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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926112

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The composition of the microbiota in the esophagus is only partially understood, especially in patients with achalasia. We aim to investigate the esophageal microbial community and nutritional intakes in patients with achalasia before and after peroral endoscopicmyotomies (POEM). @*Methods@#Twenty-nine patients were prospectively enrolled from 4 referral institutions across Korea. We collected esophageal samples (mucosal biopsies and retention fluid) and conducted dietary surveys for nutritional intake before and 8 weeks after POEM. The esophageal microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing targeting the V3-V4 region. @*Results@#Out of the 105 samples from 29 patients, 99 samples were subjected to microbial bioinformatic analysis after quality control, which excluded samples with no amplification or low-quality sequence data. The overall esophageal microbial compositions of patientswith achalasia showed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the dominant phyla, representing over 95% of the total phyla in all groups. At the genus level, Streptococcus was the most abundant in all groups. The observed operational taxonomic unit number was significantly higher in the retention fluid than in the tissue biopsies. However, the esophageal microbial composition showed no significant changes 8 weeks post POEM. The dietary survey analysis showed that nutritional intake significantly improved post POEM. @*Conclusion@#This study determined the unique esophageal microbial composition of patients with achalasia, and also found that the microbial composition did not significantly change after POEM in the short-term, despite a significant improvement in the nutritional intake.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926111

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To analyze various adverse events (AEs) related to the peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) procedure and to analyze whether these AEs are related to an extended hospital stay. @*Methods@#Patients admitted for POEM for esophageal motility disorders from August 2012 to February 2020 at 5 centers were retrospectively collected. Length of hospital stay, AEs during or after the POEM procedure were analyzed. @*Results@#Of the 328 patients, 63.1% did not have any AEs, but 2.4% had major AEs, and 33.4% had minor AEs. Major AEs included mucosal injury, bleeding, and hemothorax, accounting for 1.5%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively. Among the minor AEs, pneumoperitoneum was the most common gas-related AEs. Among non-gas-related minor AEs, pneumonia was the most common at 4.6%, followed by pain, fever, and pleural effusion. All major AEs had meaningful delayed discharge and significantly extended hospital stay compared to the no AEs group (median differences range 4.5-9.0 days). Among gas-related minor AEs, except for 4 cases of emphysema, the extended hospital stay was meaningless. All non-gas-related minor AEs was associated with a significant prolongation of hospital stay compared to that in the no AEs group (median differences range 2.0-4.0 days). @*Conclusions@#In conclusion, most gas-related minor AEs do not significantly affect the patient’s clinical course. However, subcutaneous emphysema and minor non-gas related AEs such as pneumonia, pain, fever, and pleural effusion can prolong the hospital stay, therefore careful observation is required. Efforts will be made to reduce major AEs that significantly prolong hospitalization.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925919

ABSTRACT

Background@#No definite guidelines for the management of small esophageal subepithelial tumors (SETs) have been established, because there are limited data and studies on their natural history. We aimed to assess the natural history and propose optimal management strategies for small esophageal SETs. @*Methods@#Patients diagnosed as esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm in size between 2003 and 2017 using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with a minimal follow-up of 3 months were enrolled, and their esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and EUS were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#Of 275 esophageal SETs in 262 patients, the initial size was < 10 mm, 10–20 mm, and 20–30 mm in 104 (37.8%), 105 (38.2%), and 66 (24.0%) lesions, respectively. Only 22 (8.0%) SETs showed significant changes in size and/or echogenicity and/or morphology at a median of 40 months (range, 4–120 months). Tissues of 6 SETs showing interval changes were obtained using EUS-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy; 1 was identified as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and was surgically resected, while the other 5 were leiomyomas and were regularly observed. Eight SETs showing interval changes were resected surgically or endoscopically without pathological confirmation; 1 was a GIST, 2 were granular cell tumors, and the other 5 were leiomyomas. @*Conclusion@#Regular follow-up with EGD or EUS may be necessary for esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm in size considering that small portion of them has a possibility of malignant potential. When esophageal SETs ≤ 30 mm show significant interval changes, pathological confirmation may precede treatment to avoid unnecessary resection.

4.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 381-389, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925798

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The treatment of superficial esophageal neoplasms (SENs) in cirrhotic patients is challenging and rarely investigated. We evaluated the outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) to determine the efficacy and safety of treating SENs in patients with liver cirrhosis. @*Methods@#The baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients who underwent ESD for SENs between November 2005 and December 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. @*Results@#ESD was performed in 437 patients with 481 SENs, including 15 cirrhotic patients with 17 SENs. En bloc resection (88.2% vs. 97.0%) and curative resection (64.7% vs. 78.9%) rates were not different between the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis groups (p=0.105 and p=0.224, respectively). Bleeding was more common in cirrhotic patients (p=0.054), and all cases were successfully controlled endoscopically. The median procedure and hospitalization duration did not differ between the groups. Overall survival was lower in cirrhotic patients (p=0.003), while disease-specific survival did not differ between the groups (p=0.85). @*Conclusions@#ESD could be a safe and effective treatment option for SENs in patients with cirrhosis. Detailed preprocedural assessments are needed, including determination of liver function, esophageal varix status, and remaining life expectancy, to identify patients who will obtain the greatest benefit.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925688

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to evaluate the real-world efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and to identify clinicolaboratory factors to predict treatment outcomes in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving ICIs. @*Materials and Methods@#Sixty patients with metastatic or unresectable ESCC treated with nivolumab (n=48) or pembrolizumab (n=12) as ≥ second-line treatment between 2016 and 2019 at Asan Medical Center were included. @*Results@#The median age of the patients was 68 years (range, 52 to 76 years), and 93.3% were male. Most patients had metastatic disease (81.7%) and had been previously treated with fluoropyrimidines, platinum, and taxane. In 53 patients with measurable disease, the overall response rate and disease control rate were 15.1% and 35.8%, respectively. With a median follow-up duration of 16.0 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 1.9 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54 to 2.19) and 6.4 months (95% CI, 4.77 to 8.11), respectively. After multivariate analysis, recent use of antibiotics, low prognostic nutrition index (< 35.93), high Glasgow Prognosis Score (≥ 1) at baseline, and ≥ 1.4-fold increase in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio after one cycle from baseline were significantly unfavorable factors for both PFS and OS. Younger age (< 65 years) was a significant factor for unfavorable PFS and hyponatremia (< 135 mmol/L) for unfavorable OS. @*Conclusion@#The use of ICIs after the failure of chemotherapy showed comparable efficacy in patients with advanced ESCC in real practice; this may be associated with host immune-nutritional status, which could be predicted by clinical and routine laboratory factors.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 483-486, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925021

ABSTRACT

A pyloric gland adenoma is a rare neoplasm that occurs most frequently in the stomach and should be removed because of its precancerous potential. Although there have been case reports of pyloric gland adenomas in extragastric areas such as the duodenum, pancreas, and bile duct, esophageal pyloric gland adenoma has never been reported in Korea. Herein, we report a case of esophageal pyloric gland adenoma that was successfully treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection.

7.
Gut and Liver ; : 198-206, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925006

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Postprocedural bleeding is known to be relatively low after argon plasma coagulation (APC) for gastric neoplasms; however, there are few studies proving the effect of antithrombotic agents. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of delayed bleeding (DB) based on antithrombotic agents administered and to identify the risk factors for DB in APC for gastric tumors. @*Methods@#A total of 785 patients with 824 lesions underwent APC for single gastric neoplasm between January 2011 and January 2018. After exclusion, 719 and 102 lesions were classified as belonging to the non-antithrombotics (non-AT) and AT groups, respectively. The clinical outcomes were compared between the two groups, and we determined the risk factors for DB in gastric APC. @*Results@#Of the total 821 cases, DB occurred in 20 cases (2.4%): 17 cases in the non-AT group and three cases in the AT group (2.4% vs 2.9%, p=0.728). Multivariate analysis of the risk factors for DB confirmed the following significant, independent risk factors: male sex (odds ratio, 7.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 57.69; p=0.048) and chronic kidney disease (odds ratio, 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.57 to 13.02; p=0.005). Thromboembolic events and perforation were not observed in all patients regardless of whether they took AT agents. @*Conclusions@#AT therapy is acceptably safe in gastric APC because it does not significantly increase the incidence of DB. However, patients with chronic kidney disease or male sex need to receive careful follow-up on the incidence of post-APC bleeding.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924850

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Vortioxetine, a new antidepressant, has been demonstrated to have effects on depression and cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the anti-depressive efficacy of vortioxetine through a well-designed double-blind, placebo-controlled study in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, and to confirm the presence of secondary benefits, including the improvement of cognitive function and activities of daily living (ADL). @*Methods@#The present study included 100 AD patients with depression who were assigned randomly to 12 weeks of daily treatment with either vortioxetine or placebo. The primary efficacy measure was the change in the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia score from baseline to 12 weeks. Several secondary efficacy measures were evaluated, including the Korean version of the Short form of Geriatric Depression Scale and several cognitive function domains. The safety and tolerability of vortioxetine were also assessed. We performed modified intention-to-treat analysis using mixed modeling (the Mixed Models for Repeated Measures). @*Results@#There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of depressive symptoms, cognitive functions, and ADL. Further, the percentage of adverse events and drug discontinuation between the vortioxetine and placebo groups was similar. @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that vortioxetine might not be effective in reducing depressive symptoms or cognitive impairment in AD patients with depression. However, general drug tolerance and patient safety were similar to those of placebo. Thus, additional studies are needed to replicate the effectiveness and tolerability of vortioxetine in AD patients with depression.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903620

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The learning curve is essential in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) training to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of procedure-related complications. We compared the outcomes of gastric ESD in live pigs performed by inexperienced endoscopists with or without ex vivo training. @*Materials and Methods@#At the Olympus Medical Training and Education Center, nine endoscopists inexperienced in ESD were randomly divided into two groups (group A: ex vivo training followed by in vivo training; group B: in vivo training only), and they performed gastric ESDs. @*Results@#A total of 18 ESDs were performed. The en bloc resection rate was 88.9% (16/18), and the complete resection rate was 94.4% (17/18). The median specimen size was 2.5 cm in group A and 2.1 cm in group B (P=0.227). There was no significant difference in the procedure time between the two groups, except for the marking time (0′58″ vs. 2′58″, P=0.027). However, group A took a shorter time in dissecting the same area than group B (109 vs. 246 sec/cm2, P=0.083). Complication rates were not significantly different between both groups. @*Conclusions@#The procedure time during in vivo ESD training in pigs may be shortened by prior ex vivo training. However, the ex vivo model presented poor air inflation, unstable fixation, and excessive mucosal hardness for cutting. An advanced simulator or sufficient ex vivo training may be effective in training for the ESD procedure.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 705-712, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898478

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Data regarding the prognosis of early esophageal cancer are lacking. This study investigated the long-term outcomes and factors affecting the survival of patients with mucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (T1aESCC). @*Methods@#We analyzed the clinical and tumor-specific parameters of 263 patients who received surgical resection (SR; n=63) or endoscopic resection (ER; n=200) for T1aESCC. Underlying comorbidities were scored using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome, and multivariate regression analysis was performed to predict factors for OS. @*Results@#Of the study patients (age, 64.5±8.0 years), the CCI was 1.0±1.4 in the ER group and 0.6±0.9 in the SR group (p=0.107). The 5-year OS rate during follow-up (54.4±20.4 months) was 85.7% (ER group, 86.8%; SR group, 82.4%; p=0.631). The cumulative 5-year incidence of esophageal cancer recurrence was 10.5% in the ER group (vs 0% in the SR group). The overall mortality rate was 12.9% (ER group, 12.0%; SR group, 15.9%; p=0.399). The most common cause of mortality was second primary cancers in the ER group (75%) and organ dysfunction or postoperative complications in the SR group (70%). According to multivariate analysis, only CCI was significantly associated with OS (p2 and in those with a CCI ≤2 was 60.2% and 88.2%, respectively (p<0.001). The treatment method (ER vs SR) was not a significant affecting factor (p=0.238). @*Conclusions@#The long-term prognosis of patients with T1aESCC was significantly associated with underlying comorbidities.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897420

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The association of serum lipids with gastric cancer is controversial. We clarified the role of serum lipids in the development, progression, and prognosis of gastric cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#In total, 412 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer were prospectively recruited, and 2,934 control subjects who underwent screening endoscopy were enrolled from December 2013 to March 2017 to conduct a case-control study in a tertiary center. Serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and apolipoprotein B, and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. @*Results@#The gastric cancer group showed significantly lower HDL-C, higher LDL-C, and lower apoA-I level than the control group. In multivariate analysis, old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.051; p < 0.001), smoking (OR, 1.337; p < 0.001), a family history of gastric cancer (OR, 2.038; p < 0.001), Helicobacter pylori seropositivity (OR, 4.240; p < 0.001), lower HDL-C (OR, 0.712; p=0.020), and higher LDL-C (p=0.002) were significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C remained significant after adjustments for covariates, including age and sex. In a subgroup analysis of the gastric cancer group, lower TG levels were associated with undifferentiated histology. No serum lipids were associated with overall survival. @*Conclusion@#Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C were associated with the risk of gastric cancer, even after adjusting for age, sex, and other factors. In the gastric cancer group, undifferentiated histology was associated with lower TG levels.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895916

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The learning curve is essential in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) training to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of procedure-related complications. We compared the outcomes of gastric ESD in live pigs performed by inexperienced endoscopists with or without ex vivo training. @*Materials and Methods@#At the Olympus Medical Training and Education Center, nine endoscopists inexperienced in ESD were randomly divided into two groups (group A: ex vivo training followed by in vivo training; group B: in vivo training only), and they performed gastric ESDs. @*Results@#A total of 18 ESDs were performed. The en bloc resection rate was 88.9% (16/18), and the complete resection rate was 94.4% (17/18). The median specimen size was 2.5 cm in group A and 2.1 cm in group B (P=0.227). There was no significant difference in the procedure time between the two groups, except for the marking time (0′58″ vs. 2′58″, P=0.027). However, group A took a shorter time in dissecting the same area than group B (109 vs. 246 sec/cm2, P=0.083). Complication rates were not significantly different between both groups. @*Conclusions@#The procedure time during in vivo ESD training in pigs may be shortened by prior ex vivo training. However, the ex vivo model presented poor air inflation, unstable fixation, and excessive mucosal hardness for cutting. An advanced simulator or sufficient ex vivo training may be effective in training for the ESD procedure.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892738

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892142

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endoscopic surveillance after total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer is routinely performed to detect tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events.However, the reports on the clinical benefits of endoscopic surveillance are ambiguous. We investigated the clinical benefit of endoscopic surveillance after TG for gastric cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed 848 patients who underwent TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer between 2011 and 2012 (380 early gastric cancer and 468 advanced gastric cancer) and underwent regular postoperative surveillance with endoscopy and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) with contrast. @*Results@#Median follow-up periods were 58 months for both endoscopy (range, 3–96) and abdominopelvic CT (range, 1–96). Tumor recurrence occurred in 167 patients (19.7%), of whom seven (4.2%) were locoregional recurrences in the peri-anastomotic area (n = 5) or regional gastric lymph nodes (n = 2). Whereas the peri-anastomotic recurrences were detected by both endoscopy and abdominopelvic CT, regional lymph node recurrences were only detected by abdominopelvic CT. Out of the 23 events of postoperative adverse events, the majority (87%) were detected by radiologic examinations; three events of benign strictures in the anastomotic site were detected only by endoscopy. @*Conclusion@#Endoscopic surveillance did not have a significant role in detecting locoregional tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events after TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer. Routine endoscopic surveillance after TG may be considered optional and performed according to the capacities of each clinical setting.

15.
Gut and Liver ; : 705-712, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890774

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Data regarding the prognosis of early esophageal cancer are lacking. This study investigated the long-term outcomes and factors affecting the survival of patients with mucosal esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (T1aESCC). @*Methods@#We analyzed the clinical and tumor-specific parameters of 263 patients who received surgical resection (SR; n=63) or endoscopic resection (ER; n=200) for T1aESCC. Underlying comorbidities were scored using the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Overall survival (OS) was the primary outcome, and multivariate regression analysis was performed to predict factors for OS. @*Results@#Of the study patients (age, 64.5±8.0 years), the CCI was 1.0±1.4 in the ER group and 0.6±0.9 in the SR group (p=0.107). The 5-year OS rate during follow-up (54.4±20.4 months) was 85.7% (ER group, 86.8%; SR group, 82.4%; p=0.631). The cumulative 5-year incidence of esophageal cancer recurrence was 10.5% in the ER group (vs 0% in the SR group). The overall mortality rate was 12.9% (ER group, 12.0%; SR group, 15.9%; p=0.399). The most common cause of mortality was second primary cancers in the ER group (75%) and organ dysfunction or postoperative complications in the SR group (70%). According to multivariate analysis, only CCI was significantly associated with OS (p2 and in those with a CCI ≤2 was 60.2% and 88.2%, respectively (p<0.001). The treatment method (ER vs SR) was not a significant affecting factor (p=0.238). @*Conclusions@#The long-term prognosis of patients with T1aESCC was significantly associated with underlying comorbidities.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889716

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The association of serum lipids with gastric cancer is controversial. We clarified the role of serum lipids in the development, progression, and prognosis of gastric cancer. @*Materials and Methods@#In total, 412 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer were prospectively recruited, and 2,934 control subjects who underwent screening endoscopy were enrolled from December 2013 to March 2017 to conduct a case-control study in a tertiary center. Serum lipid profiles, including total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), and apolipoprotein B, and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. @*Results@#The gastric cancer group showed significantly lower HDL-C, higher LDL-C, and lower apoA-I level than the control group. In multivariate analysis, old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.051; p < 0.001), smoking (OR, 1.337; p < 0.001), a family history of gastric cancer (OR, 2.038; p < 0.001), Helicobacter pylori seropositivity (OR, 4.240; p < 0.001), lower HDL-C (OR, 0.712; p=0.020), and higher LDL-C (p=0.002) were significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C remained significant after adjustments for covariates, including age and sex. In a subgroup analysis of the gastric cancer group, lower TG levels were associated with undifferentiated histology. No serum lipids were associated with overall survival. @*Conclusion@#Lower HDL-C and higher LDL-C were associated with the risk of gastric cancer, even after adjusting for age, sex, and other factors. In the gastric cancer group, undifferentiated histology was associated with lower TG levels.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900442

ABSTRACT

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which gastric contents regurgitate into the esophagus or beyond, resulting in either troublesome symptoms or complications. GERD is heterogeneous in terms of varied manifestations, test findings, and treatment responsiveness. GERD diagnosis can be established with symptomatology, pathology, or physiology. Recently the Lyon consensus defined the “proven GERD” with concrete evidence for reflux, including advanced grade erosive esophagitis (Los Angeles classification grades C and or D esophagitis), long-segment Barrett’s mucosa or peptic strictures on endoscopy or distal esophageal acid exposure time > 6% on 24-hour ambulatory pH-impedance monitoring. However, some Asian researchers have different opinions on whether the same standards should be applied to the Asian population. The prevalence of GERD is increasing in Asia. The present evidence-based guidelines were developed using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. In GERD with typical symptoms, a proton pump inhibitor test can be recommended as a sensitive, cost-effective, and practical test for GERD diagnosis.Based on a meta-analysis of 19 estimated acid-exposure time values in Asians, the reference range upper limit for esophageal acid exposure time was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.9%) in the Asian countries. Esophageal manometry and novel impedance measurements, including mucosal impedance and a post-reflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave, are promising in discrimination of GERD among different reflux phenotypes, thus increasing its diagnostic yield. We also propose a long-term strategy of evidence-based GERD treatment with proton pump inhibitors and other drugs.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899846

ABSTRACT

Background@#Endoscopic surveillance after total gastrectomy (TG) for gastric cancer is routinely performed to detect tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events.However, the reports on the clinical benefits of endoscopic surveillance are ambiguous. We investigated the clinical benefit of endoscopic surveillance after TG for gastric cancer. @*Methods@#We analyzed 848 patients who underwent TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer between 2011 and 2012 (380 early gastric cancer and 468 advanced gastric cancer) and underwent regular postoperative surveillance with endoscopy and abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) with contrast. @*Results@#Median follow-up periods were 58 months for both endoscopy (range, 3–96) and abdominopelvic CT (range, 1–96). Tumor recurrence occurred in 167 patients (19.7%), of whom seven (4.2%) were locoregional recurrences in the peri-anastomotic area (n = 5) or regional gastric lymph nodes (n = 2). Whereas the peri-anastomotic recurrences were detected by both endoscopy and abdominopelvic CT, regional lymph node recurrences were only detected by abdominopelvic CT. Out of the 23 events of postoperative adverse events, the majority (87%) were detected by radiologic examinations; three events of benign strictures in the anastomotic site were detected only by endoscopy. @*Conclusion@#Endoscopic surveillance did not have a significant role in detecting locoregional tumor recurrence and postoperative adverse events after TG with R0 resection for gastric cancer. Routine endoscopic surveillance after TG may be considered optional and performed according to the capacities of each clinical setting.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914656

ABSTRACT

Co-existence of subacute thyroiditis and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is rarely reported. We have recently experienced interesting cases of subacute thyroiditis, which developed while waiting for elective surgery of thyroid cancer in two patients. Two women, aged 52 and 55 years, suspected or diagnosed as PTC complained of anterior neck pain and febrile sensation several weeks before the scheduled surgery. Both cases showed elevated serum thyroid hormones and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ill-defined hypoechoic lesions on ultrasonography and decreased uptake on Tc-99m pertechnetate scan were noted in both lobes. Total thyroidectomy for PTC was performed after relief of symptoms either by steroid or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug treatment. Pathologic evaluation of surgical specimen revealed multinucleated giant cells and mononuclear cell infiltration. Pathognomic findings of subacute thyroiditis in addition to PTC were observed in both cases.

20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903612

ABSTRACT

Esophageal cancer has a relatively high prevalence of local recurrence, which is associated with a poor prognosis. Superficial esophageal cancer has shown a metachronous recurrence rate of 2.6~35.8% with the cumulative overall 3-year and 5-year metachronous cancer incidence being 9.9~15.5% and 20.6~24.5%, respectively. In addition to recurrences in the remnant esophagus, second metachronous primary tumors have been reported to arise in 4.0~37.4% of esophageal cancer survivors. The second primary cancers arising after a diagnosis of esophageal cancer are most commonly detected in the head and neck area, followed by the lungs and stomach. The field cancerization theory explains the high prevalence of head and neck cancer among esophageal cancer patients. The reported risk factors for metachronous esophageal recurrences include scattered-type Lugol staining, circumferential endoscopic resection of the primary lesion, heavy alcohol use, smoking, inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genes, alcohol dehydrogenase-1B genes, and young age at diagnosis of the primary cancer. The risk factors for metachronous second primary tumors include heavy alcohol use, smoking, and a previous history of radiation therapy. Consequently, periodic follow-up endoscopy using narrow-band imaging is essential for the screening of metachronous esophageal cancers and second primary tumors after endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal cancer.

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