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J. appl. oral sci ; 30: e20210483, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365009


Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the mechanical, physicochemical, and antimicrobial properties of four different formulations containing micro- or nanoparticles of sodium trimetaphosphate (mTMP and nTMP, respectively). Methodology: Four experimental groups were used in this investigation: two mTMP groups and two nTMP groups, each containing zirconium oxide (ZrO2), and solution containing either chitosan or titanium oxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs). Setting time, compression resistance, and radiopacity were estimated. The agar diffusion test was used to assess the antimicrobial activity of the formulations against five different microbial strains: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Actinomyces israelii, Candida albicans, and Enterococcus faecalis. Parametric and nonparametric tests were performed after evaluating homoscedasticity data (p<0.05). Results: From the properties evaluated, nTMP cements required less setting time and showed greater resistance to compression. Cements containing TiO2 showed greater radiopacity for both nTMP and mTMP. All four cement formulations showed antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and L. casei Conclusion: Formulations containing nTMP have shorter setting times and higher compressive strength, and those with TiO2 nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities. Clinical relevance: The cement containing nTMP, ZrO2, and TiO2 could be an alternative material for protecting the pulp complex.

Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 35: e030, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1153618


Abstract The present study evaluated the ability of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species associated with streptococci to increase insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and initial caries lesion progression. Bovine enamel blocks (n = 190; 4 mm x 4 mm) were prepared, selected according to initial surface hardness (SH), and divided into two groups: a) double combinations: S. mutans with Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus, and b) triple combinations: S. mutans and S. sobrinus with Bifidobacterium or Lactobacillus species. The blocks were exposed to the bacterial associations for 7 days. Subsequently, quantity of EPS from biofilms and caries lesion depth were determined by means of colorimetric and cross-sectional enamel hardness (ΔKHN) analysis. The data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance, followed by the Bonferroni test (p < 0.05). S. mutans with B. animalis or B. dentium produced a higher quantity of EPS; S. mutans + B. animalis led to the highest ∆KHN. S. mutans + S. sobrinus + B. longum induced greater EPS and ∆KHN values. In conclusion, associations of B. animalis and B. longum with streptococci promoted EPS production and caries lesion progression.

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Demineralization , Dental Caries , Streptococcus mutans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Biofilms , Dental Enamel
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 34: e086, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132728


Abstract This study evaluates how atenolol affects dental mineralization in offspring of female spontaneously hypertensive rats (fSHR) and normotensive Wistar rats (fW). fSHR and fW were treated with atenolol (100 mg/Kg/day, orally) during pregnancy and lactation. Non-treated fSHR and fW were the control groups. Enamel and dentin hardness were analyzed (Knoop, 15 g load, 10s) in mandibular incisor teeth (IT) and molar teeth (MT) obtained from the male offspring of atenolol-treated and non-treated fWistar and fSHR. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Tukey post hoc test (p < 0.05). Atenolol reduced the arterial blood pressure (SBP) in fSHR, but it did not change the SBP in fW. The offspring of non-treated fSHR had lower enamel (IT and MT) and dentin (IT) hardness than the offspring of non-treated fW (p < 0.05). Atenolol increased enamel and dentin hardness in the IT obtained from the offspring of fSHR and fW (p<0.05), but the offspring of fSHR presented higher values (p < 0.05). Atenolol did not alter enamel width in the IT obtained from any of the groups, but it increased enamel and dentin hardness in the IT obtained from the offspring of fSHR and fW. Atenolol affected the IT obtained from the offspring of fSHR. Atenolol increased only enamel hardness in the MT obtained from the offspring of fW. In conclusion, maternal hypertension reduces tooth hard tissues, and treatment with atenolol increases tooth hardness in male offspring of hypertensive and normotensive female rats.

Animals , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Hypertension , Atenolol , Rats, Wistar , Dental Enamel , Dentin , Hardness
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180188, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-984574


Abstract Sources of calcium and phosphate have been added to dental restorative materials to improve their anticaries effect. Objective This study evaluated the effect of adding calcium glycerophosphate (CaGP) to resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) on the physico-mechanical properties, ion release, and enamel demineralization. Material and Methods: Specimens were fabricated for each experimental group: RMGIC without CaGP (Control), RMGIC with 1, 3 and 9% CaGP. To determine the release of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), six specimens were immersed in demineralization and remineralization solutions for 15 days. In another experimental trial, the following physico-mechanical properties were evaluated at time intervals of 1 and 7 days after fabrication: compressive strength (n=12), diametral tensile strength (n=12), surface hardness of material (n=6) and the degree of conversion of monomers (n=8). To study enamel demineralization, specimens (n=12) were attached to enamel blocks and submitted to pH-cycling. Subsequently, surface and cross-sectional hardness and the concentration of F, Ca and P in enamel were determined. Results The addition of CaGP to RMGIC led to higher mean release of F, Ca and P when compared with control (p<0.001). Mechanical properties were within the range of those of the ionomer cements after addition of 1% and 3% CaGP. The degree of conversion did not differ between groups at the 1st and the 7th day (p>0.439). The addition of 3% and 9% CaGP reduced mineral loss and increased F, Ca and P in the enamel when compared with control (p<0.05). Conclusion The addition of 3% CaGP in RMGIC increased the release of F, P and Ca, reduced enamel demineralization, and maintained the physico-mechanical properties within the parameters for this material.

Humans , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Resin Cements/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Glycerophosphates/chemistry , Phosphates/analysis , Reference Values , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Photomicrography , Calcium/analysis , Reproducibility of Results , Compressive Strength , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness Tests
J. appl. oral sci ; 25(6): 596-603, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-893668


Abstract Dental applications based on the unique characteristics of amorphous calcium phosphate stabilized by casein phosphopeptides (CPP-ACP) have been proposed, as well as the improvement of its properties. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the ability of topically applied CPP-ACP from a commercial product to remineralize subsurface lesions when applied for extended periods of time (3 h and 8 h). Material and Methods: Artificially induced carious lesions were produced in 50 bovine enamel blocks previously selected by surface hardness. After treatments with gel without F and CPP-ACP applied for 1 minute (Placebo); 2% NaF neutral gel applied for 1 minute (Fluoride 1 min); CPP-ACP applied for 3 min (ACP 3 min); and CPP-ACP applied for 3 h (ACP 3 h) and for 8 h (ACP 8 h), the enamel blocks were submitted to the remineralization pH-cycling. Surface hardness and synchrotron micro-tomography were used to determine the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR) and to calculate mineral concentration (−3), respectively. The data were submitted to ANOVA followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test (p<0.05). Results: Fluoride gel presented higher %SHR followed by ACP 3 min (p<0.001). No difference (p = 0.148) was found for Placebo, ACP 3 h and ACP 8 h groups for %SHR. Fluoride gel showed greater mineral concentration (p<0.001) when compared with the other groups. ACP 3 min demonstrated a significant difference (p<0.001) from ACP 3 h and ACP 8 h. The ACP 3 h and 8 h presented a subsurface lesion with development of laminations in all blocks. Conclusion: In this in vitro study the use of CPP-ACP for extended periods of time did not produce an additive effect in the remineralization process.

Animals , Cattle , Tooth Remineralization , Caseins/pharmacology , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Time Factors , In Vitro Techniques , Synchrotrons , Dental Enamel/diagnostic imaging , X-Ray Microtomography
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e64, 2016. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952063


Abstract This study assessed fluoride (F) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) release into artificial saliva from varnishes containing 0%, 2.5%, and 5% NaF, supplemented or not with 5% TMP. The varnishes were applied on polyester sheets (n = 8/group), and F and TMP released into artificial saliva were measured for up to 24 hours. The amount of F and TMP released were directly related to NaF and TMP concentrations in the varnishes. The highest F release was seen for 5% NaF and 5% NaF + 5% TMP, whereas 5% TMP released the highest amount of TMP. However, the simultaneous addition of NaF and TMP to varnishes significantly reduced the amount of F and TMP released from the products.

Reference Values , Sodium Fluoride/chemistry , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Statistics, Nonparametric , Fluorides/chemistry , Polyphosphates/chemistry , Saliva, Artificial , Time Factors , Analysis of Variance
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-1, 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777198


The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the effects of 2 brands of probiotic fermented milk on biofilms, oral microbiota, and enamel. For the in situ experiment, ten volunteers wore palatine devices containing four blocks of bovine dental enamel over 3 phases, during which 20% sucrose solution, Yakult® (Treatment A), and Batavito® (Treatment B) were dropped on the enamel blocks. Salivary microbial counts were obtained and biofilm samples were analyzed after each phase. For the in vivo experiment, the same ten volunteers drunk Yakult® (Treatment C) and Batavito® (Treatment D) in two phases. Saliva samples were collected for microbial analysis after each phase. The in situ study showed that in comparison with Treatment A, Treatment B resulted in fewer total cultivable anaerobes and facultative microorganisms in biofilms, higher final microhardness, lower percentage change in surface hardness, and smaller integrated subsurface enamel hardness. In the in vivo study, Treatment D resulted in a reduction in the counts of all microorganisms. The results suggested that the probiotic fermented milk Batavito®, but not Yakult®, reduced the amount of oral microorganisms and mineral loss in bovine enamel.

Animals , Cattle , Humans , Biofilms/growth & development , Cultured Milk Products , Dental Enamel/microbiology , Mouth/microbiology , Probiotics/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Colony Count, Microbial , Cross-Over Studies , Cultured Milk Products/chemistry , Double-Blind Method , Hardness Tests , Lactobacillus/growth & development , Microbiota , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties , Saliva/chemistry , Saliva/microbiology , Streptococcus mutans/growth & development , Sucrose/pharmacology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Braz. dent. j ; 25(6): 479-484, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732264


The present study analyzed the action of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) and/or fluoride on hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite powder was suspended in different solutions: deionized water, 500 µg F/mL, 1,100 µg F/mL, 1%TMP, 3%TMP, 500 µg F/mL plus 1%TMP and 500 µg F/mL plus 3%TMP. The pH value of the solutions was reduced to 4.0 and after 30 min, raised to 7.0 (three times). After pH-cycling, the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The concentrations of calcium fluoride, fluoride, calcium and phosphorus were also determined. Adding 1% or 3% TMP to the solution containing 500 µg F/mL produced a higher quantity of calcium fluoride compared to samples prepared in a 1,100 µg F/mL solution. Regarding the calcium concentration, samples prepared in solutions of 1,100 µg F/mL and 500 µg F/mL plus TMP were statistically similar and showed higher values. Using solutions of 1,100 µg F/mL and 500 µg F/mL plus TMP resulted in a calcium/phosphorus ratio close to that of hydroxyapatite. It is concluded that the association of TMP and fluoride favored the precipitation of a more stable hydroxyapatite.

O presente estudo avaliou a ação do trimetafosfato de sódio (TMP) e/ou fluoreto sobre a hidroxiapatita. Pó de hidroxiapatita foi suspenso em diferentes soluções: água deionizada, 500 µg F/mL, 1100 µg F/mL, 1%TMP, 3%TMP, 500 µg F/mL adicionado a 1%TMP e 500 µg F/mL associado a 3%TMP. O pH das soluções foi reduzido para 4,0 e depois de 30 min, elevado para 7,0 (três vezes). Depois do processo de ciclagem de pH, as amostras foram analisadas por difração de raios-X e espectroscopia por infravermelho. As concentrações de fluoreto de cálcio, fluoreto, cálcio e fósforo também foram determinadas. A adição de 1% ou 3% TMP na solução contendo 500 µg F/mL produziu uma maior quantidade de fluoreto de cálcio comparado às amostras tratadas com uma solução de 1100 µg F/mL. A respeito da concentração de cálcio, amostras tratadas com soluções de 1100 µg F/mL e 500 µg F/mL adicionado ao TMP foram estatisticamente similares e mostraram maiores valores. Soluções de 1100 µg F/mL e 500 µg F/mL adicionado ao TMP resultaram em uma proporção molar Ca/P mais próxima à da hidroxiapatita. Conclui-se que a associação de TMP e F favoreceu a precipitação de uma hidroxiapatita mais estável.

Animals , Mice , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Endotoxins/toxicity , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Tungsten Compounds , Allopurinol/pharmacology , Gentamicins/pharmacology , Ileum/microbiology , Ileum/pathology , Polymyxin B/pharmacology , Quinolinium Compounds/pharmacology , Tungsten/pharmacology , Xanthine Oxidase/antagonists & inhibitors
J. appl. oral sci ; 21(6): 525-532, Nov-Dec/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-697811


No in situ protocol has assessed the dose-response effects of fluoride dentifrices involving low-fluoride formulations. Objective: To assess the ability of an in situ remineralization model in determining dose-response effects of dentifrices containing low fluoride concentrations ([F]) on bovine enamel. Material and Methods: Volunteers wore palatal appliances containing demineralized enamel blocks and brushed their teeth and devices with the dentifrices supplied (double-blind, crossover protocol) separately for 3 and 7 days. Surface hardness (SH), integrated subsurface hardness (ΔKHN) and [F] in enamel were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey's test and Pearson's correlation (p<0.05). Results: Dose-response relationships were verified between [F] in dentifrices and SH, ΔKHN and enamel [F]. Higher correlation coefficients between enamel [F] and SH and ΔKHN were obtained for the 3-day period. Significant differences in SH and ΔKHN were observed among all groups for the 3-day period, but not between 0-275, 275-550, and 550-1,100 µg F/g dentifrices for the 7-day period, nor between 3- and 7-day periods for the 1,100 µg F/g groups. Conclusions: Considering that the peak remineralization capacity of the conventional dentifrice (1,100 µg F/g) was achieved in 3 days, this experimental period could be used in future studies assessing new dentifrice formulations, especially at low-fluoride concentrations. .

Humans , Animals , Male , Female , Adult , Cattle , Young Adult , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentifrices/pharmacology , Fluorides/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/drug therapy , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Analysis of Variance , Cross-Over Studies , Dentifrices/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Hardness Tests , Surface Properties/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 235-240, May-Jun/2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681875


This study evaluated the effect of different concentrations of sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) with and without fluoride (F) on the concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and F in hydroxyapatite (HA). Synthetic HA powder (0.15 g) was suspended (n=6) in solutions (75 mL) of TMP at 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 4.0%, 6.0%, 8.0% and 10% concentrations in the presence and absence of 100 ppm F and subjected to a pH-cycling process. The precipitates were filtrated, dried at 70° C for 24 h and ground onto a fine powder. The concentrations of F (KOH (CaF2) and HCl (FA) soluble), Ca (Arsenazo III), and P (molybdate method) in HA were determined. The Ca P, and Ca/P ratio data were subjected to Tukey's test and the F data were subjected to Student-Newman-Keuls test (p<0.05). The addition of TMP to the samples reduced F deposition to 98% (p<0.001). The groups containing 100 ppm F and 0.4% or 0.6% TMP exhibited a higher Ca concentration than the group containing only 100 ppm F (p<0.05). Furthermore, the HA treated with 0.2% and 0.4% TMP and 100 ppm F showed a higher Ca/P ratio than the other groups (p<0.001). In conclusion, TMP at 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6% concentrations combined with F seemed to be able to precipitate HA with low solubility. However, especially at high concentrations, TMP interferes with F deposition on HA.

Este estudo avaliou o efeito de diferentes concentrações de trimetafosfato de sódio (TMP) com e sem fluoreto (F) nas concentrações de cálcio (Ca), fósforo (P) e F na hidroxiapatita (HA). Pó de HA sintético (0,15 g) foi suspenso (n=6) em soluções (75 mL) de TMP com concentrações de 0%, 0,1%, 0,2%, 0,4%, 0,6%, 0,8%, 1,0%, 2,0%, 4,0%, 6,0%, 8,0% e 10% na presença ou na ausência de 100 ppm F e foram submetidas ao processo de ciclagem de pH. O precipitado foi filtrado seco a 70°C por 24 h e triturado em um pó fino. As concentrações de F (solúvel em KOH: CaF2, e em HCl: FA), Ca (Arsenazo III) e P (método do molibdato) foram determinadas na HA. Os dados de Ca, P e de proporção Ca/P foram submetidos ao teste de Tukey e os dados de F ao teste Student-Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). A adição de TMP reduziu a deposição de F em 98% (p<0,001). Os grupos contendo 100 ppm F e TMP 0,4% e 0,6% apresentaram maiores concentrações de Ca do que o grupo contendo somente 100 ppm F (p<0,05). Além disso, a HA tratada com 0,2% e 0,4% de TMP e 100 ppm F apresentou maiores proporções Ca/P em relação aos demais grupos (p<0,001). Em conclusão, TMP nas concentrações de 0,2%, 0,4% e 0,6% quando associado ao F é capaz de precipitar uma HA com menor solubilidade. Entretanto, especialmente em altas concentrações, TMP interfere com a deposição de F na HA.

Humans , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Durapatite/chemistry , Polyphosphates/chemistry , Chemical Precipitation , Crystallization , Calcium/analysis , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Durapatite/analysis , Fluorides/analysis , Fluorides/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing , Phosphorus/analysis , Polyphosphates/administration & dosage , Solubility , Temperature , Time Factors
Braz. dent. j ; 24(3): 253-257, May-Jun/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-681877


The objective of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of a low fluoride toothpaste (450 µgF/g, NaF) combined with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel remineralization. Bovine enamel blocks had the enamel surface polished sequentially to determine the surface hardness. After production of artificial carious lesions, the blocks selected by their surface hardness were submitted to remineralization pH cycling and daily treatment with dentifrice suspensions (diluted in deionized water or artificial saliva): placebo, 275, 450, 550 and 1,100 µgF/g and commercial dentifrice (positive control, 1,100 µgF/g). Finally, the surface and cross-section hardness was determined for calculating the change of surface hardness (%SH) and mineral content (%∆Z). Fluoride in enamel was also determined. The data from %SH, %∆Z and fluoride were subjected to two-way analysis of variance followed by Student-Newman-Keuls's test (p<0.05). The mineral gain (%SH and %∆Z) was higher for toothpastes diluted in saliva (p<0.05), except for the 450 µgF/g dentifrice with Cacit/TMP (p>0.05). The 450 Cacit/TMP toothpaste and the positive control showed similar results (p>0.05) when diluted in water. A dose-response was observed between fluoride concentration in toothpastes and fluoride present in enamel, regardless of dilution. It was concluded that it is possible to enhance the remineralization capacity of low F concentration toothpaste by of organic (Cacit) and inorganic (TMP) compounds with affinity to hydroxyapatite.

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar in vitro o efeito de um dentifrício com reduzida concentração de fluoreto (450 µgF/g, NaF) associado ao citrato de cálcio (Cacit) e trimetafosfato de sódio (TMP) na remineralização do esmalte. Blocos de esmalte bovino tiveram sua superfície de esmalte polida seqüencialmente para determinação da dureza de superfície. Após o desenvolvimento de lesões artificiais de cárie, os blocos selecionados através da dureza de superfície foram submetidos a ciclagem de remineralização e tratamento diário com suspensões de dentifrícios (diluição em água deionizada ou saliva artificial): placebo, 275, 450, 550 e 1.100 µgF/g e com dentifrício comercial (controle positivo, 1.100 µgF/g). Ao término, determinou-se a dureza de superfície e em secção longitudinal, para cálculo da variação da dureza de superfície (%SH) e do conteúdo mineral (%∆Z). O fluoreto presente no esmalte também foi determinado. Os dados de %SH, %∆Z e fluoreto foram submetidos a análise de variância a dois critérios seguido pelo teste de Student-Newman-Keuls (p<0,05). O ganho mineral (%SH e %∆Z) foi maior para os dentifrícios diluídos em saliva (p<0,05), exceto para os dentifrícios 450 µg F/g com Cacit/TMP (p>0,05). Os dentifrícios 450 Cacit/TMP e controle positivo apresentaram resultados semelhantes (p>0,05) quando diluídos em água. Uma relação dose-resposta foi observada entre a concentração de fluoreto nos dentifrícios e o fluoreto presente no esmalte, independente da diluição. Concluiu-se que é possível melhorar a capacidade de remineralização de dentifrícios com reduzida concentração de fluoreto pela adição de compostos orgânico (Cacit) e inorgânico (TMP) com afinidade a hidroxiapatita.

Animals , Cattle , Calcium Citrate/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/pharmacology , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dental Caries/physiopathology , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentifrices/analysis , Dentifrices/pharmacology , Fluorides/administration & dosage , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing , Minerals/analysis , Placebos , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry , Water/chemistry
Braz. dent. j ; 24(1): 35-39, 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671349


This study evaluated the capacity of fluoride acidic dentifrices (pH 4.5) to promote enamel remineralization using a pH cycling model, comparing them with a standard dentifrice (1,100 µgF/g). Enamel blocks had their surface polished and surface hardness determined (SH). Next, they were submitted to subsurface enamel demineralization and to post-demineralization surface hardness analysis. The blocks were divided into 6 experimental groups (n=10): placebo (without F, pH 4.5, negative control), 275, 412, 550, 1,100 µgF/g and a standard dentifrice (positive control). The blocks were submitted to pH cycling for 6 days and treatment with dentifrice slurries twice a day. After pH cycling, surface and cross-sectional hardness were assessed to obtain the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR) and the integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN). The results showed that %SHR was similar among acidic dentifrices with 412, 550, 1,100 µgF/g and to the positive control (Tukey's test; p>0.05). For ΔKHN, the acidic dentifrice with 550 µg F/g showed a better performance when compared with the positive control. It can be concluded that acidic dentifrice 550 µgF/g had similar remineralization capacity to that of positive control.

O presente estudo objetivou avaliar a capacidade de dentifrícios fluoretados acidulados (pH 4,5) em promover a remineralização do esmalte utilizando um modelo de ciclagem de pH e compará-lo a um dentifrício padrão (1.100 µgF/g). Blocos de esmalte tiveram suas superfícies polidas e a dureza de superfície determinada (SH). Em seguida, foram submetidos à desmineralização subsuperficial e a dureza de superfície pós-desmineralização foi determinada. Os blocos foram divididos em seis grupos experimentais (n=10): placebo (controle negativo), 275, 412, 550, 1.100 µgF/g e um dentifrício padrão (controle positivo). Os blocos foram submetidos à ciclagem de pH durante seis dias e tratamentos com dentifrício diluído duas vezes por dia. Após a ciclagem de pH, a dureza de superfície e em secção transversal foram avaliadas para obtenção da porcentagem de recuperação de dureza de superfície (%SHR) e área integrada da perda de dureza de subsuperfície (ΔKHN). Os resultados mostraram que %SHR foi semelhante entre os dentifrícios ácidos 412, 550, 1.100 µgF/g e controle positivo (teste de Tukey; p>0,05). Para ΔKHN, o dentifrício acidulado com 550 µgF/g mostrou uma performance melhor quando comparado ao controle positivo. Conclui-se que os dentifrícios acidulados 550 µgF/g apresentaram capacidade de remineralização semelhante ao controle positivo.

Animals , Cattle , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentifrices/pharmacology , Tooth Remineralization , Dental Stress Analysis , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Dentifrices/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hardness/drug effects , Phosphorus/analysis , Statistics, Nonparametric , Surface Properties
J. appl. oral sci ; 20(1): 94-98, Jan.-Feb. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-618160


Because of the growing concerns regarding fluoride ingestion by young children and dental fluorosis, it is necessary to develop new dentifrices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dentifrices with calcium citrate (Cacit) and sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) on enamel demineralization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel blocks (n=70), previously selected through surface hardness analysis, were submitted to daily treatment with dentifrices diluted in artificial saliva and to a pH-cycling model. The fluoride concentration in dentifrices was 0, 250, 450, 550, 1,000 and 1,100 µg F/g. CrestTM was used as a positive control (1,100 mg F/g). Cacit (0.25 percent) and TMP (0.25 percent) were added to dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g. Surface hardness was measured again and integrated loss of subsurface hardness and fluoride concentration in enamel were calculated. Parametric and correlation tests were used to determine difference (p<0.05) and dose-response relationship between treatments. RESULTS: The addition of Cacit and TMP did not provide a higher fluoride concentration in enamel, however it reduced (p<0.05) mineral loss when compared to other dentifrices; the dentifrice with Cacit and TMP and a low fluoride concentration presented similar results when compared to a dentifrice with 1,100 mg F/g (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Dentifrices with 450 and 1,000 µg F/g, Cacit and TMP were as effective as a gold standard one.

Humans , Calcium Citrate/pharmacology , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dentifrices/pharmacology , Fluorides/pharmacology , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dentifrices/chemistry , Hardness Tests , Random Allocation , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 18(4): 316-334, July-Aug. 2010. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-557100


Despite a plethora of in situ studies and clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of fluoridated dentifrices on caries control, in vitro pH cycling models are still broadly used because they mimic the dynamics of mineral loss and gain involved in caries formation. This paper critically reviews the current literature on existing pH-cycling models for the in vitro evaluation of the efficacy of fluoridated dentifrices for caries control, focusing on their strengths and limitations. A search was undertaken in the MEDLINE electronic journal database using the keywords "pH-cycling", "demineralization", "remineralization", "in vitro", "fluoride", "dentifrice". The primary outcome was the decrease of demineralization or the increase of remineralization as measured by different methods (e.g.: transverse microradiography) or tooth fluoride uptake. Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. One hundred and sixteen studies were included, of which 42 addressed specifically the comparison of dentifrices using different pH-cycling models. The other studies included meta-analysis or reviews, data about the effect of different fluoride sources on de-remineralization, different methods for analysis de-remineralization and chemical variables and characteristics of dental hard tissues that might have influence on de-remineralization processes. Generally, the studies presented ability to detect known results established by clinical trials, to demonstrate dose-related responses in the fluoride content of the dentifrices, and to provide repeatability and reproducibility between tests. In order to accomplish these features satisfactorily, it is mandatory to take into account the type of substrate and baseline artificial lesion, as well as the adequate response variables and statistical approaches to be used. This critical review of literature showed that the currently available pH-cycling models are appropriate to detect dose-response and pH-response of fluoride dentifrices, and to evaluate the impact of new active principles on the effect of fluoridated dentifrices, as well as their association with other anti-caries treatments.

Animals , Humans , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dentifrices/therapeutic use , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dental Caries/physiopathology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Reproducibility of Results , Tooth Remineralization , Tooth Demineralization/physiopathology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control
Braz. oral res ; 24(1): 95-101, Jan.-Mar. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-541520


The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the erosive capacity of fermented milk beverages, as well as some of their properties that affect the demineralization of dental enamel (pH, buffering capacity, fluoride, calcium and phosphorus contents). Three different batches of 6 commercial brands of fermented milk beverages were analyzed. pH evaluation was accomplished using a potentiometer. The buffering capacity was measured by adding 1 mol L-1 NaOH. Fluoride concentration was assessed by an ion specific electrode after hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion, and calcium and phosphorus concentrations were assessed by a colorimetric test using a spectrophotometer. Sixty specimens of bovine enamel were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n = 10). They were exposed to 4 cycles of demineralization in the fermented milk and remineralization in artificial saliva. Enamel mineral loss was determined by surface microhardness ( percentSMHC) and profilometric tests. The samples' pH ranged from 3.51 to 3.87; the buffering capacity ranged from 470.8 to 804.2 µl of 1 mol L-1 NaOH; the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.027 to 0.958 µgF/g; the calcium concentration ranged from 0.4788 to 0.8175 mgCa/g; and the phosphorus concentration ranged from 0.2662 to 0.5043 mgP/g. The percentSMHC ranged from -41.0 to -29.4. The enamel wear ranged from 0.15 µm to 0.18 µm. In this in vitro study, the fermented milk beverages did not promote erosion of the dental enamel, but rather only a superficial mineral loss.

Animals , Cattle , Cultured Milk Products/adverse effects , Dental Enamel/chemistry , In Vitro Techniques , Tooth Demineralization/etiology , Analysis of Variance , Calcium/analysis , Cultured Milk Products/chemistry , Dental Caries/etiology , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fermentation , Fluorides/analysis , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Phosphorus/analysis , Surface Properties , Time Factors , Tooth Erosion/etiology
Braz. dent. j ; 21(5): 446-451, 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-568991


This study proposes a pH-cycling model for verifying the dose-response relationship in fluoride-releasing materials on remineralization in vitro. Sixty bovine enamel blocks were selected for the surface microhardness test (SMH1). Artificial caries lesions were induced and surface microhardness test (SMH2) was performed. Forty-eight specimens were prepared with Z 100, Fluroshield, Vitremer and Vitremer » diluted - powder/liquid, and subjected to a pH-cycling model to promote remineralization. After pH-cycling, final surface microhardness (SMH3) was assessed to calculate percent recovery of surface microhardness ( percentSMHR). Fluoride present in enamel (μg F/mm3) and in the pH-cycling solutions (μg F) was measured. Cross-sectional microhardness was used to calculate mineral content (∆Z). There was no significant difference between Z 100 and control groups on analysis performed on - percentSMHR, ∆Z, μg F and mg F/mm3 (p>0.05). Results showed a positive correlation between percentSMHR and μg F/mm3 (r=0.9770; p=0.004), percentSMHR and μg F (r=0.9939; p=0.0000001), ∆ and μg F/mm3 (r=0.9853; p=0.0002), ∆ and μg F (r=0.9975; p=0.0000001) and between μg F/mm3 and μg F (r=0.9819; p=0.001). The pH-cycling model proposed was able to verify in vitro dose-response relationship of fluoride-releasing materials on remineralization.

Este trabalho propôs um modelo de ciclagem de pH verificando a relação dose-resposta de materiais que liberam flúor na remineralização in vitro. Foram selecionados 60 blocos de esmalte bovino pelo teste de microdureza de superfície (SMH1). Realizou-se indução de cárie e microdureza de superfície pós-cárie (SMH2). Corpos-de-prova (n=48) dos grupos Z 100, Fluroshield, Vitremer e Vitremer diluído » foram fabricados e submetidos à ciclagem de pH para promover a remineralização. Após, avaliou-se a microdureza de superfície final (SMH3) para cálculo da porcentagem de recuperação da microdureza de superfície ( por centoSMHR). Determinou-se o flúor presente no esmalte (μg F/mm3) e nas soluções de ciclagem (μg F). O teste de microdureza em secção longitudinal foi realizado para cálculo do conteúdo mineral (∆Z). Entre os grupos controle e Z100 não houve diferença significativa nas análises realizadas - por centoSMHR, ∆Z, μg F e μg F/mm3 (p>0,05). Houve correlação positiva entre a por centoSMHR e μg F/mm3 (r=0,9770; p=0,004), por centoSMHR e μg F (r=0,9939; p=0,0000001), ∆Z e μg F/mm3 (r=0,9853; p=0,0002), ∆Z e μg F (r=0,9975; p=0,0000001) e também entre μg F/mm3 e μg F (r=0,9819; p=0,001). O modelo de ciclagem de pH proposto foi adequado para verificar relação dose-resposta in vitro de materiais que liberam flúor na remineralização.

Animals , Cattle , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Dental Materials/chemistry , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Cariostatic Agents/analysis , Cariostatic Agents/chemistry , Composite Resins/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Dental Caries/pathology , Dental Enamel/chemistry , Fluorides/analysis , Fluorides/chemistry , Glass Ionomer Cements/chemistry , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Minerals/analysis , Pit and Fissure Sealants/chemistry , Polyurethanes/chemistry , Silicon Dioxide/chemistry , Tooth Demineralization/physiopathology , Zirconium/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 17(4): 280-283, July/Aug. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-521701


OBJECTIVE: The time of contact between the product and enamel surface is important in ensuring the efficacy of fluoride varnishes. Thus, some alternatives could avoid fluoride loss to saliva and improve the anticariogenic action of the product. This study evaluated the effect of an experimental coat on the anticariogenic action of fluoride varnishes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Enamel bovine blocks were selected by evaluating surface microhardness and randomized into five groups (n=24): placebo, DuraphatTM, DuraphatTM with coat, DuofluoridTM and DuofluoridTM with coat. Twelve blocks from each group were used to analyze calcium fluoride (CaF2) formed on enamel after treatment. The other 12 blocks were subjected to pH cycling for 7 days. The varnishes were kept on enamel for 6 h. Next, the percentage change of surface microhardness ( percentSMHC) and mineral loss (ÄZ) were calculated. CaF2 retained and fluoride present in the pH-cycled solutions were also measured. RESULTS: The use of the coat did not decrease percentSMHC and ÄZ, but all fluoride varnishes had better results when compared to the placebo (ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis, respectively). The values from CaF2 formed were higher compared to the values of CaF2 retained (non-paired t test, p<0.05). There was a trend to decrease the amount of F in the solutions at the end of pH cycling (Kruskal-Wallis, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although the experimental coat increased the formation of CaF2 on the enamel surface, it did not significantly improve the anticariogenic action of fluoride varnishes.

Animals , Cattle , Fluorides, Topical , In Vitro Techniques , Dental Enamel , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Materials Testing
J. appl. oral sci ; 17(3): 179-183, May-June 2009. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-514029


OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the bioavailability of fluoride after topical application of a dual-fluoride varnish commercially available in Brazil, when compared to DuraphatTM. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The urinary fluoride output was evaluated in seven 5-year-old children after application of the fluoride varnishes, in two different phases. In the first phase (I), children received topical application of the fluoride varnish Duofluorid XII (2.92 percent fluorine, calcium fluoride + 2.71 percent fluorine, sodium fluoride, FGM TM). After 1-month interval (phase II), the same amount (0.2 mL) of the fluoride varnish Duraphat (2.26 percent fluorine, sodium fluoride, ColgateTM) was applied. Before each application all the volunteers brushed their teeth with placebo dentifrice for 7 days. Urinary collections were carried out 24 h prior up to 48 h after the applications. Fluoride intake from the diet was also estimated. Fluoride concentration in diet samples and urine was analyzed with the fluoride ion-specific electrode and a miniature calomel reference electrode coupled to a potentiometer. Data were tested by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (p<0.05). RESULTS: There were significant differences in the urinary fluoride output between phases I and II. The use of Duofluorid XII did not significantly increase the urinary fluoride output, when compared to baseline levels. The application of Duraphat caused a transitory increase in the urinary fluoride output, returning to baseline levels 48 h after its use. CONCLUSIONS: The tested varnish formulation, which has been shown to be effective in in vitro studies, also can be considered safe.

Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Fluorides, Topical/pharmacokinetics , Fluorides/urine , Sodium Fluoride/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , Brazil , Calcium Fluoride/administration & dosage , Calcium Fluoride/pharmacokinetics , Cariostatic Agents/administration & dosage , Cariostatic Agents/adverse effects , Diet , Fluorides, Topical/administration & dosage , Fluorides, Topical/adverse effects , Sodium Fluoride/administration & dosage
J. appl. oral sci ; 17(1): 56-60, Jan.-Feb. 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-502774


This in situ/ex vivo study assessed the effect of titanium tetrafluoride (TiF4) solution on erosion of permanent (P) and deciduous (d) human enamel. Ten volunteers wore acrylic palatal appliances containing 4 enamel samples, divided into two rows: TiF4 and no - TiF4 (control). Each row contained one deciduous and one permanent enamel sample. During the 1st day, formation of a salivary pellicle was allowed. At the 2nd day, the 4 percent TiF4 solution was applied on one row (TiF4), while the other row remained untreated (control). From the 3rd until the 7th day, the samples were subjected to erosion by immersion in a cola drink for 5 min, 4 times/day. Enamel alterations were determined by microhardness testing ( percentSMHC). Data were analyzed using 2 two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test (α=0.05). The mean percentSMHC (±SD) amounted to: P (TiF4 - 73.32 ± 5.16 and control - 83.49 ± 4.59) and d (TiF4 - 83.01 ± 7.41 and control - 75.75 ± 2.57). In conclusion, the application of 4 percent TiF4 solution reduced the softening of permanent enamel but not of deciduous enamel significantly. However, no significant differences were detected between the permanent and deciduous enamel when the factor substrate was considered.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Fluorides/pharmacology , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Titanium/pharmacology , Titanium/therapeutic use , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Carbonated Beverages/adverse effects , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dentition, Permanent , Dental Enamel Solubility/drug effects , Hardness/drug effects , Tooth, Deciduous , Tooth Erosion/etiology , Young Adult
RGO (Porto Alegre) ; 56(4): 375-380, out.-dez. 2008. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-502107


Objetivo: Investigar a concentração salivar de flúor em pré-escolares após a escovação dentária com dentifrício de concentração padrão (1100ppmF/NaF) e baixa (500ppmF/NaF) de flúor, empregando a técnica transversal de colocação do produto na escova. Métodos: Participaram do estudo oito crianças, de ambos os sexos, com idade variando entre 4 anos e 9 meses e 5 anos e 6 meses. O experimento foi dividido em duas fases com intervalo semanal. Na primeira a criança utilizou, por uma semana, o dentifrício de concentração padrão, e na segunda, o de baixa concentração. As amostras foram coletadas ao final de cada fase experimental nos seguintes tempos: antes da escovação, imediatamente após e depois de 15, 30 e 45 minutos. Os teores de flúor foram analisados por meio da técnica de microdifusão. A análise estatística foi feita pela análise de variância ANOVA e pelo teste t de Student (p<0,05).Resultados: A concentração salivar de flúor foi significativamente maior, em todos os tempos, quando se utilizou o produto de concentração padrão. A comparação entre a concentração do halogênio encontrada antes da escovação e imediatamente depois mostra que no dentifrício padrão houve um aumento de 6,8 vezes (0,19 x 1,29μgF/ml) e, no de baixa concentração, 20,5 (0,02 x 0,41μgF/ml). Conclusão: A escovação dentária com ambos os produtos promove aumentos relevantes na concentração salivar de flúor, porém estudos longitudinais são necessários para verificar o resultado clínico desta medida.

Objective: To investigate the salivary fluoride concentration in pre-school children after toothbrushing with dentifrice containing standard (1100ppmF/NaF) and low (500ppmF/NaF) fluoride concentration, using the transversal technique of placing the product on the toothbrush. Methods: Eight children of both sexes, ranging from 4 to 9 years, and 5 years and 6 months of age, participated in the study. The experiment was divided into two phases with a weekly interval. In the first stage, the children used the standard concentration dentifrice for one week, and in the second, the low concentration product. Samples were collected at the end of each experimental stage, at the following times: Before brushing, immediately afterwards, and after 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The fluoride contents were analyzed by the microdiffusion technique. Statistical analysis was done by the analysis of variance ANOVA and Student's-t test (p<0.05). Results: The salivary fluoride concentration was significantly higher at all times, when the standard concentration product was used. The comparison between the Halogen concentration found before bushing and immediately afterwards, showed that there was a 6.8 times increase in the standard dentifrice (0.19 x 1.29μgF/ml) and in the low concentration product, an increase of 20.5 times (0.02 x 0.41μgF/ml). Conclusion: Toothbrushing with both products promoted relevant increases in the salivary fluoride concentration; however, longitudinal studies are necessary to verify the clinical result of this measurement.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Dentifrices/adverse effects , Fluorine , Saliva