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1.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 754-758, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-923272

ABSTRACT

The etiology and pathogenesis of autoimmune liver diseases has always been a hot area of research. Pathogen infections can elicit an autoimmune response and often become the key pathogenic factor of immune diseases. Based on the literature data and the author's clinical experience, this review will briefly introduce the role and influence of pathogen infections in the development and progression of autoimmune liver diseases from the aspects such as molecular mimicry mechanism, in order to further understand the pathogenesis of autoimmune liver diseases.

2.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 841-845 (in Chinese), 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875892

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the value of cytokines in bile combined with clinical indices in predicting the degree of liver injury after liver transplantation. MethodsA total of 16 patients undergoing liver transplantation who were hospitalized in Center of Organ Transplantation, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, from January to December 2018 were enrolled, and according to the level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) on day 1 after surgery, the patients were divided into mild liver injury (ALT <500 U/L) group with 10 patients and severe liver injury (ALT >500 U/L) group with 6 patients. Bile samples were collected on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after surgery, and MILLIPLEX assay was used to measure the levels of 17 cytokines. R software was used to perform principal component analysis (PCA) of bile cytokines and clinical indices and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of bile cytokines. The two-independent-samples t-test was used for comparison of normally distributed continuous data between two groups; The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of non-normally distributed continuous data between two groups. A Spearman correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the correlation between clinical indices and bile cytokines. ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate the predictive value of cytokines in bile and clinical indices for liver injury after liver transplantation. ResultsCompared with the mild liver injury group, the severe liver injury group had significantly higher expression levels of bile Fractalkine (Z=-2.828, P=0.003), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) (Z=-2.850, P=0.008), interleukin-4 (Z=-2.398, P=0.017), CXCL10 (Z=-2.475, P=0.023), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (Z=-1844, P=0.043). The correlation analysis showed that on day 1 after liver transplantation, aspartate aminotransferase, ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase were positively correlated with the levels of several cytokines in bile (all P<0.05). The area under the ROC curve of Fractalkine, sCD40L and AST were 0.933 (0.812-1.000), 0.833 (0.589-1.000) and 0.917 (0.779-1.000), respectively, suggesting that AST and Fractalkine and sCD40L in bile on the first day after liver transplantation have significant predictive value for liver injury. The results of PCA showed that bile cytokines combined with clinical indices on day 1 after liver transplantation could better distinguish the patients with mild liver injury from those with severe liver injury. GO analysis showed that bile cytokines were associated with positive feedback regulation of external stimulus, cell chemotaxis, receptor ligand activity, cytokine activity, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. ConclusionFractalkine and sCD40L in bile can predict the degree of liver injury after liver transplantation.

3.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 834-840, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875891

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the differentially expressed proteins in the plasma exosome of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients with different prognoses, to analyze their functions and biological processes, and to provide a basis for clinical diagnosis. MethodsA prospective study was performed for 10 ACLF patients who were hospitalized and diagnosed in Beijing YouAn Hospital, Capital Medical University, from July 2019 to October 2019, and the patients were followed up for 90 days. The patients who died or received liver transplantation were enrolled as liver transplantation/death group (5 patients), and the patients who survived were enrolled as survival group (5 patients). The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of general data between the two groups. The label-free quantitative proteomic method was used for identification and quantitative analysis of plasma exosome proteins to screen out differentially expressed proteins, and a functional enrichment analysis was performed. R-3.5.1 software was used to perform a hierarchical cluster analysis of differentially expressed proteins to analyze the biological processes involving these proteins. ResultsA total of 860 proteins were identified by the exosome proteomic analysis, and according to the criteria of upregulation >1.2 folds or downregulation >1.2 folds (P<0.05), there were 116 differentially expressed proteins. Compared with the liver transplantation/death group, the survival group had 62 upregulated proteins and 54 downregulated proteins. The bioinformatics analysis showed that these differentially expressed proteins mainly participated in immune reaction, signal transduction, vesicle-mediated transport, cell death, and cell proliferation and were closely associated with the signaling pathways including inflammatory response, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, hepatocyte injury, and hepatocyte regeneration. ConclusionDifferentially expressed proteins screened out by the label-free quantitative proteomic method can be used as serological markers for the early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of ACLF.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615339

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effect of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) with sublethal temperature on the production of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs) and on the expression of LCSCs-related transcriptional factors.Methods Mouse hepl-6 hepatoma cell line and clinical samples of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were used to test the expressions of LCSCs-related markers and transcriptional factors.Results Different temperatures were used to stimulate Hep1-6 cells,and it was proved that the temperature of 45℃ was a sublethal temperature that could not induce cell death.Flow cytometry testing showed that treatment with 45℃ could obviously increase CD13+,CD44+,CD90 and CD133+ Hep1-6 cells,suggesting that treatment with 45℃ could increase the production of above mentioned types of LCSCs in hep1-6 cells.Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay indicated that the temperature of 45℃could cause significant increase in CD13,CD90 and CD133 mRNA.In all 5 HCC patients,CD13 mRNA in the recurrent HCC lesions was remarkably increased,CD133 mRNA was increased in 4 patients with recurrent HCC,and CD90 mRNA was increased in only one patient with recurrent HCC.Flow cytometry testing revealed that CD13+ LCSCs were strikingly increased in 4 recurrent HCC patients,while CD133+LCSC was increased in only one patient,suggesting that more close correlation existed between the increase of CD13+ LCSCs and the temperature of 45℃.RT-qPCR assay showed that in 4 recurrent HCC patients with increased CD13+ LCSC,the Sox2 and Stat2 among 13 LCSCs-related transcriptional factors were obviously increased.Flow cytometry testing showed that 45℃ treatment also increased the expression of Sox2 and Stat1 mRNA in Hep1-6 cells.Finally,Sox2 and Stat1 could be knockdown by siRNAs,indicating that both Sox2 and Stat1 transcriptional factors were involved in 45℃-induced production of CD13+ LCSCs in Hep1-6 cells.Conclusion In RFA therapy,the use of sublethal temperature of 45℃ can increase CD13+LCSCs,which is related to the promotion of Sox2 and Stat1 expression.The results of this study can be used for reference in the research of liver cancer recurrence.

5.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 332-338, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808731

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the effect of Δ40p53, an alternative spliced isoform of p53 lacking the N-ter minus, on the pro-apoptotic function of p53.@*Methods@#The wild-type p53 was ectopically expressed in HCT116-p53-/- (endogenous Δ40p53 expression), HCT116-p53+ /+ (wild-type p53) and H1299 (p53-null) cells by adenoviral delivery, while Δ40p53 plasmid were transfected into these cells to overexpress Δ40p53. The levels of Δ40p53 and p53 mRNA were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR. The expression of related proteins was deter mined by Western blotting. The interaction of p53 and Δ40p53 was observed by co-immunoprecipitation assay. Calcein-AM/propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry were used to detect the apoptotic rate of tested cells in each group.@*Results@#HCT116-p53-/- cells expressed endogenous Δ40p53 isoform. Neither transcription nor protein expression of wild-type p53 was interfered by the increased expression of Δ40p53. Full length p53 and Δ40p53 could bind to each other. Calcein-AM/PI staining showed that the apoptotic rates of H1299-Control, HCT116-p53-/- -Control, H1299+ p53, HCT116-p53-/-+ p53, H1299+ oxaliplatin (Oxa), HCT116-p53-/-+ Oxa, H1299+ p53+ Oxa and HCT116-p53-/-+ p53+ Oxa groups were (2.50±0.47)%, (2.40±0.32)%, (5.20±0.58)%, (4.10±0.18)%, (22.40±1.73)%, (19.30±1.11)%, (29.90±1.15)% and (39.30±2.26)%, respectively. It was statistically significant between H1299+ p53+ Oxa and HCT116-p53-/-+ p53+ Oxa groups (t=3.721, P=0.0205). Moreover, the apoptotic rates of H1299-Control, H1299+ Δ40p53, H1299+ p53, H1299+ p53+ Δ40p53, H1299+ Oxa, H1299+ Δ40p53+ Oxa, H1299+ p53+ Oxa and H1299+ p53+ Δ40p53+ Oxa groups were (2.60±0.35)%, (2.20±0.17)%, (4.80±0.49)%, (4.90±1.10)%, (20.30±1.10)%, (19.60±1.45)%, (27.90±1.39)%, (35.20±1.43)%, respectively. Furthermore, flow cytometry assay showed that the apoptotic rates of above cells were (2.70±0.32)%, (2.20±0.24)%, (4.60±0.48)%, (3.90±0.67)%, (19.30±1.11)%, (17.70±0.66)%, (28.30±2.76)% and (37.50±1.51)%, respectively. H1299+ p53+ Δ40p53+ Oxa cells showed higher cell apoptosis than H1299+ p53+ Oxa cells (t=2.930, P=0.042).@*Conclusion@#Δ40p53 isoform can bind to full-length p53, and enhance its pro-apoptotic function in tumor cells.

6.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 211-216, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-808377

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the role of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) signaling pathway in acute liver failure and related mechanisms in a mouse model of acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS).@*Methods@#C57BL/6 mice were given intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN/LPS to establish a mouse model of acute liver failure. SB216763 was used to inhibit the activity of GSK3β and PPARα siRNA was used to inhibit the expression of PPARα. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of PPARα protein. The changes in liver pathology were observed to evaluate liver injury, and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured to assess liver function. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), and PPARα. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of means between multiple groups; the least significant difference test was used for data with homogeneity of variance, and the Games-Howell method was used for data with heterogeneity of variance.@*Results@#In the mice with liver failure induced by D-GalN/LPS, GSK3β inhibition promoted the mRNA and protein expression of PPARα (F = 13.18 and 301.36, P = 0.00 and 0.00). In the mice with acute liver failure induced by D-GalN/LPS, GSK3β inhibition alleviated liver bleeding, inflammation, and necrosis and reduced the serum levels of ALT (F = 25.16, P = 0.000) and AST (F = 12.96, P = 0.001), as well as the mRNA expression of TNF-α (F = 32.17, P = 0.00), IL-1β (F = 11.57, P = 0.005), and IL-12p40 (F = 14.17, P = 0.015) in liver tissue. The inhibition of PPARα expression reversed the liver-protecting effect of GSK3β inhibition, which manifested as aggravation in liver bleeding, inflammation, and necrosis, increases in the serum levels of ALT (F = 25.16, P = 0.001) and AST (F = 12.96, P = 0.000), and an increase in the mRNA expression of TNF-α (F = 32.17, P = 0.00), IL-1β (F = 11.57, P = 0.024), and IL-12p40 (F = 14.17, P = 0.001) in liver tissue.@*Conclusion@#In mice with acute liver failure induced by D-GalN/LPS, the GSK3β-PPARα-inflammatory factor signaling pathway may play an important role. GSK3β inhibition has a protective effect in mice with acute liver failure possibly by activating the inhibitory inflammatory factor of PPARα.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-807977

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the genetic characteristics of Lamivudine-resistant mutation patterns and HBV S gene mutants in patients with chronic hepatitis disease of different disease progression.@*Methods@#Blood samples of LAM-resistant patients with chronic hepatitis disease were collected. HBV RT gene nucleotide sequences were obtained, and then differences in drug-resistant mutation patterns, drug susceptibility and HBV S gene mutants characteristics between the two groups were analyzed.@*Results@#Forty-seven chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and 16 HBV-related liver cirrhosis (LC)/HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients were included in this study. M204I single point mutation and L180M+ M204I/V were the most common pattern during patients with chronic hepatitis disease (35/63, 55.56%). The numbers of resistant to three nucleos(t)ide analogues in LC/HCC group was higher than CHB group’s (62.50% vs 34.04%, P=0.046). In HBV S gene, more immune associated HBsAg-escape mutations were detected in LC/HCC group than that in CHB group (62.50% vs 31.91%, P=0.031). I126T/V and G145A (for LCC/HCC group, 60%), I126S/T and S117T (for CHB group, 46.67%) were showed as the most common form for HBsAg escape mutations in the two groups. The two groups both detected RT mutations concomitantly with stop codon mutations in S gene (rtA181T/sW172* and rtM204I/sW196*).@*Conclusions@#Different characteristics in Lamivudine-resistant mutations and associated HBV S gene mutants were found in patients with chronic hepatitis disease of different disease progression, and LC/HCC patients exhibit more multi-drug resistant variants and immune associated HBsAg-escape mutants than CHB patients.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-487575

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the role of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1 (caspase-1) in a mouse model of D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute liver failure (ALF) and to study the possible mechanism. Methods C57BL/ 6 mice were randomly divided into four groups including control group, Z-WEHD-FMK (caspase-1 inhibitor) treatment group, ALF model group and Z-WEHD-FMK-treated ALF group. The mouse model of ALF was established by intraperitoneally injec-ting the mice with D-GalN (450 mg/ kg) and LPS (10 μg/ kg). The damages in liver tissues were evaluated based on the histopathological examination and the levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate trans-aminase (AST) in serum samples. Western blot assay was performed to analyze the expression of caspase-1 and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β). The qRT-PCR was used to measure the expression of inflammatory cytokines at transcriptional level. Results The expression of caspase-1 at both mRNA and protein levels were gradually increased during the development of ALF. Compared with the mice with ALF, those in the Z-WEHD-FMK-treated ALF group showed less severe liver damages on histopatholog-ical examination and decreased levels of ALT and AST in serum samples [ALT: (479. 2±39. 5) U/ L vs (998. 5±60. 4 ) U/ L, P<0. 05; AST: ( 478. 5±28. 6) U/ L vs ( 1 180. 7±91. 4) U/ L, P<0. 05]. The expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18 and IL-33 at transcriptional level were significantly suppressed in mice with ALF upon the Z-WEHD-FMK intervention. Results of the Western blot assay indicated that Z-WEHD-FMK suppressed the activities of GSK-3β by enhancing its phosphorylation. Conclusion This study demon-strated that caspase-1 could promote the activation of GSK-3β resulting in the development of inflammation responses and liver damages during the development of ALF in mice.

9.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 881-884,885, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-604222

ABSTRACT

Aim Toanalyzethekeyqualityandestablishmeth-ods for essential quality control of human recombinant ASPP2 adenovirus.Methods TheviralstructuralgeneofE2Bandtar-get gene of ASPP2 were identified by PCR;The number of virus particles was measured by UV-SDS methods;Infectious titer was determined by TCID50 assay;Target protein of ASPP2 was ob-served by Western blot assay;The biological effects of recombi-nant adenovirus on liver cancer cells were evaluated by MTT as-say;A549 cells were used to check replication of the competent adenovirus(RCA)by the observation of the cytopathic effect. Results PCRanalysisofE2BandASPP2wasinconsistent with theoretical values;Particle numbers of virus were 5. 6 × 1012 VP/mL,infectious titer was 2 ×1011 IU/mL and specific activity was 3. 5%;ASPP2 protein expression could be detected when cells were infected with virus for 24 h;Growth inhibition of liver cancer cells could be found by adding recombinant ASPP 2 adenovirus;The level of RCA was less than 1 RCA/3. 0 ×1010 VP,in line with the standards of China Food and Drug Adminis-tration(SFDA).Conclusion Thequalitycontrolmethodswere established aiming at key characters of human recombinant AS-PP2 adenovirus,which may provide foundations for its quality standard and future applications.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-476435

ABSTRACT

Combined antiretroviral therapy ( cART) is widely used for infections of human immune deficiency virus ( HIV) .However , some antiviral drugs can not reach the effective concentrations in central nervous system due to the hinder of blood-brain barrier ( BBB) , resulting in the formation of viral reservoir in central nervous system .BBB is formed by human brain microvascular endothelial cells ( HBMVECs ) , which are connected by tight junction and a thick basement membrane , and astrocytic end-feet.This paper reviews possible mechanisms of BBB hindrance and anti-HIV drug efflux by transport proteins , as well as effective methods to deliver antiretroviral drugs into brain , including the application of nano technology .

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-476314

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α( PPARα) on macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses with the interference of lipopolysaccharide and the possible mechanism.Methods The bone marrow stem cells were isolated from the femora of mice.The granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor ( GM-CSF) was used to stimulate the in vitro differentiation from bone marrow stem cells into primary macrophages.An in vitro model with cultured cells expressing in-flammatory cytokines was established by treating the primary macrophages with lipopolysaccharide ( LPS) .A specific chemical agonist, Wy-14643, was used to activate PPARα. Autophagy inhibitors including 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and small interfering RNA against Atg7 ( Atg7 siRNA) were used to inhibit the autophagy.Western blot assay was performed to detect the expression of autophagy-related proteins ( Atg5, Atg7, Beclin-1 and LC3).The transcriptional levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, Atg5, Atg7 and Beclin-1 were analyzed by qRT-PCR.Results Compared with the macrophages treated with LPS alone, those pretreated with various concentrations of Wy-14643 (10 μmol/L, 25 μmol/L and 50 μmol/L) showed inhibited ex-pression of proinflammatory cytokines ( TNF-α,IL-1βand IL-6) and enhanced expression of autophagy-relat-ed proteins (Atg5, Atg7 and Beclin-1) at mRNA level in a dose-dependent manner.The expression of auto-phagy-related proteins (Atg5, Atg7, Beclin-1 and LC3) by macrophages was promoted with the pretreatment of Wy-14643 as indicated by Western blot assay.The transcriptional levels of TNF-α, IL-1βand IL-6 were increased in Wy-14643 pretreated-macrophages after stimulation with 3-MA or Atg7 siRNA .Conclusion PPARαsuppressed the macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses by promoting autophagy, suggesting that the PPARα-autophagy pathway might be one of the signaling pathways regulating LPS induced-inflamma-tory responses.

12.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 604-608, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290392

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the protective mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) inhibition against inflammation-induced acute liver injury using a mouse model.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Marrow-derived stem cells were isolated from mouse femur and used to derive macrophages for analysis in experimental inflammation conditions, established by exposure to LPS and consequent activation of TLR4. Tunicamycin, an ERS chemical inducer, was applied to interfere the inflammation model condition.Affect on the inflammation-related factor MAPK was detected by western blot, and affects on gene expression of inflammatory factors were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Affect on TNFa was also measured by ELISA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Expression of TNFa, IL-6 and IL-1b was induced upon exposure to LPS, with the peak levels being reached at 4 hours of exposure (TNFa, 0.82+/-0.24; IL-1 b, 2.20+/-0.69; IL-6, 0.330+/-0.150). Tunicamycin significantly enhanced the LPS-induced up-regulation of TNFa, IL-6 and IL-1b expression (TNFa, 1.44+/-0.38, t=2.8, P<0.05; IL-1b, 16.063.40, t =7.93, P<0.05; IL-6, 31.1610.60, t=5.08, P<0.05). The tuniamycin treatment also enhanced the LPS-induced up-regulation of the protein expression of phospo-p38, phospho-JNK and phoshpo-ERK.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>ERS collaborates with LPS to promote the TLR4-mediated inflammatory response of macrophages, and this collaboration may be a pathogenic mechanism underlying progressive development of acute liver injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Lipopolysaccharides , Liver , Macrophages , Mice , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Up-Regulation
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-443157

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the relationship between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and cytokeratin 18 (CK18) phosphorylation.Methods Liver tissues were taken from 21 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients by liver biopsy and 14 healthy controls were collected.Immunofluorescence double staining and Western blotting were used to detect CK18 pSer33 and CK18 pSer52 phosphorylation.HepG2 cell line was transfected with either 1.3 mer HBV vector or empty control vector.CK18 pSer33 or CK18 pSer52 phosphorylation were tested using immunofluorescence double staining and Western blotting.Total mRNA was extracted from the cells.The expressions of cell division cycle 2 (cdc2) and protein kinase Cε (pKCε) were analyzed by realtime polymerase chain reaction relative quantification.Statistical analyzee were performed by using two-independent samples t test.Results Compared to healthy controls,phosphorylation of CK18 pSer33 in HBsAg stained hepatocytes was significantly higher in CHB patients (t=6.618,P=0.000).However,no difference was found in phosphorylation of pSer52 (t=2.429,P=0.051).Phosphorylation of CK18 pSer33 and expression of cdc2 mRNA in HBV transfected HepG2 were significantly higher in empty vector transfected HepG2 (t=5.365,P=0.006),while no difference was found in phosphorylation of pSer52 and expression of pKCε mRNA (t=1.098,P=0.334).Conclusion HBV infection is significantly associated with phosphorylation of CK18 pSer33.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-461643

ABSTRACT

This study was aimed to provide references for techniques in future application of traditional and natural drugs for tumor prevention and treatment. Domestic and foreign literatures on applications of gene chip technology in antitumor studies with natural and traditional medicine from 2000 to 2014 were reviewed. Corresponding database was established from aspects of published articles, drug intervention types, study fields, sample sources, chip technology platforms, repeatability of gene chip experiments, criteria of differential genes, and validation of gene chip experiments. Application experiences of gene chip in antitumor natural and traditional drugs were summarized. Shortcomings of gene chip technology application were analyzed deeply. The results showed that experimental gene screening was limited at the cellular level. More attentions should be paid to experiments at the animal and clinical levels. Scholars had paid more attention to expression level of mRNA and less attention to gene regulation level and epigenetic research of microRNA chip and DNA methylation chip. Gene chip experiments were lack of repeatability, which directly affected the evaluation results of difference gene and reduced reliability of gene screening. Screening results of genes should be verified not only at the mRNA level, but also increased at the protein level. It was concluded that gene chip was one of the most mature technologies to detect the level of gene expression, which was widely used in the research field of traditional and natural antitumor drug studies. Researchers should try to avoid deficiencies mentioned above in experiments related to gene chip technology.

15.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 364-368, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-314042

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in acute liver failure (ALF) using a mouse model of D-Galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS)-induced ALF.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The ALF model was established by administering intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of D-Ga1N (700 mg/kg) and LPS (10 mug/kg) to six C57BL/6 mice. Three of the modeled mice were also administered 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA; 100 mg/kg i.p.) at 6 hours before the onset of ALF and served as the intervention group. Non-modeled mice served as controls. All mice were analyzed by western blotting and qRT-PCR to determine the expression levels of ERS-related proteins in liver tissue. Liver function was assessed by measuring levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum. Extent of injury to the liver tissue was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining and histological analysis. qRT-PCR was also used to detect differences in expression of inflammation-related genes, and western blotting was also used to detect differences in expression of the apoptosis related protein Caspase-3.The extent of apoptosis in liver tissue was assessed by TUNEL assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The ERS markers GRP78 and GRP94 showed increased expression at both the gene and protein levels which followed progression of ALF. The ERS effector proteins XBP-1, ATF-6 and IRE 1 a involved in the unfolded protein response were activated in the early stages of ALF, and the ERS-induced apoptosis regulators Caspase-12 and CHOP were activated in the late stage of ALF. Inhibition of ERS by 4-PBA intervention protected against injury to liver tissue and function, as evidenced by significantly lower levels of serum ALT and AST and a remarkably decreased extent of histological alterations. Furthermore, the inhibition of ERS suppressed expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNFa, IL-6 and IL-1 β, and reduced the extent of hepatocyte apoptosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>ERS is activated in the mouse model of D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF. Inhibition of ERS may be protective against liver injury and the mechanism of action may involve reductions in inflammatory and apoptotic factors and/or signaling. Therefore, inhibiting ERS may represent a novel therapeutic approach for treating ALF.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Disease Models, Animal , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Galactosamine , Lipopolysaccharides , Liver Failure, Acute , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
16.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 671-675, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-313972

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the differential protein and mRNA expressions of mitochondria fusion protein-2 (Mfn2) in hepatic tissues in conditions of cirrhosis and acute on chronic liver failure using rat model systems,and to determine the correlative effects on production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A liver cirrhotic rat model (LC rats) was established by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4,in vegetable oil),and these mice were subsequently used (10 weeks later) to establish the acute on chronic liver failure rat model (LF rats) by injecting lipopolysaccharide and D-amino-galactose.Control groups (normal controls,NC rats) were established for each model by intraperitoneal injection of vegetable oil only.Protein expression of Mfn2 in liver was quantified by western blotting with fluorescence densitometry and immunofluorescence staining,and mRNA expression was measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR.ROS levels in liver were measured by fluorescence spectrophotometry,and ATP content was measured by bioluminescence assay.Significance of inter-group differences was assessed by one-way ANOVA,and correlations were determined using bivariate statistical modeling.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Mfn2 protein expression was significantly lower in the liver tissues from modeled rats than that from the control rats (LC:0.051+/-0.004 and LF:0.037+/-0.007 vs.NC:0.254+/-0.008;F=444.98,P less than 0.05).The mRNA expression followed the same trend of lower expression (LC:21.21+/-0.93 and LF:24.35+/-0.85 vs.NC:19.09+/-0.69; F=66.941,P less than 0.05).The ATP content in liver tissues was also significantly lower in the modeled rats (LC:2.07+/-0.05 mol/L and LF:1.81+/-0.11 mol/L vs.NC:3.24+/-0.08 mol/L; F =574.21,P less than 0.05).Lower Mfn2 expression was correlated with lower ATP content (r =0.982) and higher ROS content (r =0.803).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Reduced Mfn2 expression in liver tissue may cause a decrease in ATP synthesis and increase in ROS generation,thereby disrupting metabolism and increasing oxidative stress in the liver under conditions of cirrhosis and liver failure.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure , Metabolism , Animals , Carbon Tetrachloride , GTP Phosphohydrolases , Metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis , Metabolism , Membrane Proteins , Metabolism , Mice , Mitochondrial Proteins , Metabolism , Rats
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329211

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish a method for detecting circulating brain microvascular endothelial cells (cBMECs), a novel biomarker of blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Blood samples were collected from 33 patients with AIDS encephalitis and 13 healthy subjects for detection of cBMECs, cECs and EPCs using magnetic affinity isolation and immune identification technology.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The numbers of cBMECs, cECs and EPCs were significantly higher in the AIDS patients than in the control subjects (t=4.298, P<0.01; t=4.886, P<0.01; t=4.889, P<0.01). An significant association was also noted between HIV load and cBMEC number (r=0.928, P<0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>We have successfully established a method for detecting peripheral blood cBMECs, which can be of important value in non-invasive assessment of BBB injury.</p>


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Biomarkers , Blood-Brain Barrier , Pathology , Cell Separation , Methods , Cells, Cultured , Endothelial Progenitor Cells , Cell Biology , Humans
18.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 418-423, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-272364

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the role of apoptosis stimulating protein 2 of p53 (ASPP2) phosphorylation status in the regulation of ASPP2-p53 apoptotic pathway activity.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cells were individually transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding vector, constitutively non-phosphorylatable ASPP2 mutant-ASPP2 (Am)-encoding vector, and wild type ASPP2 (Aw)-encoding vector) plasmids, respectively, to make them overexpressing phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated ASPP2 proteins, respectively. Cell apoptosis was induced by oxaliplatin. The apoptosis rate of cells was determined by flow cytometry after staining with FITC-conjugated annexin V and PI. ASPP2 protein level and its phosphorylation status were observed by Western blot. The interaction between ASPP2 and p53 was observed by immunoprecipitation assay.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Oxaliplatin induced cell apoptosis and caused phosphorylation of ASPP2 at ser92/ser361 in the HCT116 cells. The apoptosis rate of Aw and Am plasmids-transfected cells were (3.8 ± 1.0)% and (3.9 ± 1.2)% respectively, statistically with a non-significant difference (P > 0.05) in comparison with that of the GFP plasmid-transfected cells [(4.0 ± 0.8)%]. After oxaliplatin treatment, the apoptosis rate of Aw plasmid-transfected cells was (46.7 ± 3.9)%, significantly higher than that of the Am and GFP plasmid-transfected cells [(40.1 ± 10.2)% and (37.1 ± 6.9)%, respectively, P < 0.05], however, there was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) between Am and GFP plasmid-transfected cells. These results indicate that phosphorylated ASPP2 promoted the oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of HCT116 cells through a p53-dependent pathway. Phosphorylation status of ASPP2 influenced its binding activity to p53.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Phosphorylation status of ASPP2 modulates p53 apoptotic function in oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of colorectal cancer HCT116 cells.</p>


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms , Metabolism , HCT116 Cells , Humans , Organoplatinum Compounds , Phosphorylation , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 , Genetics , Metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-437574

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the changes of extracellular histones during the course of acute liver failure in mice as well as its therapeutic potential.Methods WT mice (C57BL/6) were randomly (random number) allocated to inducing acute liver failure by lethal doses of GalN/LPS injected i.p.Hepatic function,apoptosis of hepatocytes and histological indexes were measured at different intervals following GalN/LPS challenge.The levels of extracellular histones were determined by using ELISA and Western blot methods.Meanwhile,GalN/LPS-treated mice were administered with anti-histone H3 and antihistone H4 neutralized antibodies,respectively.Results Administration of GalN/LPS to mice caused acute liver failure,characterized by significant elevation of plasma ALT levels and massive hepatocyte apoptosis or necrosis.All mice died within 9-12 hours.The levels of nucleosomes and extracellular histones H3 and H4 were increased considerably in a time-dependent manner.The survival rates in GalN/LPS-treated mice were improved remarkably following administration of anti-histone H3 and H4 neutralized antibodies (P =0.037,P =0.025),likely due to the significant inhibition of TNF-production.Conclusions Extracellular histones are an important mediator implicated in the pathogenesis of acute liver failure.Anti-histones show promising potential in the treatment of acute liver failure,which deserves further investigation in the future.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-434401

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the role of apoptosis stimulating protein 2 of p53 (ASPP2)in the apoptosis,cell cycle and autophagy of starvation-induced colorectal cancer HCT116 p53 +/+ (p53 wild-type) cell line.Methods Six groups were included:(1) control group; (2) green fluorescent protein adenovirus (rAd-GFP) infection group; (3)ASPP2 adenovirus (rAd-ASPP2) infection group; (4)starvation group; (5)rAd-GFP + starvation group; (6) rAd-ASPP2 + starvation group.HCT116 cells were infected with ASPP2 adenovirus (rAd-ASPP2),resulting ASPP2 gene over-expression.The apoptosis,autophagy and cell cycle changes were induced by culturing with serum-free medium for 24 h.Apoptosis was evaluated by Calcein/PI uptaking test,and autophagy was observed by counting the red fluorescent protein autophagy plasmid CFP-Lc3 which was transfected into cytoplasm.Cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry.Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).Results Over-expressed ASPP2 was found to significantly promote starvation-induced HCT116 apoptosis and autophagy.The cell apoptosis rate in rAd-GFP + starvation group was 10.00% ± 1.42%,and 18.44% ±2.06% in rAd-ASPP2 + starvation group(q =9.548,P =0.000).The cell autophagy rate in rAd-GFP+ starvation group and rAd-ASPP2 + starvation group was 35.00% ± 5.34% and 57.61% ± 6.06% respectively(q =7.657,P =0.000).Over-expressed ASPP2 accelerated HCT116 G2/M arrest under starvation,but resulted in both G0/G1 and G2/M arrest without starvation.Conclusion These results suggest that ASPP2 can promote starvation-induced HCT116 p53 +/+ cells apoptosis and autophagy,and affect the cell cycle.

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