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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919478

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although respiratory tract infection is one of the most important factors triggering acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD), limited data are available to suggest an epidemiologic pattern of microbiology in South Korea. @*Methods@#A multicenter observational study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2018 across 28 hospitals in South Korea. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe acute exacerbations of COPD were eligible to participate in the present study. The participants underwent all conventional tests to identify etiology of microbial pathogenesis. The primary outcome was the percentage of different microbiological pathogens causing AE-COPD. A comparative microbiological analysis of the patients with overlapping asthma–COPD (ACO) and pure COPD was performed. @*Results@#We included 1,186 patients with AE-COPD. Patients with pure COPD constituted 87.9% and those with ACO accounted for 12.1%. Nearly half of the patients used an inhaled corticosteroid-containing regimen and one-fifth used systemic corticosteroids. Respiratory pathogens were found in 55.3% of all such patients. Bacteria and viruses were detected in 33% and 33.2%, respectively. Bacterial and viral coinfections were found in 10.9%. The most frequently detected bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8%), and the most frequently detected virus was influenza A (10.4%). Multiple bacterial infections were more likely to appear in ACO than in pure COPD (8.3% vs. 3.6%, p=0.016). @*Conclusion@#Distinct microbiological patterns were identified in patients with moderate-to-severe AE-COPD in South Korea. These findings may improve evidence-based management of patients with AE-COPD and represent the basis for further studies investigating infectious pathogens in patients with COPD.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919473

ABSTRACT

Background@#Because the etiologies of bronchiectasis and related diseases vary significantly among different regions and ethnicities, this study aimed to develop a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. @*Methods@#A modified Delphi method was used to develop expert consensus statements on a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis in South Korea. Initial statements proposed by a core panel, based on international bronchiectasis guidelines, were discussed in an online meeting and two email surveys by a panel of experts (≥70% agreement). @*Results@#The study involved 21 expert participants, and 30 statements regarding a diagnostic bundle for bronchiectasis were classified as recommended, conditional, or not recommended. The consensus statements of the expert panel were as follows: A standardized diagnostic bundle is useful in clinical practice; diagnostic tests for specific diseases, including immunodeficiency and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, are necessary when clinically suspected; initial diagnostic tests, including sputum microbiology and spirometry, are essential in all patients with bronchiectasis, and patients suspected with rare causes such as primary ciliary dyskinesia should be referred to specialized centers. @*Conclusion@#Based on this Delphi survey, expert consensus statements were generated including specific diagnostic, laboratory, microbiological, and pulmonary function tests required to manage patients with bronchiectasis in South Korea.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904172

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903711

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than 0.7 using spirometry is the golden standard to diagnose airf low limitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, measuring FEV6 has been suggested as an alternative to measure FVC. Studies about the cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 to diagnose airflow limitation have shown variable results, with values between 0.7 and 0.8. The purpose of this study was to determine the best cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 to detect airflow limitation using handheld spirometry. @*Methods@#We recruited subjects over 40 years of age with smoking history over 10 pack-years. Participants underwent measurements with both handheld spirometry and conventional spirometry. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the value of FEV1/FEV6 using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to obtain the diagnostic accuracy of handheld spirometry to detect airflow limitation. @*Results@#A total of 290 subjects were enrolled. Their mean age and smoking amount were 63.1 years and 31.6 pack-years, respectively. According to our ROC curve analysis, when FEV1/FEV6 ratio was 73%, sensitivity and specificity were the maximum and the area under the ROC curve was 0.93, showing an excellent diagnostic accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 86.7%, 89.7%, 88.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. Participants with FEV1/FEV6 ≤ 73% had lower FEV1 predicted value compared to those with FEV1/FEV6 > 73% (65.4% vs. 86.5%, p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#In summary, we demonstrate that the value of 73% in FEV1/FEV6 using handheld spirometry has the best sensitivity and specificity to detect airflow limitation in subjects with risk of COPD.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899898

ABSTRACT

Background@#The impact of reflux esophagitis on the decline of lung function has been rarely reported. This study was performed to evaluate the association between erosive reflux esophagitis and lung function changes. @*Methods@#We included patients with normal lung function who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for health screening from a health screening center. Patients with persistent erosive reflux esophagitis on two discrete endoscopic examinations were designated as the erosive reflux esophagitis group. We also selected patients without erosive reflux esophagitis and matched them 1:4 with patients from the erosive reflux esophagitis group. We estimated annual forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC) changes from baseline and compared these estimates by the linear mixed regression model. We also estimated the biannual incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). @*Results@#In total, 1,050 patients (210 patients with erosive reflux esophagitis, and 840 matched controls) were included. The median follow-up duration for spirometry was six years. In patients with erosive reflux esophagitis, mild reflux esophagitis (A grade) was most common (165 patients, 78.6%). The adjusted annual FEV1 change in patients with erosive reflux esophagitis was −51.8 mL/yr, while it decreased by 46.8 mL/yr in controls (P = 0.270).The adjusted annual FVC decline was similar between the two groups (−55.8 vs. −50.5 mL/ yr, P = 0.215). The estimated COPD incidence during the follow-up period was not different between the erosive reflux esophagitis and control groups. @*Conclusion@#In patients with normal lung function, the presence of erosive reflux esophagitis did not affect the annual declines in FEV1 or FVC.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896468

ABSTRACT

Cough is the most common respiratory symptom that can have various causes. It is a major clinical problem that can reduce a patient’s quality of life. Thus, clinical guidelines for the treatment of cough were established in 2014 by the cough guideline committee under the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. From October 2018 to July 2020, cough guidelines were revised by members of the committee based on the first guidelines. The purpose of these guidelines is to help clinicians efficiently diagnose and treat patients with cough. This article highlights the recommendations and summary of the revised Korean cough guidelines. It includes a revised algorithm for the evaluation of acute, subacute, and chronic cough. For a chronic cough, upper airway cough syndrome (UACS), cough variant asthma (CVA), and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) should be considered in differential diagnoses. If UACS is suspected, first-generation antihistamines and nasal decongestants can be used empirically. In cases with CVA, inhaled corticosteroids are recommended to improve cough. In patients with suspected chronic cough due to symptomatic GERD, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis, lung cancer, aspiration, intake of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, intake of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, habitual cough, psychogenic cough, interstitial lung disease, environmental and occupational factors, tuberculosis, obstructive sleep apnea, peritoneal dialysis, and unexplained cough can also be considered as causes of a chronic cough. Chronic cough due to laryngeal dysfunction syndrome has been newly added to the guidelines.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896007

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than 0.7 using spirometry is the golden standard to diagnose airf low limitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently, measuring FEV6 has been suggested as an alternative to measure FVC. Studies about the cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 to diagnose airflow limitation have shown variable results, with values between 0.7 and 0.8. The purpose of this study was to determine the best cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 to detect airflow limitation using handheld spirometry. @*Methods@#We recruited subjects over 40 years of age with smoking history over 10 pack-years. Participants underwent measurements with both handheld spirometry and conventional spirometry. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the value of FEV1/FEV6 using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to obtain the diagnostic accuracy of handheld spirometry to detect airflow limitation. @*Results@#A total of 290 subjects were enrolled. Their mean age and smoking amount were 63.1 years and 31.6 pack-years, respectively. According to our ROC curve analysis, when FEV1/FEV6 ratio was 73%, sensitivity and specificity were the maximum and the area under the ROC curve was 0.93, showing an excellent diagnostic accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 86.7%, 89.7%, 88.0%, and 88.5%, respectively. Participants with FEV1/FEV6 ≤ 73% had lower FEV1 predicted value compared to those with FEV1/FEV6 > 73% (65.4% vs. 86.5%, p < 0.001). @*Conclusions@#In summary, we demonstrate that the value of 73% in FEV1/FEV6 using handheld spirometry has the best sensitivity and specificity to detect airflow limitation in subjects with risk of COPD.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892194

ABSTRACT

Background@#The impact of reflux esophagitis on the decline of lung function has been rarely reported. This study was performed to evaluate the association between erosive reflux esophagitis and lung function changes. @*Methods@#We included patients with normal lung function who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for health screening from a health screening center. Patients with persistent erosive reflux esophagitis on two discrete endoscopic examinations were designated as the erosive reflux esophagitis group. We also selected patients without erosive reflux esophagitis and matched them 1:4 with patients from the erosive reflux esophagitis group. We estimated annual forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC) changes from baseline and compared these estimates by the linear mixed regression model. We also estimated the biannual incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). @*Results@#In total, 1,050 patients (210 patients with erosive reflux esophagitis, and 840 matched controls) were included. The median follow-up duration for spirometry was six years. In patients with erosive reflux esophagitis, mild reflux esophagitis (A grade) was most common (165 patients, 78.6%). The adjusted annual FEV1 change in patients with erosive reflux esophagitis was −51.8 mL/yr, while it decreased by 46.8 mL/yr in controls (P = 0.270).The adjusted annual FVC decline was similar between the two groups (−55.8 vs. −50.5 mL/ yr, P = 0.215). The estimated COPD incidence during the follow-up period was not different between the erosive reflux esophagitis and control groups. @*Conclusion@#In patients with normal lung function, the presence of erosive reflux esophagitis did not affect the annual declines in FEV1 or FVC.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919173

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We assessed the diagnostic yield of chest computed tomography (CT) as an initial diagnostic method for patients with a tuberculosis (TB) infection detected by mass screening in a country with an intermediate TB burden. @*Methods@#A retrospective study was conducted on patients with TB infection detected by mass screening performed between January 2015 and March 2018. The patients were classified according to whether they had a chest X-ray (CXR) or CT scan as an initial diagnostic test to exclude active TB. @*Results@#Of 542 patients with TB infection detected by mass screening, 222 and 320 were initially examined by CXR and CT, respectively; the two modalities showed no significant difference in rate of detection of patients with active TB (0.9% and 2.5%, respectively; p = 0.110). However, chest CT was associated with further invasive tests using bronchoscopy and respiratory specimens, and significantly increased the frequency of hospital visits. @*Conclusions@#Chest CT was not supported as an initial diagnostic method to rule out active TB in patients with a TB infection detected by mass screening in a country with an intermediate TB burden.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916868

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in healthcare workers (HCWs) with positive interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) results based on chest X-ray (CXR) and CT findings and determine the role of imaging in the diagnosis of TB. @*Materials and Methods@#Among 1976 hospital personnel screened for TB using IGRA, IGRApositive subjects were retrospectively investigated. Clustered nodular and/or linear streaky opacities in the upper lung zone were considered positive on CXR. The CT findings were classified as active, indeterminate, inactive, or normal. The active or indeterminate class was considered CT-positive. @*Results@#IGRA was positive in 255 subjects (12.9%). CXR and CT were performed in 249 (99.2%) and 113 subjects (45.0%), respectively. CXR- and CT-positive findings were found in 7 of 249(2.8%) and 9 of 113 (8.0%) patients, respectively. Among the nine CT-positive subjects, active and indeterminate TB findings were found in 6 (5.3%) and 3 (2.7%) patients, respectively. Microbiological tests, including acid-fast bacilli staining, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for TB, were negative in all nine CT-positive subjects. Empirical anti-TB medications were administered to 9 CT-positive subjects, and 3 of these nine subjects were CXR-negative for pulmonary TB. @*Conclusion@#CT helped diagnose asymptomatic TB in IGRA-positive HCWs.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875438

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although a majority of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases were characterized as mild, data assessing the development of pneumonia in mild COVID-19 patients are limited. We aimed to examine the effect of pneumonia development on the clinical course of mild COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. @*Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted via medical record review between February 25, 2020 and April 11, 2020 at a single center. The impact of pneumonia development on the time to viral clearance in mild COVID-19 patients was evaluated. Risk factors associated with the development of pneumonia were also identified. @*Results@#Chest radiographs revealed the development of pneumonia in 26.8% of mild COVID-19 patients. The time to pneumonia development was a median of 8.0 days from the onset of symptoms and 3.5 days after hospital admission. A multivariate analysis for predicting pneumonia development identified age ≥ 65 years (odds ratio [OR], 3.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14 to 8.73), cough (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.29 to 3.68), dyspnea (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.10 to 11.69), and diarrhea (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.51 to 4.78) as significant variables. The time to negative conversion was longer in mild COVID-19 patients who developed pneumonia (23.6 days vs. 18.4 days, p = 0.003). In Kaplan–Meier estimation and multivariate Cox regression analyses, newly developed pneumonia was significantly related with delayed time to negative conversion (log-rank test, p = 0.02; hazard ratio, 2.90; 95% CI, 1.06 to 7.97). @*Conclusions@#The development of pneumonia delayed viral clearance in patients with mild COVID-19. Elderly patients or those suffering from diarrhea should be closely monitored, given the increased risk of developing pneumonia.

12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875022

ABSTRACT

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is prevalent (13.4% in the population above the age of 40) but less recognized by patients and physicians in Korea. The definition and treatment strategies of COPD have changed with the accumulation of evidence, and the Korean COPD guidelines recommended by the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease have also been updated. This review will cover some important points, that should be considered in the management of stable COPD in clinical practice. COPD is a treatable disease and earlier detection should be emphasized to achieve better clinical benefits in the mild stages. In addition, etiologies other than smoking are critical in the development of COPD. Medical treatment strategies have been updated focusing on the role of long-acting bronchodilators and the updated Korean COPD guidelines include specific Korean situations in the management of COPD.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904145

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines.@*METHODS@#This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, ex-smokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines.@*RESULTS@#Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response.@*CONCLUSION@#The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904135

ABSTRACT

Background@#Asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) is a condition characterized by the overlapping clinical features of asthma and COPD. To evaluate the appropriateness of different sets of ACO definition, we compared the clinical characteristics of the previously defined diagnostic criteria and the specialist opinion in this study. @*Methods@#Patients enrolled in the KOrea COpd Subgroup Study (KOCOSS) were evaluated. Based on the questionnaire data, the patients were categorized into the ACO and non-ACO COPD groups according to the four sets of the diagnostic criteria. @*Results@#In total 1,475 patients evaluated: 202 of 1,475 (13.6%), 32 of 1,475 (2.2%), 178 of 1,113 (16.0%), and 305 of 1,250 (24.4%) were categorized as ACO according to the modified Spanish Society of Pneumonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR), American Thoracic Society (ATS) Roundtable, Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)/Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria, and the specialists diagnosis, respectively. The ACO group defined according to the GINA/GOLD criteria showed significantly higher St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire and COPD Assessment Test scores than the non-ACO COPD group. When the modified SEPAR definition was applied, the ACO group showed a significantly larger decrease in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, %). The ACO group defined by the ATS Roundtable showed significantly larger decrease in the forced vital capacity values compared to the non-ACO COPD group (–18.9% vs. –2.2%, p=0.007 and –412 mL vs. –17 mL, p=0.036). The ACO group diagnosed by the specialists showed a significantly larger decrease in the FEV1 (%) compared to the non-ACO group (–5.4% vs. –0.2%, p=0.003). @*Conclusion@#In this study, the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ACO varied depending on the diagnostic criteria applied. With the criteria which are relatively easy to use, defining ACO by the specialists diagnosis may be more practical in clinical applications.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic cough is defined as a cough lasting more than 8 weeks and socio-economic burden of chronic cough is enormous. The characteristics of chronic cough in Korea are not well understood. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (KATRD) published guidelines on cough management in 2014. The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of chronic cough in Korea and the efficacy of the KATRD guidelines.@*METHODS@#This was a multi-center, retrospective observational study conducted in Korea. The participants were over 18 years of age. They had coughs lasting more than 8 weeks. Subjects with current pulmonary diseases, smokers, ex-smokers with more than 10 pack-years or who quit within the past 1 year, pregnant women, and users of cough-inducing medications were excluded. Evaluation and management of cough followed the KATRD cough-management guidelines.@*RESULTS@#Participants with chronic cough in Korea showed age in the late forties and cough duration of more than 1 year. Upper airway cough syndrome was the most common cause of cough, followed by cough-variant asthma (CVA). Gastro-esophageal reflux diseases and eosinophilic bronchitis were less frequently observed. Following the KATRD cough-management guidelines, 91.2% of the subjects improved after 4 weeks of treatment. Responders were younger, had a longer duration of cough, and an initial impression of CVA. In univariate and multivariate analyses, an initial impression of CVA was the only factor related to better treatment response.@*CONCLUSION@#The causes of chronic cough in Korea differed from those reported in other countries. The current Korean guidelines proved efficient for treating Korean patients with chronic cough.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896431

ABSTRACT

Background@#Asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) is a condition characterized by the overlapping clinical features of asthma and COPD. To evaluate the appropriateness of different sets of ACO definition, we compared the clinical characteristics of the previously defined diagnostic criteria and the specialist opinion in this study. @*Methods@#Patients enrolled in the KOrea COpd Subgroup Study (KOCOSS) were evaluated. Based on the questionnaire data, the patients were categorized into the ACO and non-ACO COPD groups according to the four sets of the diagnostic criteria. @*Results@#In total 1,475 patients evaluated: 202 of 1,475 (13.6%), 32 of 1,475 (2.2%), 178 of 1,113 (16.0%), and 305 of 1,250 (24.4%) were categorized as ACO according to the modified Spanish Society of Pneumonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR), American Thoracic Society (ATS) Roundtable, Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA)/Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria, and the specialists diagnosis, respectively. The ACO group defined according to the GINA/GOLD criteria showed significantly higher St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire and COPD Assessment Test scores than the non-ACO COPD group. When the modified SEPAR definition was applied, the ACO group showed a significantly larger decrease in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, %). The ACO group defined by the ATS Roundtable showed significantly larger decrease in the forced vital capacity values compared to the non-ACO COPD group (–18.9% vs. –2.2%, p=0.007 and –412 mL vs. –17 mL, p=0.036). The ACO group diagnosed by the specialists showed a significantly larger decrease in the FEV1 (%) compared to the non-ACO group (–5.4% vs. –0.2%, p=0.003). @*Conclusion@#In this study, the prevalence and clinical characteristics of ACO varied depending on the diagnostic criteria applied. With the criteria which are relatively easy to use, defining ACO by the specialists diagnosis may be more practical in clinical applications.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831917

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Despite increasing awareness of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in women, knowledge regarding gender differences in COPD outcomes is limited. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate whether COPD outcomes, including exacerbations, lung , and symptoms differ by gender. @*Methods@#We recruited patients with COPD from two Korean multicenter prospective cohorts. After propensity score matching, the main outcome, the incidence of moderate or severe exacerbations was analyzed using a negative binomial regression model. We also assessed changes in lung function and symptom scores including the St. George’s respiratory questionnaire for COPD (SGRQ-C), COPD assessment test (CAT), and the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea score. @*Results@#After propensity score matching, 74 women and 74 men with COPD were included. The incidence rates of exacerbations in women and men were not significantly different (incidence rate ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 2.54). There was no significant difference in the incidence rates adjusted for medication possession ratios of long-acting muscarinic antagonists, long-acting β-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids during the follow-up period (incidence rate ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.86 to 2.52). Rates of decline in post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity did not differ between women and men during 48 months of follow-up. The changes in scores on the SGRQ-C, CAT, and mMRC Questionnaire in women were also similar to those in men. @*Conclusions@#We observed no gender differences in the rate of exacerbations of COPD in a prospective longitudinal study. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in the general COPD population.

19.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831818

ABSTRACT

Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors (PDE4Is) are potent anti-inf lammatory agents and roflumilast has been used to prevent acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Roflumilast decreases neutrophil migration, restores cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activity, and recovers glucocorticoid effects. A forced expiratory volume in 1 second of < 50%, a chronic bronchitis phenotype, high blood eosinophil levels, and a history of hospitalization are biomarkers for predicting responses to roflumilast. Adverse effects are common in clinical practice. An inhaled PDE4I has recently been developed and is under clinical trial. CHF6001 and RPL554 exhibit promise and may be future treatment options for COPD.

20.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 142-149, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914579

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Tuberculosis is associated with hypercoagulation; however, there are few reports of cases thromboembolism and tuberculosis at the same time in the real world. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence and clinical course of thromboembolism in patients diagnosed with tuberculosis.@*MATERIALS AND METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients who were diagnosed with both tuberculosis and thromboembolism including pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) or deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center from January 2000 through March 2015.@*RESULTS@#Among the 7905 tuberculosis patients, 49 (0.6%) exhibited PTE, DVT, or both at or after the time of tuberculosis diagnosis. All patients treated for tuberculosis started with isoniazid, ethambutol, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. Eight patients were switched to treatment with second-line medication because of resistance or adverse events. About half of the patients (n = 21, 44.7%) had thrombosis at the time of tuberculosis diagnosis. Of 48 patients treated for thromboembolism, 36 received warfarin. A total of 20 patients improved symptom caused by thrombosis, and 10 patients were confirmed cure by image study such as computed tomography or doppler ultrasonography. Eight patients who were treated with warfarin had persistent thrombosis. Five patients (10.2%) experienced major bleeding that required hospitalization. All of these bleeding events were associated with warfarin therapy.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Careful attention to PTE/DVT is needed at the time of diagnosis of tuberculosis and during anti-tuberculosis therapy. Warfarin therapy administered with anti-tuberculosis medication requires frequent monitoring to prevent major bleeding.

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