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-282278

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To isolate and elucidate the constituents from the roots of Commercial Ginseng.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Column chromatography and HPLC were used to isolate chemical constituents. Physico-chemical characters and spectr-oscopic analysis were employed for structural identification.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Sixteen compounds were identified as: notoginsenoside-R2(1), ginsenoside-Rg2(2), 20 (R)-Rg2 (3), ginsenoside-Rg1 (4), -Rf(5), -Re(6), -Rd(7), -Rc(8), -Rb1(9), -Rb2(10), -Rb3(11), -Ra3(12), -Ra2(13), -Ra1 (14), notoginsenoside-R4(15) and ginsenoside -Ro(16).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Compound 1 was obtained from the plant for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Ginsenosides , Chemistry , Panax , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 523-525, 2003.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266646

ABSTRACT

<p><b>AIM</b>To study the chemical composition of Opuntia dillenii Haw.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Many kinds of chromatography methods were used to separate the chemical constituents. Their structures were determined by NMR and MS spectral analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A new compound, together with five known compounds, were isolated from the 80% ethanolic extract of the stems.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The new compound was identified as 4-ethoxyl-6-hydroxymethyl-alpha-pyrone. Compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 were obtained for the first time from the genus of Opuntia, and they were: 3-O-methyl isorhamnein, 1-heptanecanol, vanillic acid, isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-rutinoside. Ruin was isolated from this plant for the first time.</p>


Subject(s)
Molecular Structure , Opuntia , Chemistry , Plant Stems , Chemistry , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Pyrones , Chemistry , Rutin , Chemistry , Vanillic Acid , Chemistry
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