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1.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1111-1120, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914259

ABSTRACT

Background@#The management of cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules is challenging for clinicians. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems (K-TIRADS) with that of the American College of Radiology (ACR)-TIRADS for predicting the malignancy risk of indeterminate thyroid nodules. @*Methods@#Thyroid nodules diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) followed by surgery or core needle biopsy at a single referral hospital were enrolled. @*Results@#Among 200 thyroid nodules, 78 (39.0%) nodules were classified as indeterminate by FNA (Bethesda category III, IV, and V), and 114 (57.0%) nodules were finally diagnosed as malignancy by surgery or core needle biopsy. The area under the curve (AUC) was higher for FNA than for either TIRADS system in all nodules, while all three methods showed similar AUCs for indeterminate nodules. However, for Bethesda category III nodules, applying K-TIRADS 5 significantly increased the risk of malignancy compared to a cytological examination alone (50.0% vs. 26.5%, P=0.028), whereas applying ACR-TIRADS did not lead to a change. @*Conclusion@#K-TIRADS and ACR-TIRADS showed similar diagnostic performance in assessing indeterminate thyroid nodules, and K-TIRADS had beneficial effects for malignancy prediction in Bethesda category III nodules.

2.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1189-1200, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914246

ABSTRACT

Background@#Epidemiological data have shown that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Korea. Genetic factors influencing vitamin D deficiency in humans have been studied in Europe but are less known in East Asian countries, including Korea. We aimed to investigate the genetic factors related to vitamin D levels in Korean people using a genome-wide association study (GWAS). @*Methods@#We included 12,642 subjects from three different genetic cohorts consisting of Korean participants. The GWAS was performed on 7,590 individuals using linear or logistic regression meta- and mega-analyses. After identifying significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we calculated heritability and performed replication and rare variant analyses. In addition, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis for significant SNPs was performed. @*Results@#rs12803256, in the actin epsilon 1, pseudogene (ACTE1P) gene, was identified as a novel polymorphism associated with vitamin D deficiency. SNPs, such as rs11723621 and rs7041, in the group-specific component gene (GC) and rs11023332 in the phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) gene were significantly associated with vitamin D deficiency in both meta- and mega-analyses. The SNP heritability of the vitamin D concentration was estimated to be 7.23%. eQTL analysis for rs12803256 for the genes related to vitamin D metabolism, including glutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetase (NADSYN1) and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), showed significantly different expression according to alleles. @*Conclusion@#The genetic factors underlying vitamin D deficiency in Korea included polymorphisms in the GC, PDE3B, NADSYN1, and ACTE1P genes. The biological mechanism of a non-coding SNP (rs12803256) for DHCR7/NADSYN1 on vitamin D concentrations is unclear, warranting further investigations.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835516

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Iodine is known to be an important factor in the occurrence of goiter, and South Korea is a region with sufficient iodine supplementation. In this regard, we checked the size change of thyroid nodules found by health check-up in Koreans and examined which risk factors influence the size change. @*Materials and Methods@#A total 7753 subjects who underwent thyroid sonography two or more times were included. We defined that there was a change in the size of the nodule when the difference in diameter identified in the last ultrasound was more than 3 mm. @*Results@#Thyroid nodules were decreased in 895 subjects (11.5%) and increased in 1041 subjects (13.5%). The rate of increased nodule was on an increasing trend according to the duration (annual percent change 2.6%, p<0.001). In contrast, the rate of decreased nodule was unchanged. Predictive factors related to decrease of the nodule size were young age, male sex, larger initial nodule size and thyroiditis. Similarly, young age, larger initial nodule size and diffuse parenchymal abnormality were significant predictive factors for increased nodules. However, diffuse parenchymal abnormality was not a predictive factor when we analyzed only thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm. @*Conclusion@#In our study, 11.5-13.5% of benign thyroid nodules were increased or decreased during median 27 months of follow-up in iodine sufficient condition. Young age, larger initial size and diffuse parenchymal abnormality were common predictive factor affecting both the increase and decrease of thyroid nodules.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression is recommended for patients who undergo thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the impact of TSH suppression on clinical outcomes in low-risk DTC remains uncertain. Therefore, we investigated the effects of postoperative TSH levels on recurrence in patients with low-risk DTC after thyroid lobectomy. METHODS: Patients (n=1,528) who underwent thyroid lobectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma between 2000 and 2012 were included in this study. According to the mean and dominant TSH values during the entire follow-up period or 5 years, patients were divided into four groups (<0.5, 0.5 to 1.9, 2.0 to 4.4, and ≥4.5 mIU/L). Recurrence-free survival was compared among the groups. RESULTS: During the 5.6 years of follow-up, 21 patients (1.4%) experienced recurrence. Mean TSH levels were within the recommended low-normal range (0.5 to 1.9 mIU/L) during the total follow-up period or 5 years in 38.1% or 36.0% of patients. The mean and dominant TSH values did not affect recurrence-free survival. Adjustment for other risk factors did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Serum TSH levels did not affect short-term recurrence in patients with low-risk DTC after thyroid lobectomy. TSH suppression should be conducted more selectively.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin
5.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1392-1399, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763221

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The association between tobacco smoking and thyroid cancer remains uncertain. We evaluated the associations of active and passive smokingwith the risk of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer, and with the BRAF(V600E) mutation, the most common oncogenic mutation in PTC related to poor prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted this study with newly diagnosed PTC patients (n=2,142) and community controls (n=21,420) individually matched to cases for age and sex. Information on active and passive smoking and potential confounders were obtained from structured questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, and medical records. BRAF(V600E) mutation status was assessed in PTC patients. We evaluated the associations of active and passive smoking with PTC and BRAF(V600E) mutation risk using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models, respectively. RESULTS: We did not find associations between exposure indices of active and passive smoking and PTC risk in both men and women, except for the association between current smoking and lower PTC risk. Cumulative smoking ≥ 20 pack-years was associated with lower BRAF(V600E) mutation risk in male PTC patients (odds ratio [OR], 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 1.00). The CI for the association was wider in female PTC patients (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.02 to 2.62), possibly owing to a smaller sample size in this stratum. CONCLUSION: We did not find consistent associations between active and passive smoking and PTC risk. Cumulative smoking ≥ 20 pack-years was associated with lower BRAF(V600E) mutation risk in male PTC patients.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Medical Records , Prognosis , Sample Size , Smoke , Smoking , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Tobacco Smoke Pollution
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713172

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thyrotoxicosis is a common disease resulting from an excess of thyroid hormones, which affects many organ systems. The clinical symptoms and signs are relatively nonspecific and can vary depending on age, sex, comorbidities, and the duration and cause of the disease. Several symptom rating scales have been developed in an attempt to assess these symptoms objectively and have been applied to diagnosis or to evaluation of the response to treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the hyperthyroidism symptom scale (K-HSS). METHODS: Twenty-eight thyrotoxic patients and 10 healthy subjects completed the K-HSS at baseline and after follow-up at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. The correlation between K-HSS scores and thyroid function was analyzed. K-HSS scores were compared between baseline and follow-up in patient and control groups. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to demonstrate the internal consistency of K-HSS. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 34.7±9.8 years and 13 (34.2%) were men. K-HSS scores demonstrated a significant positive correlation with serum free thyroxine concentration and decreased significantly with improved thyroid function. K-HSS scores were highest in subclinically thyrotoxic subjects, lower in patients who were euthyroid after treatment, and lowest in the control group at follow-up, but these differences were not significant. Cronbach's α coefficient for the K-HSS was 0.86. CONCLUSION: The K-HSS is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating symptoms of thyrotoxicosis in Korean patients.


Subject(s)
Comorbidity , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Seoul , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Thyrotoxicosis , Thyroxine , Weights and Measures
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716643

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to develop a core competency model for translational medicine curriculum in the Korean graduate education context. METHODS: We invited specialists and key stakeholders to develop a consensus on a core competency model. The working group composed of 17 specialists made an initial draft of a core competency model based on the literature review. The initial draft was sent to the survey group by email to ask whether they agreed or disagreed with each core competency. The working group simplified, merged, or excluded the competencies that received less than 80% agreement among the 43 survey respondents. The working group also reorganized the order of the domains and competencies based on the survey results, and clustered the domains into four major areas. RESULTS: The final core competency model has four areas, 12 domains, and 34 core competencies. The major areas are theory-based problem assessment and formulation, study design and measurement, study implementation, and literature review and critique. CONCLUSION: This new core competency model will provide guidance for the competency based education of translational medicine in Korea.


Subject(s)
Competency-Based Education , Consensus , Curriculum , Education, Graduate , Electronic Mail , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Korea , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translational Research, Biomedical
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of thyroid nodules detected by thyroid ultrasound (US) at health checkups and the associated clinical parameters. METHODS: A total of 72,319 subjects who underwent thyroid US at three health checkup centers in Korea from January 2004 to December 2010 were included in this study. The correlations between the presence of thyroid nodules and other clinical parameters were analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of thyroid nodules and cysts was 34.2% (n = 24,757). Thyroid nodules were more prevalent in women and older age groups. Among the subjects with thyroid nodules with size information (n = 24,686), 18,833 (76.3%) had nodules measuring ≤ 1.0 cm. Women and older age groups showed higher proportion of larger nodules. Percentage of women, age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat composition, blood pressure, and the level of fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were higher in the subjects with thyroid nodules compared to those without nodules. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and overt/subclinical thyrotoxic state was higher in the subjects with thyroid nodules. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, women, age, BMI, metabolic syndrome, and thyrotoxicosis were independently associated with the presence of thyroid nodules. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of thyroid nodules in people who underwent thyroid US at a health checkup suggests that increased detection of thyroid nodules resulted in an increased prevalence in the general population. However, metabolic disturbances may also have contributed to the increase in thyroid nodule prevalence in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Fasting , Female , Glucose , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Thyrotoxicosis , Ultrasonography , Waist Circumference
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After initial radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer patients, we sometimes observe a star-shaped region of intense uptake of 131I on whole body scans (WBSs), called a ‘star artifact.’ We evaluated the clinical implications of star artifacts on the success rate of remnant ablation and long-term prognosis. METHODS: Total 636 patients who received 131I dose of 1.1 GBq for the initial RAI therapy and who did not show distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis were retrospectively evaluated. A negative second WBS was used for evaluating the ablation efficacy of the RAI therapy. Among them, 235 patients (36.9%) showed a star artifact on their first WBS. RESULTS: In patients with first stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels ≤2 ng/mL, patients with star artifacts had a higher rate of negative second WBS compared with those without star artifacts (77.8% vs. 63.9%, P=0.044), and showed significantly higher recurrence-free survival (P=0.043) during the median 8.0 years (range, 1.0 to 10.0) of follow-up. The 5- and 10-year recurrence rates (5YRR, 10YRR) were also significantly lower in patients with star artifacts compared with those without (0% vs. 4.9%, respectively, P=0.006 for 5YRR; 0% vs. 6.4%, respectively, P=0.005 for 10YRR). However, ablation success rate or recurrence-free survival was not different among patients whose first sTg levels >2 ng/mL regardless of star artifacts. CONCLUSION: Therefore, star artifacts at initial RAI therapy imply a good ablation efficacy or a favorable long-term prognosis in patients with sTg levels ≤2 ng/mL.


Subject(s)
Artifacts , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Iodine , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Therapeutic Uses , Thyroglobulin , Thyroid Neoplasms , Whole Body Imaging
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study of Active Surveillance on Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma (MAeSTro) aims to observe the natural course of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), develop a protocol for active surveillance (AS), and compare the long-term prognosis, quality of life, and medical costs between the AS and immediate surgery groups. METHODS: This multicenter prospective cohort study of PTMC started in June 2016. The inclusion criteria were suspicious of malignancy or malignancy based on fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy, age of ≥18 years, and a maximum diameter of ≤1 cm. If there was no major organ involvement, no lymph node/distant metastasis, and no variants with poor prognosis, the patients were explained of the pros and cons of immediate surgery and AS before selecting AS or immediate surgery. Follow-up visits (physical examination, ultrasonography, thyroid function, and questionnaires) are scheduled every 6 months during the first 2 years, and then every 1 year thereafter. Progression was defined as a maximum diameter increase of ≥3, ≥2 mm in two dimensions, suspected organ involvement, or lymph node/distant metastasis. RESULTS: Among 439 enrolled patients, 290 patients (66.1%) chose AS and 149 patients (33.9%) chose immediate surgery. The median follow-up was 6.7 months (range, 0.2 to 11.9). The immediate surgery group had a larger maximum tumor diameter, compared to the AS group (7.1±1.9 mm vs. 6.6±2.0 mm, respectively; P=0.014). CONCLUSION: The results will be useful for developing an appropriate PTMC treatment policy based on its natural course and risk factors for progression.


Subject(s)
Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Ultrasonography
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-172617

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Various methods of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in thyroid cancer have been introduced. Tc-99m phytate as a radiotracer has been successfully utilized for SLN biopsy in breast, cervix, and endometrial cancer. We assessed the feasibility of SLN dissection using Tc-99m phytate in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). METHODS: Seventeen patients with PTC were prospectively enrolled. Ultrasound-guided peritumoral injection of 55.5 MBq Tc-99m phytate in 0.25-mL normal saline was performed. Preoperative single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT) and intraoperative gamma-probe were used for SLN detection during operation. RESULTS: Identification rate of SLNs was 70.6% (12 of 17) with SPECT, and 88.2% (15 of 17) with gamma-probe. Combined SPECT and gamma-probe had identification rates of 88.2% (15 of 17). Identification rates of SLNs in central LN compartments were 82.4% (14 of 17) and 41.2% (7 of 17) in lateral LN compartments. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the results of SLN biopsy were 91.6%, 100%, 88.4%, and 100%, respectively. Eight patients (47.1%) had metastasis in SLNs; all patients had SLN metastasis in the central compartment and 2 patients had SLN metastasis in both the central and lateral compartments. CONCLUSION: Combined SPECT and gamma-probe could detect SLNs with an 88.2% identification rate in PTC. SLN biopsy using Tc-99m phytate is technically feasible. Further investigation is warranted for clinical application of Tc-99m phytate in PTC.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Breast , Cervix Uteri , Endometrial Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phytic Acid , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We analyzed the clinicopathologic differences of thyroid cancer by diagnosis periods, diagnostic motives, residence history and clinical risk factors in thyroid cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 1599 thyroid cancer patients who answered the questionnaires about family history of thyroid cancer, residence history including duration of residence and location were enrolled from two hospitals, Seoul National University Hospital and National Cancer Center in Korea. Demographics and environmental information were collected via questionnaires and clinical data were reviewed via electronic medical records. RESULTS: More thyroid cancer has been diagnosed in 2011 to 2013 by screening test without specific symptom than before 1990. The size of cancer at diagnosis was significantly smaller and multifocal tumor was more frequently found in 2011 to 2013 than before 1990 as well. The tumors of obese or overweight patients tended to harbor extrathyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis than normal weight subjects with statistical significance. However, there were no differences in clinicopathologic characteristics according to residence and smoking history. CONCLUSION: In this study, there were some different clinicopathologic characteristics according to the diagnosis era, diagnostic motives, family history of thyroid cancer and body mass index.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Demography , Diagnosis , Electronic Health Records , Humans , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mass Screening , Neoplasm Metastasis , Overweight , Risk Factors , Seoul , Smoke , Smoking , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-155533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is commonly related with concurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). We aimed to examine the clinicopathologic characteristics, prognosis and gene expression of DTC with anaplastic foci. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with DTC with anaplastic foci were enrolled in this study. To compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis of anaplastic foci subjects with conventional ATC or DTC, we additionally included 12 ATC and 1030 DTC patients who diagnosed during same period. Immunohistochemistry was performed to check the gene expression in anaplastic foci and DTC component. RESULTS: In anaplastic foci group, tumor size was larger (2.5±1.3 vs. 1.2±0.9 cm, p=0.001), distant metastasis was more frequent (11.1 vs. 0%, p=0.000) and 1-year survival rate was low (88.9 vs. 100%, p=0.000) than DTC group. In contrast, compared with ATC group, anaplastic foci group showed younger age at diagnosis (50±16 vs. 63±18 years, p=0.039), smaller tumor size (2.5±1.3 vs. 3.8±1.4 cm, p=0.027), less distant metastasis (11.1 vs. 41.7%, p=0.084) and longer 1-year survival rate (88.9 vs. 25.0%, p=0.001). Expression of p53 protein was observed in 100% of anaplastic foci, ATC and 12.5% of papillary thyroid carcinoma component. CONCLUSION: DTC with foci of anaplastic transformation has a worse prognosis than DTC, but a better prognosis than ATC. Our results support that DTC with anaplastic foci was intermediate state from DTC to ATC.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-122231

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The extent of weight gain and its association with clinical factors in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer remain unclear. We analyzed clinical factors related to sustained weight gain after serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation for radioiodine (I-131) therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 301 adult patients who underwent total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine therapy and visited the thyroid clinic regularly. Group 1 received a single radioiodine therapy treatment, while group 2 received multiple radioiodine treatment. Data on transient weight gain, defined as weight gain that resolved (±5%) within 1 year after radioiodine therapy, were collected from medical records. Sustained weight gain was defined as body mass index after treatment (BMI(post)) - BMI before treatment (BMI(pre)) ≥2 kg/m2 more than 1 year following radioiodine therapy. Subjective symptoms were scored by questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed using various clinical and laboratory factors to identify risk factors associated with sustained weight gain. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-nine (86%) patients showed transient weight gain and 23 (8%) patients showed sustained weight gain. TSH at therapy and T4-on TSH differed significantly in all patients and in the patients in group 1 with sustained weight gain. The proportion of patients with basal BMI≥25 kg/m2 in group 1 with sustained weight gain also differed significantly. Univariate analysis revealed that high serum levels of TSH at therapy (≥100 µIU/mL) and hypercholesterolemia were associated with sustained weight gain in group 1. Multivariate analysis showed that TSH at therapy levels ≥100 µIU/mL was associated with sustained weight gain in group 1. Of 283 patients remaining after excluding those with insufficient TSH suppression during follow-up, T4-on TSH levels were lower in the sustained weight gain group compared to those without sustained weight gain. TSH at therapy levels ≥100 µIU/mL were significantly associated with sustained weight gain in multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Most patients (86%) had transient weight gain after TSH at therapy, while 8% of patients showed sustained weight gain. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed relatively high TSH levels (≥100 µIU/mL) to be a risk factor for patients that received a single dose of radioiodine therapy. Insufficient T4 dose was not associated with sustained weight gain.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypercholesterolemia , Logistic Models , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin , Weight Gain
16.
Hip & Pelvis ; : 24-28, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-146500

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with aplastic anemia (AA) are now living longer and therefore are at increased risk for the development of osteonecrosis of the hip. However, studies on the results of total hip arthroplasty (THA) are lacking. The purpose of this study is to present the result of THA in patients with AA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data for a group of 29 patients (45 hips) with AA who presented to our institution for THA between May 2008 and May 2012. All hips were replaced because of osteonecrosis of the femoral head. A specific prospective protocol was followed for the perioperative transfusion of platelets and blood. The clinical and radiographic evaluations were done, and the minimum follow-up period was 3 years (mean, 49.2 months; range, 36 to 84 months). RESULTS: Three hips had excessive perioperative bleeding and hematoma formation, and then hematoma evacuations were done; one hip was finally revised because of infection of acetabular component. One patient with poorly controlled AA died due to delayed infection on the hip joint. All hips showed stable fixation, and the mean Harris hip score was improved from 54.2 points (range, 42 to 69 points) preoperatively to 90.8 points (range, 73 to 97 points) at the time of the latest follow-up. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the durability of implant fixation was maintained and the clinical results demonstrated a sustained increase in function of the hip. Postoperatively, paying attention to bleeding and infection should be needed.


Subject(s)
Acetabulum , Anemia, Aplastic , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Follow-Up Studies , Head , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Hip , Hip Joint , Humans , Osteonecrosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-42169

ABSTRACT

Recently, thyroid cancer survivors are rapidly increasing in Korea, up to 21% of 1,234,879 total cancer survivors in 2012. The survival rate after thyroid cancer treatment is high, but many of the survivors suffer from fatigue, depressive mood and anxiety. Rarely, thyroid cancer treatment can result in long-term complications such as voice change and hypocalcemia. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression for preventing recurrence of thyroid cancer might lower bone density and increase risk of cardiovascular diseases including atrial fibrillation. For thyroid cancer survivorship care-management of such long-term complications, comorbid conditions and psychosocial problems, second primary cancer screening, promotion of healthy behaviors, support for family caregivers, role of primary care physicians is important. Systematic shared care between oncologists and primary care physicians is expected. And further research to generate evidence regarding effective management of thyroid cancer survivors is needed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Atrial Fibrillation , Bone Density , Cardiovascular Diseases , Caregivers , Fatigue , Humans , Hypocalcemia , Korea , Long-Term Care , Mass Screening , Neoplasms, Second Primary , Physicians, Primary Care , Recurrence , Survival Rate , Survivors , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyrotropin , Voice
18.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 795-798, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205733

ABSTRACT

Thymic hyperplasia is frequently observed in Graves' disease. However, detectable massive enlargement of the thymus is rare, and the mechanism of its formation has remained elusive. This case showed dynamic changes in thymic hyperplasia on serial computed tomography images consistent with changes in serum thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) antibodies and thyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, the patient's thymic tissues underwent immunohistochemical staining for TSH-R, which demonstrated the presence of thymic TSH-R. The correlation between serum TSH-R antibody levels and thymic hyperplasia sizes and the presence of TSH-R in her thymus suggest that TSH-R antibodies could have a pathogenic role in thymic hyperplasia.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Graves Disease/complications , Humans , Male , Receptors, Thyrotropin/blood , Thymus Gland/diagnostic imaging , Thymus Hyperplasia/diagnostic imaging , Thyroid Hormones , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin/blood , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211238

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Macrophages are a component of a tumor's microenvironment and have various roles in tumor progression and metastasis. This study evaluated the relationships between tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) density and clinical outcomes in 14 different types of human cancers. METHODS: We investigated TAM density in human tissue microarray sections from 14 different types of human cancers (n = 266) and normal thyroid, lung, and breast tissues (n = 22). The five-year survival rates of each cancer were obtained from the 2011 Korea Central Cancer Registry. RESULTS: Among 13 human cancers, excluding thyroid cancer, pancreas, lung, and gallbladder cancers had the highest density of CD163-positive macrophages (7.0+/-3.5%, 6.9+/-7.4%, and 6.9 +/- 5.5%, respectively). The five-year relative survival rates of these cancers (pancreas, 8.7%; lung, 20.7%; gallbladder, 27.5%) were lower than those of other cancers. The histological subtypes in thyroid cancer exhibited significantly different CD163-positive macrophages densities (papillary, 1.8 +/- 1.6% vs anaplastic, 22.9 +/- 17.1%; p < .001), but no significant difference between histological subtypes was detected in lung and breast cancers. Moreover, there was no significant difference in CD163-positive macrophages densities among the TNM stages in lung, breast, and thyroid cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Cancers with higher TAM densities (pancreas, lung, anaplastic thyroid, and gallbladder) were associated with poor survival rate.


Subject(s)
Breast , Gallbladder , Gallbladder Neoplasms , Humans , Korea , Lung , Macrophages , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pancreas , Prognosis , Survival Rate , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Expression of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is negatively regulated by orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP). In this study, we aimed to find whether thyroid hormone regulates SHP expression by modulating the transcriptional activities of liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1). METHODS: We injected thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) to C57BL/6J wild type. RNA was isolated from mouse liver and used for microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Human hepatoma cell and primary hepatocytes from mouse liver were used to confirm the effect of T3 in vitro. Promoter assay and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay (EMSA) were also performed using human hepatoma cell line RESULTS: Initial microarray results indicated that SHP expression is markedly decreased in livers of T3 treated mice. We confirmed that T3 repressed SHP expression in the liver of mice as well as in mouse primary hepatocytes and human hepatoma cells by real-time PCR analysis. LRH-1 increased the promoter activity of SHP; however, this increased activity was markedly decreased after thyroid hormone receptor beta/retinoid X receptor alpha/T3 administration. EMSA revealed that T3 inhibits specific LRH-1 DNA binding. CONCLUSION: We found that thyroid hormone regulates the expression of SHP mRNA through interference with the transcription factor, LRH-1.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bile Acids and Salts , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cell Line , Child , Child, Orphaned , Cholesterol , Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase , DNA , Hepatocytes , Humans , Liver , Mice , Microarray Analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Thyroid Hormone , RNA , RNA, Messenger , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Transcription Factors
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