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1.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 94-103, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968877

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Hypofractionated radiotherapy (HypoRT) has recently been implemented in patients with glioblastoma (GBM) receiving concurrent temozolomide. Lymphopenia during treatment (LDT) is considered an important prognostic factor of clinical outcomes for GBM. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of HypoRT. @*Materials and Methods@#Among 223 patients with GBM, 145 and 78 were treated with conventionally fractionated RT (ConvRT, 60 Gy in 30 fractions) and HypoRT (58.5 Gy in 25 fractions), respectively. To balance characteristics between the two groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was performed. @*Results@#Patients in the HypoRT group were older and had smaller tumors than those in the ConvRT group (p0.05). Multivariable analysis before PSM revealed that ≥grade 2 LDT at 6 months was associated with inferior outcomes. Subsequent analysis demonstrated that HypoRT significantly reduced the rate of ≥grade 2 LDT at 6 months post-RT before and after PSM. @*Conclusion@#HypoRT with 58.5 Gy in 25 fractions could provide comparable oncologic outcomes and significantly reduce the ALC changes. In addition, HypoRT decreased the LDT. Further investigation should be warranted to suggest the significance of reduced LDT through HypoRT affecting survival outcomes.

2.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 562-572, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001284

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: Bevacizumab is a feasible option for treating cerebral radiation necrosis (RN). We investigated the clinical outcome of RN after treatment with bevacizumab and factors related to the initial response and the sustained effect. @*Methods@#: Clinical data of 45 patients treated for symptomatic RN between September 2019 and February 2021 were retrospectively collected. Bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) was administered at 3-week intervals with a maximum four-cycle schedule. Changes in the lesions magnetic resonance image (MRI) scans were examined for the response evaluation. The subgroup analysis was performed based on the initial response and the long-term maintenance of the effect. @*Results@#: Of the 45 patients, 36 patients (80.0%) showed an initial response, and eight patients (17.8%) showed delayed worsening of the corresponding lesion. The non-responders showed a significantly higher incidence of diffusion restriction on MRI than the responders (100.0% vs. 25.0%, p<0.001). The delayed worsening group showed a significantly higher proportion of glioma pathology than the maintenance group (87.5% vs. 28.6%, p=0.005). Cumulative survival rates with sustained effect were significantly higher in the groups with non-glioma pathology (p=0.019) and the absence of diffusion restriction (p<0.001). Pathology of glioma and diffusion restriction in MRI were the independent risk factors for non-response or delayed worsening after initial response. @*Conclusion@#: The initial response of RN to bevacizumab was favorable, with improvement in four-fifths of the patients. However, a certain proportion of patients showed non-responsiveness or delayed exacerbations. Bevacizumab may be more effective in treating RN in patients with non-glioma pathology and without diffusion restriction in the MRI.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 396-405, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925685

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The KNOG-1101 study showed improved 2-year PFS with temozolomide during and after radiotherapy compared to radiotherapy alone for patients with anaplastic gliomas. This trial investigates the effect of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). @*Materials and Methods@#In this randomized, open-label, phase II trial, 90 patients with World Health Organization grade III glioma were enrolled across multiple centers in South Korea between March 2012 to February 2015 and followed up through 2017. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and 20-item EORTC QLQ-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) were used to compare HRQoL between patients assigned to concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (arm A) and radiotherapy (RT) alone (arm B). @*Results@#Of the 90 patients in the study, 84 patients (93.3%) completed the baseline HRQoL questionnaire. Emotional functioning, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, dyspnea, constipation, appetite loss, diarrhea, seizures, itchy skin, drowsiness, hair loss, and bladder control were not affected by the addition of temozolomide. All other items did not differ significantly between arm A and arm B throughout treatment. Global health status particularly stayed consistent at the end of adjuvant temozolomide (p=0.47) and at the end of RT (p=0.33). @*Conclusion@#The addition of concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide did not show negative influence on HRQoL with improvement of progression-free survival for patients with anaplastic gliomas. The absence of systematic and clinically relevant changes in HRQoL suggests that an overall long-term net clinical benefit exists for concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide.

4.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e102-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899859

ABSTRACT

Background@#Intended subtotal resection (STR) followed by adjuvant gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has emerged as an effective treatment option for facial nerve (FN) preservation in vestibular schwannomas (VSs). This study aimed to identify the optimal cutoff volume of residual VS to predict favorable outcomes in terms of both tumor control and FN preservation. @*Methods@#This retrospective study assessed the patients who underwent adjuvant GKRS for residual VS after microsurgery. A total of 68 patients who had been followed up for ≥ 24 months after GKRS were included. Tumor progression was defined as an increase in tumor volume (TV) of ≥ 20%. House-Brackmann grades I and II were considered to indicate good FN function. @*Results@#The median residual TV was 2.5 cm3 (range: 0.3–27.4). The median follow-up period after the first adjuvant GKRS was 64 months (range: 25.7–152.4). Eight (12%) patients showed tumor progression. In multivariate analyses, residual TV was associated with tumor progression (P = 0.003; hazard ratio [HR], 1.229; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.075–1.405).A residual TV of 6.4 cm3 was identified as the cut-off volume for showing the greatest difference in progression-free survival (PFS). The 5-year PFS rates in the group with residual TVs of < 6.4 cm3 (54 patients) and that with residual TVs of ≥ 6.4 cm3 (14 patients) were 93.3% and 69.3%, respectively (P = 0.014). A good FN outcome was achieved in 57 (84%) patients.Residual TV was not associated with good FN function during the immediate postoperative period (P = 0.695; odds ratio [OR], 1.024; 95% CI, 0.908–1.156) or at the last follow-up (P = 0.755; OR, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.866–1.110). @*Conclusion@#In this study, residual TV was associated with tumor progression in VS after adjuvant GKRS following STR. As preservation of FN function is not correlated with the extent of resection, optimal volume reduction is imperative to achieve long-term tumor control. Our findings will help surgeons predict the prognosis of residual VS after FNpreserving surgery.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e102-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892155

ABSTRACT

Background@#Intended subtotal resection (STR) followed by adjuvant gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has emerged as an effective treatment option for facial nerve (FN) preservation in vestibular schwannomas (VSs). This study aimed to identify the optimal cutoff volume of residual VS to predict favorable outcomes in terms of both tumor control and FN preservation. @*Methods@#This retrospective study assessed the patients who underwent adjuvant GKRS for residual VS after microsurgery. A total of 68 patients who had been followed up for ≥ 24 months after GKRS were included. Tumor progression was defined as an increase in tumor volume (TV) of ≥ 20%. House-Brackmann grades I and II were considered to indicate good FN function. @*Results@#The median residual TV was 2.5 cm3 (range: 0.3–27.4). The median follow-up period after the first adjuvant GKRS was 64 months (range: 25.7–152.4). Eight (12%) patients showed tumor progression. In multivariate analyses, residual TV was associated with tumor progression (P = 0.003; hazard ratio [HR], 1.229; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.075–1.405).A residual TV of 6.4 cm3 was identified as the cut-off volume for showing the greatest difference in progression-free survival (PFS). The 5-year PFS rates in the group with residual TVs of < 6.4 cm3 (54 patients) and that with residual TVs of ≥ 6.4 cm3 (14 patients) were 93.3% and 69.3%, respectively (P = 0.014). A good FN outcome was achieved in 57 (84%) patients.Residual TV was not associated with good FN function during the immediate postoperative period (P = 0.695; odds ratio [OR], 1.024; 95% CI, 0.908–1.156) or at the last follow-up (P = 0.755; OR, 0.980; 95% CI, 0.866–1.110). @*Conclusion@#In this study, residual TV was associated with tumor progression in VS after adjuvant GKRS following STR. As preservation of FN function is not correlated with the extent of resection, optimal volume reduction is imperative to achieve long-term tumor control. Our findings will help surgeons predict the prognosis of residual VS after FNpreserving surgery.

6.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 271-281, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874818

ABSTRACT

: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are approved for treating non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the safety and efficacy of combined ICI and Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) treatment remain undefined. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed patients treated with ICIs with or without GKS at our institute to manage patients with brain metastases from NSCLC. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with brain metastases from NSCLC treated with ICIs between January 2015 and December 2017. Of 134 patients, 77 were assessable for brain responses and categorized into three groups as follows : group A, ICI alone (n=26); group B, ICI with concurrent GKS within 14 days (n=24); and group C, ICI with non-concurrent GKS (n=27). Results : The median follow-up duration after brain metastasis diagnosis was 19.1 months (range, 1–77). At the last follow-up, 53 patients (68.8%) died, 20 were alive, and four were lost to follow-up. The estimated median overall survival (OS) of all patients from the date of brain metastasis diagnosis was 20.0 months (95% confidence interval, 12.5–27.7) (10.0, 22.5, and 42.1 months in groups A, B, and C, respectively). The OS was shorter in group A than in group C (p=0.001). The intracranial disease progression-free survival (p=0.569), local progression-free survival (p=0.457), and complication rates did not significantly differ among the groups. Twelve patients showed leptomeningeal seeding (LMS) during follow-up. The 1-year LMS-free rate in treated with ICI alone group (69.1%) was significantly lower than that in treated with GKS before ICI treatment or within 14 days group (93.2%) (p=0.004). Conclusion : GKS with ICI showed no favorable OS outcome in treating brain metastasis from NSCLC. However, GKS with ICI did not increase the risk of complications. Furthermore, compared with ICI alone, GKS with ICI may be associated with a reduced incidence of LMS. Further understanding of the mechanism, which remains unknown, may help improve the quality of life of patients with brain metastasis.

7.
Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology ; : 261-267, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831292

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Endoscopic pituitary surgery usually requires a collaboration between neurosurgeons and ENT surgeons to achieve optimal outcomes. However, neurosurgeons occasionally perform these procedures alone without an ENT surgeon. In this study, postoperative sinonasal quality of life and olfactory function were compared in patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary surgery performed by a single neurosurgeon or by a collaborative team of a neurosurgeon and an ENT surgeon. @*Materials and Methods@#. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed. Patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary surgery for pituitary adenoma from January 2015 to April 2018 were included. The study patients were divided into two groups; patients in group 1 underwent surgery performed by a single neurosurgeon, while patients in group 2 received surgery performed by a collaborative team of surgeons. Olfaction was assessed using a subjective Likert scale, the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and the butanol threshold test (BTT). In addition, patients answered the Sino-nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) questionnaire regarding sinonasal quality of life before and 3 months after surgery. @*Results@#. This study included 152 patients (46 patients in group 1 and 106 patients in group 2). Significant differences were not observed between the two groups regarding age, sex, tumor size, or operation time. Although subjective olfaction was not significantly different before and after surgery, group 2 showed significantly better objective olfactory function based on the CC-SIT (8.44±3.00 vs. 9.84±1.40; P=0.012) and BTT (4.67±0.84 vs. 5.02±0.33; P=0.022) scores at 3 months after surgery. The SNOT-22 scores were not statistically significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). @*Conclusion@#. In the present study, better olfactory outcomes were observed in patients who underwent surgery performed by a collaborative team of a neurosurgeon and an ENT surgeon. This result shows the need for collaboration between neurosurgeons and ENT surgeons in endoscopic pituitary surgery.

8.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 41-50, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831089

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels for solid tumors have been useful in clinical framework for accurate tumor diagnosis and identifying essential molecular aberrations. However, most cancer panels have been designed to address a wide spectrum of pan-cancer models, lacking integral prognostic markers that are highly specific to gliomas. @*Materials and Methods@#To address such challenges, we have developed a glioma-specific NGS panel, termed “GliomaSCAN,” that is capable of capturing single nucleotide variations and insertion/deletion, copy number variation, and selected promoter mutations and structural variations that cover a subset of intron regions in 232 essential glioma-associated genes. We confirmed clinical concordance rate using pairwise comparison of the identified variants from whole exome sequencing (WES), immunohistochemical analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. @*Results@#Our panel demonstrated high sensitivity in detecting potential genomic variants that were present in the standard materials. To ensure the accuracy of our targeted sequencing panel, we compared our targeted panel to WES. The comparison results demonstrated a high correlation. Furthermore, we evaluated clinical utility of our panel in 46 glioma patients to assess the detection capacity of potential actionable mutations. Thirty-two patients harbored at least one recurrent somatic mutation in clinically actionable gene. @*Conclusion@#We have established a glioma-specific cancer panel. GliomaSCAN highly excelled in capturing somatic variations in terms of both sensitivity and specificity and provided potential clinical implication in facilitating genome-based clinical trials. Our results could provide conceptual advance towards improving the response of genomically guided molecularly targeted therapy in glioma patients.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 505-515, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831048

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the efficacy of temozolomide during and after radiotherapy in Korean adultswith anaplastic gliomas without 1p/19q co-deletion. @*Materials and Methods@#This was a randomized, open-label, phase 2 study and notably the first multicenter trial forKorean grade III glioma patients. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and hadnewly diagnosed non-co-deleted anaplastic glioma with an Eastern Cooperative OncologyGroup performance status of 0-2. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive radiotherapyalone (60 Gy in 30 fractions of 2 Gy) (control group, n=44) or to receive radiotherapy withconcurrent temozolomide (75 mg/m2/day) followed by adjuvant temozolomide (150-200mg/m2/day for 5 days during six 28-day cycles) (treatment group, n=40). The primary endpointwas 2-year progression-free survival (PFS). Seventy patients (83.3%) were availablefor the analysis of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) mutation status. @*Results@#The two-year PFS was 42.2% in the treatment group and 37.2% in the control group. Overallsurvival (OS) did not reach to significant difference between the groups. In multivariableanalysis, age was a significant risk factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidenceinterval [CI], 1.04 to 4.16). The IDH1mutation was the only significant prognostic factor forPFS (HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.59) and OS (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.50). Adverseevents over grade 3 were seen in 16 patients (40.0%) in the treatment group and werereversible. @*Conclusion@#Concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide in Korean adults with newly diagnosed nonco-deleted anaplastic gliomas showed improved 2-year PFS. The survival benefit of this regimenneeds further analysis with long-term follow-up at least more than 10 years.

10.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1009-1022, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715625

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is classified as one of the most aggressive and lethal brain tumor. Great strides have been made in understanding the genomic and molecular underpinnings of GBM, which translated into development of new therapeutic approaches to combat such deadly disease. However, there are only few therapeutic agents that can effectively inhibit GBM invasion in a clinical framework. In an effort to address such challenges, we have generated anti-SEMA3A monoclonal antibody as a potential therapeutic antibody against GBM progression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed public glioma datasets, Repository of Molecular Brain Neoplasia Data and The Cancer Genome Atlas, to analyze SEMA3A mRNA expression in human GBM specimens. We also evaluated for protein expression level of SEMA3A via tissue microarray (TMA) analysis. Cell migration and proliferation kinetics were assessed in various GBM patient-derived cells (PDCs) and U87-MG cell-line for SEMA3A antibody efficacy. GBM patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were generated to evaluate tumor inhibitory effect of anti-SEMA3A antibody in vivo. RESULTS: By combining bioinformatics and TMA analysis, we discovered that SEMA3A is highly expressed in human GBM specimens compared to non-neoplastic tissues. We developed three different anti-SEMA3A antibodies, in fully human IgG form, through screening phage-displayed synthetic antibody library using a classical panning method. Neutralization of SEMA3A significantly reduced migration and proliferation capabilities of PDCs and U87-MG cell line in vitro. In PDX models, treatment with anti-SEMA3A antibody exhibited notable tumor inhibitory effect through down-regulation of cellular proliferative kinetics and tumor-associated macrophages recruitment. CONCLUSION: In present study, we demonstrated tumor inhibitory effect of SEMA3A antibody in GBM progression and present its potential relevance as a therapeutic agent in a clinical framework.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Cell Line , Cell Movement , Computational Biology , Dataset , Down-Regulation , Genome , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Heterografts , Immunoglobulin G , In Vitro Techniques , Kinetics , Macrophages , Mass Screening , Methods , RNA, Messenger , Semaphorin-3A
11.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 193-203, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-6981

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and survival benefits of combined treatment with radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) in a Korean sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 750 Korean patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma multiforme, who received concurrent chemoradiotherapy with TMZ (CCRT) and adjuvant TMZ from January 2006 until June 2011, were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: After the first operation, a gross total resection (GTR), subtotal resection (STR), partial resection (PR), biopsy alone were achieved in 388 (51.7%), 159 (21.2%), 96 (12.8%), and 107 (14.3%) patients, respectively. The methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) was reviewed retrospectively in 217 patients. The median follow-up period was 16.3 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 17.5 months. The actuarial survival rates at the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 72.1%, 21.0%, and 9.0%, respectively. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.1 months, and the actuarial PFS at 1-, 3-, and 5-year PFS were 42.2%, 13.0%, and 7.8%, respectively. The patients who received GTR showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those who received STR, PR, or biopsy alone, regardless of the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. Patients with a methylated MGMT promoter also showed a significantly longer OS and PFS than those with an unmethylated MGMT promoter. Patients who received more than six cycles of adjuvant TMZ had a longer OS and PFS than those who received six or fewer cycles. Hematologic toxicity of grade 3 or 4 was observed in 8.4% of patients during the CCRT period and in 10.2% during the adjuvant TMZ period. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with CCRT followed by adjuvant TMZ had more favorable survival rates and tolerable toxicity than those who did not undergo this treatment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Chemoradiotherapy , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Korea , Methylation , Radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
12.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 21-29, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze outcomes and identify prognostic factors in patients with cerebral metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) particularly, focusing on associations of biomarkers and systemic treatments. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 134 patients who underwent GKS for brain metastases due to NSCLC between January 2002 and December 2012. Representative biomarkers including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, K-ras mutation, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation status were investigated. RESULTS: The median overall survival after GKS was 22.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8–35.1 months). During follow-up, 63 patients underwent salvage treatment after GKS. The median salvage treatment-free survival was 7.9 months (95% CI, 5.2–10.6 months). Multivariate analysis revealed that lower recursive partition analysis (RPA) class, small number of brain lesions, EGFR mutation (+), and ALK mutation (+) were independent positive prognostic factors associated with longer overall survival. Patients who received target agents 30 days after GKS experienced significant improvements in overall survival and salvage treatment-free survival than patients who never received target agents and patients who received target agents before GKS or within 30 days (median overall survival: 5.0 months vs. 18.2 months, and 48.0 months with p-value=0.026; median salvage treatment-free survival: 4.3 months vs. 6.1 months and 16.6 months with p-value=0.006, respectively). To assess the influence of target agents on the pattern of progression, cases that showed local recurrence and new lesion formation were analyzed according to target agents, but no significant effects were identified. CONCLUSION: The prognosis of patients with brain metastases of NSCLC after GKS significantly differed according to specific biomarkers (EGFR and ALK mutations). Our results show that target agents combined with GKS was related to significantly longer overall survival, and salvage treatment-free survival. However, target agents were not specifically associated with improved local control of the lesion treated by GKS either development of new lesions. Therefore, it seems that currently popular target agents do not affect brain lesions themselves, and can prolong survival by controlling systemic disease status.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Follow-Up Studies , Lymphoma , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phosphotransferases , Prognosis , Radiosurgery , ErbB Receptors , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy
13.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : e317-2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-212089

ABSTRACT

Gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare variant (2%) of glioblastoma (GBM) that poses clinical genomic challenges because of its poor prognosis and limited genomic information. To gain a comprehensive view of the genomic alterations in GS and to understand the molecular etiology of GS, we applied whole-exome sequencing analyses for 28 GS cases (6 blood-matched fresh-frozen tissues for the discovery set, 22 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for the validation set) and copy-number variation microarrays for 5 blood-matched fresh-frozen tissues. TP53 mutations were more prevalent in the GS cases (20/28, 70%) compared to the GBM cases (29/90, 32%), and the GS patients with TP53 mutations showed a significantly shorter survival (multivariate Cox analysis, hazard ratio=23.9, 95% confidence interval, 2.87–199.63, P=0.003). A pathway analysis showed recurrent alterations in MAPK signaling (EGFR, RASGRF2 and TP53), phosphatidylinositol/calcium signaling (CACNA1s, PLCs and ITPRs) and focal adhesion/tight junction (PTEN and PAK3) pathways. Genomic profiling of the matched recurrent GS cases detected the occurrence of TP53 mutations in two recurrent GS cases, which suggests that TP53 mutations play a role in treatment resistance. Functionally, we found that TP53 mutations are associated with the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of sarcomatous components of GS. We provide the first comprehensive genome-wide genetic alternation profiling of GS, which suggests novel prognostic subgroups in GS patients based on their TP53 mutation status and provides new insight in the pathogenesis and targeted treatment of GS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glioblastoma , Gliosarcoma , Prevalence , Prognosis
14.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 1-7, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are clinically challenging because they present at a late stage with local mass effects or hypopituitarism. Surgery for non-functioning pituitary adenoma requires a special strategic approach for both minimal morbidity and radical resection. However, the clinical predictive factors associated with recurrence are limited. Here, we investigated optimal treatment of non-functioning pituitary adenoma. METHODS: We enrolled 289 patients who presented with non-functioning pituitary adenoma between January 2000 and January 2012 and who had received follow-up for at least one year for this retrospective study. Of these patients, 152 were male and 137 were female, with a median age of 51 years (range 15.79 years) and a median follow-up of four years (range 1.12.6 years). Characteristics of patients and tumors were reviewed with electronic medical records and radiologic images, retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the tumors, 193 were gross-totally resected, 53 were near-totally resected, and 43 were sub-totally resected. The extent of resection and adjuvant radiotherapy were both statistically significant prognostic factors of recurrence. Immunohistochemistry of tumor specimens did not yield consistent results. CONCLUSION: With a high rate of recurrence, NFPA should be closely followed-up over a long-term period. Improvement of surgical techniques with advanced surgical equipment and adjuvant radiosurgery would lead to reduce the recurrence rate and improve patients' outcome.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Electronic Health Records , Follow-Up Studies , Hypopituitarism , Immunohistochemistry , Pituitary Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Equipment
15.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 1-7, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are clinically challenging because they present at a late stage with local mass effects or hypopituitarism. Surgery for non-functioning pituitary adenoma requires a special strategic approach for both minimal morbidity and radical resection. However, the clinical predictive factors associated with recurrence are limited. Here, we investigated optimal treatment of non-functioning pituitary adenoma. METHODS: We enrolled 289 patients who presented with non-functioning pituitary adenoma between January 2000 and January 2012 and who had received follow-up for at least one year for this retrospective study. Of these patients, 152 were male and 137 were female, with a median age of 51 years (range 15.79 years) and a median follow-up of four years (range 1.12.6 years). Characteristics of patients and tumors were reviewed with electronic medical records and radiologic images, retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the tumors, 193 were gross-totally resected, 53 were near-totally resected, and 43 were sub-totally resected. The extent of resection and adjuvant radiotherapy were both statistically significant prognostic factors of recurrence. Immunohistochemistry of tumor specimens did not yield consistent results. CONCLUSION: With a high rate of recurrence, NFPA should be closely followed-up over a long-term period. Improvement of surgical techniques with advanced surgical equipment and adjuvant radiosurgery would lead to reduce the recurrence rate and improve patients' outcome.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Electronic Health Records , Follow-Up Studies , Hypopituitarism , Immunohistochemistry , Pituitary Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Equipment
16.
Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society ; : 44-51, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28320

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Malignant gliomas with neuronal marker expression (MGwNM) are rare and poorly characterized. Increasingly diverse types of MGwNM have been described and these reported cases underscore the dilemmas in the classification and diagnosis of those tumors. The aim of this study is to provide additional insights into MGwNM and present the clinicopathological features of 18 patients. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 18 patients diagnosed as MGwNM at our institute between January 2006 and December 2012. Macroscopic total resection was performed in 11 patients (61%). We evaluated the methylation status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and expression of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH-1) in all cases, and deletions of 1p and 19q in available cases. RESULTS: The estimated median overall survival was 21.2 months. The median progression-free survival was 6.3 months. Six patients (33%) had MGMT methylation but IDH1 mutation was found in only one patient (6%). Gene analysis for 1p19q performed in nine patients revealed no deletion in six, 19q deletion only in two, and 1p deletion only in one. The extent of resection was significantly correlated with progression free survival on both univariate analysis and multivariate analysis (p=0.002 and p=0.013, respectively). CONCLUSION: In this study, the overall survival of MGwNM was not superior to glioblastoma. The extent of resection has a significant prognostic impact on progression-free survival. Further studies of the prognostic factors related to chemo-radio therapy, similar to studies with glioblastoma, are mandatory to improve survival.


Subject(s)
Humans , Classification , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Medical Records , Methylation , Multivariate Analysis , Neurons
17.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 63-69, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) invading into the cavernous sinus are surgically challenging. To decrease recurrence rate, surgeon makes a strong endeavor to resect tumor gross totally. However, gross total resection (GTR) is difficult to achieve with cavernous sinus invasion. Recently, a new classification system for cavernous invasion of pituitary adenomas was suggested. The aim of this study is to validate this new classification system and to identify limitations and considerations in designing treatment strategies for patients with NFPA involving the cavernous sinus. METHODS: Between January 2000 and January 2012, 275 patients who underwent operation for NFPA were enrolled in the study. Median age was 50 years (15–79 years). There were 145 males and 130 females. The median follow-up duration was 4 years (range 1–12.5 years). RESULTS: Related to extent of tumor removal, GTR was obtained in 184 patients (66.9%), near total resection (NTR) was obtained in 45 patients (16.3%), and sub-total resection (STR) was obtained in 46 patients (16.7%) of a total 275 patients. There were statistically significant differences between the extent of resection and the new Knosp classification (p<0.001). In the high-grade group of the new Knosp classification, there was no difference in recurrence between patients who underwent GTR or NTR only and those who underwent STR with adjuvant radiation therapy (p=0.515). CONCLUSION: In case of high risk of surgical complications, STR with adjuvant radiation therapy can be considered as an alternative strategy for safe treatment of cavernous-invading adenomas.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Adenoma , Cavernous Sinus , Classification , Follow-Up Studies , Pituitary Neoplasms , Recurrence
18.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 94-99, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiomatous meningioma is a rare histological subtype of meningioma. Therefore, this specific medical condition is rarely reviewed in the literature. In the present work, we report the clinical and radiological features with postoperative outcomes of angiomatous meningioma. METHODS: This retrospective study included the patients who were pathologically diagnosed with angiomatous meningioma after surgical resection between February 2010 and September 2015 in our institute. We analyzed the clinical data, radiological manifestation, treatment and prognosis of all patients. RESULTS: The 15 patients (5 males and 10 females) were diagnosed with angiomatous meningioma during the study period. The median age of patients at the time of surgery was 63 years (range: 40 to 80 years). According to Simpson classification, 7, 5, and 3 patients achieved Simpson grade I, II, and IV resection, respectively. In the follow-up period, recurrence was noted in one patient. Ten out of the 15 patients showed homogeneous enhancement. Two patients demonstrated cystic changes. There was no occurrence of calcification or hemorrhage in our patients. Characteristically, 14 out of 15 patients showed signal voids of vessels. Significant peritumoral edema was observed in the majority of tumors (67%). CONCLUSION: Angiomatous meningiomas are rare benign meningioma. Brain images of angiomatous meningioma usually demonstrate signal void signs and peritumoral edema. In the present study, angiomatous meningiomas showed good prognosis after surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Brain , Brain Edema , Classification , Edema , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Meningioma , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
19.
Anatomy & Cell Biology ; : 44-53, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-29472

ABSTRACT

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant World Health Organization grade IV brain tumor. GBM patients have a poor prognosis because of its resistance to standard therapies, such as chemotherapy and radiation. Since stem-like cells have been associated with the treatment resistance of GBM, novel therapies targeting the cancer stem cell (CSC) population is critically required. However, GBM CSCs share molecular and functional characteristics with normal neural stem cells (NSCs). To elucidate differential therapeutic targets of GBM CSCs, we compared surface markers of GBM CSCs with adult human NSCs and found that GD2 and CD90 were specifically overexpressed in GBM CSCs. We further tested whether the GBM CSC specific markers are associated with the cancer stemness using primarily cultured patient-derived GBM cells. However, results consistently indicated that GBM cells with or without GD2 and CD90 had similar in vitro sphere formation capacity, a functional characteristics of CSCs. Therefore, GD2 and CD90, GBM specific surface markers, might not be used as specific therapeutic targets for GBM CSCs, although they could have other clinical utilities.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Brain Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Neural Stem Cells , Prognosis , World Health Organization
20.
Brain Tumor Research and Treatment ; : 56-61, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for perioptic lesions. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with perioptic tumors were treated at our institute from May 2004 to December 2008. All patients had a lesion in close contact with the optic apparatus. Twenty-four of these patients had undergone surgical resection before fractionated GKRS. Radiation was delivered in four sessions with 12 hours intervals between sessions. The mean target volume was 3,851 mm3 and the median cumulative marginal dose was 20 Gy. The median follow-up was 38.2 months. Visual acuity and visual fields were analyzed according to visual impairment score using the German Ophthalmological Society guidelines. RESULTS: Tumor control was achieved in 35 (94.6%) of the 37 patients with available follow-up images. Progressive tumor growth was observed in two craniopharyngioma patients (5.4%). Favorable visual outcomes in the postoperative period were achieved in 94.7% of cases (36/38). Sixteen patients showed visual function after fractionated GKRS, twenty cases were stationary, and two patients showed visual function deterioration after GKRS. CONCLUSION: GKRS is a safe and effective alternative to either surgery or fractionated radiotherapy for selected benign lesions that are adjacent to the optic apparatus.


Subject(s)
Humans , Craniopharyngioma , Follow-Up Studies , Postoperative Period , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Vision Disorders , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields
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