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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-490835


Objective To analyze the clinical value of postoperative radiotherapy for node-positive middle thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma ( TESCC ) and to modify the target volume .Methods A total of 286 patients with node-positive middle TESCC underwent radical surgery in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, from 2004 to 2009.In addition, 90 of these patients received postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy.The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival rates, and the log-rank test was used for survival difference analysis.The Cox model was used for multivariate prognostic analysis.The chi-square test was used for comparing the recurrence between patients receiving different treatment modalities.Results The 5-year overall survival ( OS) rates of the surgery alone ( S) group and surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy ( S+R) group were 22.9%and 37.8%, respectively, and the median OS times were 23.2 and 34.7 months, respectively ( P=0.003) .For patients with 1 or 2 lymph node metastases (LNMs), the 5-year OS rates of the S group and S+R group were 27.3%and 44.8%, respectively ( P=0.017);for patients with more than 2 LNMs, the 5-year OS rates of the S group and S+R group were 16.7%and 25.0%, respectively (P=0.043).The peritoneal lymph node metastasis rates of N1 , N2 , and N3 patients in the S group were 2.9%, 10.9%, and 20.0%, respectively ( P=0.024) .The S+R group had a significantly lower mediastinal lymph node metastasis rate than the S group ( for patients with 1 or 2 LMNs:8.0%vs.35.3%, P=0.003;for patients with more than 2 LNMs, 10.0%vs.42.3%, P=0.001) , and had a prolonged recurrence time compared with the S group ( 25.1 vs.10.7 months, P=0.000) .However, for patients with more than 2 LNMs, the S+R group had a significantly higher hematogenous metastasis rate than the S group (46.7%vs.26.1%, P=0.039).Conclusions Patients with node-positive middle TESCC could benefit from postoperative radiotherapy.The target volume can be reduced for patients with 1 or 2 LNMs.Prospective studies are needed to examine whether it is more appropriate to reduce the radiotherapy dose than to reduce the target volume for patients with more than 2 LNMs.A high hematogenous metastasis rate warrants chemotherapy as an additional regimen.

Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-488159


[ Abstract] Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of preoperative three-dimensional radiotherapy (3DRT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy for esophageal carcinoma.Methods We retrospectively analyzed 103 esophageal carcinoma patients who received preoperative 3DRT with or without concurrent chemotherapy from 2004 to 2014 in Cancer Hospital CAMS.The median radiation dose was 40 Gy, and the TP or PF regimen was adopted for concurrent chemotherapy if needed.The overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival ( DFS) were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method, and the survival difference and univariate prognostic analyses were performed by the log-rank test.The Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate prognostic analysis.Results The number of patients followed at 3-years was 54.The 3-year OS and DFS rates were 61.1% and 54.9%, respectively, for all patients.There were no significant differences between the 3DRT and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) groups as to OS (P=0.876) and DFS (P=0.521).The rates of complete, partial, and minimal pathologic responses of the primary tumor were 48.0%, 40.2%, and 11.8%, respectively.There were significant differences in OS and DFS between the complete, partial, and minimal pathologic response groups (P=0.037 and 0.003). No significant difference in pathologic response rate was found between the 3DRT and CCRT groups (P=0.953).The lymph node metastasis rate was 26.5%, and this rate for the complete, partial, and minimal pathologic response groups was 14%, 30%, and 67%, respectively, with a significant difference between the three groups (P=0.001).The OS and DFS were significantly higher in patients without lymph node metastasis than in those with lymph node metastasis (P=0.034 and 0.020).The surgery-related mortality was 7.8% in all patients.Compared with the 3DRT group, the CCRT group had significantly higher incidence rates of leukopenia (P=0.002), neutropenia (P=0.023), radiation esophagitis (P=0.008), and radiation esophagitis ( P=0.023).Pathologic response of the primary tumor and weight loss before treatment were independent prognostic factors for OS and DFS (P=0.030,0.024 and P=0.003,0.042). Conclusions Preoperative 3DRT alone or with concurrent chemotherapy can result in a relatively high complete pathologic response rate, hence increasing the survival rate.Further randomized clinical trials are needed to confirm whether preoperative CCRT is better than 3DRT in improving survival without increasing the incidence of adverse reactions.

Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 530-533, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286785


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) esophagectomy has been performed for more than 10 years in China. However, compared with the conventional esophagectomy via right thoracotomy, whether VATS esophagectomy has more advantages or not in the lymph node (LN) dissection and prevention of perioperative complications is still controversial and deserves to be further investigated. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are significant differences in this issue between the two surgical modalities or not.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The results of lymph node dissection and perioperative complications as well as other parameters in the patients treated by VATS esophagectomy and those by conventional esophagectomy via right thoracotomy at our department from May 1, 2009 to July 30, 2013 were compared using SPSS 16.0 in order to investigate whether there was any significant difference between these two treatment modalities in the learning curve stage of VATS esophagectomy.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>One hundred and twenty-nine cases underwent VATS esophagectomy between May 1, 2009 and July 30, 2013, and another part 129 cases with the same preoperative cTNM stage treated by conventional esopahgectomy via right thoracotomy were selected in order to compare the results of lymph node dissection and perioperative complications as well as other parameters between those two groups of patients. There were no significant differences in the sex, age, lesion locations and cTNM stage between these two groups. The total LN metastatic rate in the VATS esophagectomy group was 35.7% and that of the conventional esophagectomy group was 37.2% (P > 0.05). The total average number of dissected lymph nodes was 12.1 vs. 16.2 (P < 0.001). The average dissected LN stations was 3.2 vs. 3.6 (P = 0.038). The total average number of dissected LN along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve was 2.0 vs. 3.7 (P = 0.012). The total average number of dissected LN along the right recurrent laryngeal nerve was 2.9 vs. 3.4 (P = 0.231). However, there was no significant difference in the total average number of dissected LN in the other thoracic LN stations, and in the perioperative complications between the two groups. The total postoperative complication rate was 41.1% in the VATS group versus 42.6% in the conventional group (P = 0.801). The cardiopulmonary complication rate was 25.6% vs. 27.1% (P = 0.777). The death rate was the same in the two groups (0.8%). The VATS group had less blood infusion (23.2% vs. 41.8%, P = 0.001) and shorter hospital stay (15.9 days vs. 19.2 days, P = 0.049) but longer operating time (161.3 min vs. 127.8 min, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>In the learning curve stage of VATS esophagectomy, compared with the conventional esophagectomy, less LN number and stations can be dissected in the VATS group due to un-skillful VATS manipulation, especially it is more difficult in the LN dissection along the left recurrent laryngeal nerve. Therefore, it is more suitable to select patients with early esophageal cancer without obvious enlarged lymph nodes for VATS esophagectomy in the learning curve stage.</p>

China , Esophageal Neoplasms , Pathology , General Surgery , Esophagectomy , Methods , Humans , Learning Curve , Length of Stay , Lymph Node Excision , Methods , Lymph Nodes , Operative Time , Postoperative Complications , Epidemiology , Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Thoracotomy
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 536-540, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272339


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the pattern of lymph node metastasis and evaluate the modes and extent of mediastinal lymph node dissection in patients with ≤ 3 cm, clinical stage I primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Data of 270 eligible patients who underwent pulmonary resection with systematic lymph node dissection in our hospital between March 2012 and August 2013 were retrospectively analyzed in order to investigate the relationship between the clinicopathological features and lymph node metastatic patterns. Patients with multiple primary carcinomas or non-primary pulmonary malignancies and those who received any chemotherapy or radiotherapy or did not undergo systematic nodal dissection were excluded. The criteria of systematic nodal dissection included the removal of at least six lymph nodes from at least three mediastinal stations, one of which must be subcarinal. The data were analyzed and compared using Chi-square test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The postoperative morbidity rate was 14.8% and no death occurred in this series. The imaging findings showed 34 cases of pure ground glass opacity lesions, 47 partial solid nodules, and 189 solid nodules. Apart from 34 p-GGO lesions, among the other 236 cases, ≤ 1 cm lesions were in 22 cases, 1 cm- ≤ 2 cm lesions in 138 cases, and >2 cm- ≤ 3 cm lesions in 76 cases based on radiologic findings. The pathological types included adenocarcinoma (n = 245), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 18) and other rare types (n = 7). The overall lymph node metastasis rate was 18.9% (51/270), and the incidence of lymph node involvement was 0(0/34) in cancers with p-GGO, 2.1% (1/47) in mixed solid nodules, 26.5% (50/189) in solid nodules, 18.2% (4/22) in nodules ≤ 1 cm, 14.5% (20/138) in 1 cm < nodules ≤ 2 cm, and 35.5% (27/76) in 2 cm < nodules ≤ 3 cm. The metastasis rates of non-specific tumor-draining region lymph nodes detected in the patients with positive and negative lobe-specific lymph node involvement were 20.0%-50.0% vs. 0-2.9% (P < 0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Usually NSCLC with p-GGO nodules has no lymph node metastasis, therefore, systematic nodal dissection may be not necessary. The larger the tumor size is, the higher the lymph node metastatic rate is for mixed or solid nodules. Intraoperative frozen-section examination of the lobe-specific lymph nodes should be performed routinely in patients with ≤ 2 cm stage I NSCLC, and systematic nodal dissection should be done if positive, but it may be not necessary if negative. However, the effectiveness of the systematic selective lymph node dissection still needs to be further confirmed.</p>

Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Diagnosis , General Surgery , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Methods , Lymph Nodes , General Surgery , Lymphatic Metastasis , Diagnosis , Neoplasm Staging , Retrospective Studies
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 53-58, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328999


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate and compare the value of stair climbing tests and conventional pulmonary function tests in the prediction of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in non-small cell lung cancer patients underwent surgery.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From April 1, 2010 to Jan. 30, 2012, a total of 162 patients with thoracic carcinoma underwent stair climbing test (SCT) and conventional pulmonary function tests (PFT) preoperatively. The correlation of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications with the SCT and PFT parameters were analyzed retrospectively using chi-square test, independent sample t test and binary logistic regression analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of the 162 patients, 19 without operation were excluded, due to an advanced stage (9 cases), poor cardiopulmonary function (5 cases), rejecting operation (4 cases) and exploration alone (1 case). 143 cases were eligible and evaluated eventually. Forty-one of the 143 patients (28.7%) had postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, but no death occurred. The patients were stratified into groups based on the time of stair climbing 5 stories (18.36 m, t, <92 s, ≥ 92 s). Exercise oxygen desaturation (EOD) during the stair climbing test (<5%, ≥ 5%) and the difference between the pulse at resting state and the pulse at end of stair climbing test (ΔP, <55 beats/min, ≥ 55 beats/min), respectively. The rate of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications was significantly higher in the group with t ≥ 92 s, EOD ≥ 5% and ΔP < 55 beats/min (38.5%, 42.0% and 35.1%, respectively) than that in the group with t<92 s, EOD<5% and ΔP ≥ 55 beats/min (16.9%, 21.5% and 18.2%, respectively). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that postoperative cardiopulmonary complications were independently correlated with EOD and lung function which did not meet the requirement of the lung resection operation mode.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>A symptom-limited stair climbing test is a safe, simple and low-cost method to evaluate the cardiopulmonary function preoperatively. It can predict the occurrence of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications in non-small cell lung cancer patients. Conventional pulmonary function tests and stair-climbing test can be recommended to be routinely performed in all patients with non-small cell lung cancer before thoracic surgery.</p>

Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , General Surgery , Exercise Test , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , General Surgery , Postoperative Complications , Diagnosis , Respiratory Function Tests , Retrospective Studies