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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925840

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of liquefied digestive medicines on the composite resin surface. @*Methods@#Three types of liquefied digestive medicines (Gashwalmyeongsu, Wicheongsu, and Saengrokcheon) were selected as experimental groups, Samdasoo and Chamisul as negative controls, and Trevi as positive controls were selected to measure pH and titratable acidity. The samples filled with resin at acrylic were made total 300, 50 per group. To evaluate the erosion risk of the composite resin, the specimens were immersed in a liquefied medicine for 1, 3, 5, 15, and 30 minutes, and then the surface microhardness was measured using the Vickers Hardness Number, and the surface change was observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). @*Results@#The average pH of the three liquefied medicine was 3.75±0.30, the Saengrokcheon was the lowest at 3.45±0.01, and the Trevi was 4.66 and Samdasoo and Chamisul were 7.40 and 8.58, respectively. The amount of NaOH reaching pH 5.5 and 7.0 was the lowest in the order of Trevi, Gashwalmyeongsu, Wicheongsu, and Saengrokcheon. The largest surface hardness reduction value was shown in Gashwalmyeongsu (−11.85±3.73), followed by Saengrokcheon (−9.79±3.11) and Wicheongsu (−8.28±2.83), and Samdasoo (−0.84±1.56) and Chamisul (−6.24±0.42) had relatively low surface hardness reduction values. However, Trevi (−16.67±5.41), a positive control group containing carbonic acid, showed a higher decrease in surface hardness than the experimental group. As a result of observation with SEM, experimental group and positive control group, showed rough surfaces and irregular cracks, and negative control groups showed smooth patterns similar to before immersion. @*Conclusion@#The liquefied digestive medicine with low pH could weaken the composite resin surface, and the carbonic acid component could more effect on the physical properties of the composite resin than pH.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925835

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to investigate the effect of selecting commercially available blending teas and applying them to bovine teeth on color change over time. @*Methods@#After selecting healthy bovine teeth, using a cutting-disc, 105 specimens with a dimension of 5×5×3 mm were prepared, and 15 specimens were distributed to each group. Black tea was used as a positive control, water was used as a negative control, and blended tea of five types was used as an experimental group. First, pH and buffering capacity were measured with a pH meter, and tooth color was determined using a spectrophotometer before immersion in the blending tea solution and 1, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days after immersion. Thereafter, the shape change of the enamel surface was observed using a scanning electron microscope, and SPSS ver.26 was used to analyze the color change. @*Results@#The average pH of the five blending teas in the experimental group was 3.78, and the pH of group 3 (strawberry rhubarb) was the lowest at 3.22. The pH levels of black tea and water were 5.19 and 7.30, respectively. The buffering capacity was the highest in group 3 at both pH levels of 5.5 and 7.0. The L*a*b* color change according to immersion time was the largest in group 4 (rooibos yellow flower), and the amount of color change was large in black tea and group 4. As a result of observing the enamel surface of bovine teeth, changes in the surface shape were noted in all groups immersed in the experimental solution for 21 days, except for water. @*Conclusion@#There was a significant difference between the experimental groups in terms of color change according to the immersion time, and color and enamel surface changes were observed in black tea and all experimental groups, except for water.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903858

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896154

ABSTRACT

Our previous research on coprolite specimens from the mummies of Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910 CE) has revealed various species of parasite eggs. Herein, we added 2 new helminthic cases of human remains from Joseon-period graves in the Republic of Korea (Korea). The organic materials precipitated on the hip bones of 2 half-mummied cases (Goryeong and Gwangmyeong cases) were collected, rehydrated, and examined by a microscope. In the sample from Goryeong-gun (gun=County), ova of Trichuris trichiura, Clonorchis sinensis, and Metagonimus spp. were detected, and eggs of T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides were found from the sample of Gwangmyeong-si (si=City). By adding this outcome to the existing data pool, we confirm our previous estimates of Joseon-period parasite infection rates. The overall rates of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, and C. sinensis decreased dramatically from Joseon to the modern period. In Goryeong mummy specimen, we also found Metagonimus spp. eggs that has rarely been detected in archaeological samples so far.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919682

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of commercially available calamansi soju and other alcoholic beverages on the microhardness and erosion of resin restorations. @*Methods@#In this study, we evaluated the effects of Calamansi soju, Chamisul fresh, Cass fresh, and Gancia Moscato D’asti on resin restorations. Jeju Samdasoo and Coca-Cola were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Specimens to be immersed in the beverages were manufactured using composite resin according to the product instructions. In each group, the surface microhardness was measured using a surface microhardness instrument before and after immersion for 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. The pattern of change in the surface of the composite resin was observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Paired t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and repeated measures ANOVA were performed to compare the surface microhardness of the specimens, and the Tukey test was used as a post hoc test. @*Results@#The pH of all beverages except Jeju Samdasoo was <5.5, which is the critical pH that can induce erosion. The difference in surface microhardness of the composite resin before and after immersion for 60 minutes was significant in all groups. In particular, the largest change in surface microhardness was observed in the calamansi soju group. In the SEM analysis, loss of composite resin was observed in all groups except the Jeju Samdasoo group, and rough surfaces with pores of various sizes were observed. @*Conclusion@#In this study, all beverages except Jeju Samdasoo decreased the microhardness of the composite resin surface, and it was confirmed that calamansi soju had the greatest change.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919680

ABSTRACT

Background@#Although the orofacial-function improvement exercise (OFIE; oral exercise) was first introduced in Korea 10 years prior, it is still not covered by medical insurance, and no detailed survey on the dissemination of related programs has been conducted. Therefore, this study investigated the actual status of the education and practice of OFIE among the elderly and at elderly welfare institutions in the Seoul and Gyeonggi Provinces. @*Methods@#Senior citizens aged more than 65 years old, public health centers (total of 69) and elderly welfare institutions (including nursing homes and elderly welfare centers, total of 56) per administrative area in the Seoul and Gyeonggi Provinces were targeted. We analyzed 200 elderly people and 93 institutions who agreed to participate in the survey. For the elderly, general characteristics, experience and route, current practice, and necessity regarding OFIE were investigated. For institutions, the history and plan of education programs on OFIE were investigated. @*Results@#Regardless of the general characteristics, both the rate of experience and practice for OFIE were low overall; moreover, although they felt it was necessary, they had insufficient motivation for its implementation. Moreover, only a few institutions which were operating the education about OFIE regardless of the COVID-19 situation. @*Conclusion@#Although OFIE is necessary for the elderly, its distribution remains insufficient. Therefore, further efforts are needed to expand the education and raise the awareness of oral exercise among elderly individuals and senior welfare institutions.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919675

ABSTRACT

Background@#The leaves of Perilla frutescens, commonly called perilla and used for food in Korea, contain components with a variety of biological effects and potential therapeutic applications. The purpose of this study was to identify the components of 70% ethanol extracted Perilla frutescens (EEPF) and determine its inhibitory effects on oral microbial activity and production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated Raw264.7 macrophages, consequently, to confirm the possibility of using EEPF as a functional component for improving the oral environment and preventing inflammation. @*Methods@#One kg of P. frutescens leaves was extracted with 70% ethanol and dried at −70o C. EEPF was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, and antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms was revealed using the disk diffusion test. Cell viability was elucidated using a methylthiazolydiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay, and the effect of EEPF on LPS-induced morphological variation was confirmed through microscopic observation. The effect of EEPF on LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, NO and PGE2 was confirmed by the NO assay and PGE2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#The main component of EEPF was rosemarinic acid, and EEPF showed weak anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effects against microorganisms living in the oral cavity. EEPF did not show toxicity to Raw264.7 macrophages and had inhibitory effects on the morphological variations and production of pro-inflammatory mediators, NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 macrophages. @*Conclusion@#EEPF can be used as a functional material for improving the oral environment through the control of oral microorganisms and for modulating inflammation by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919674

ABSTRACT

Background@#The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-oral microbial activity and anti-inflammatory effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells on a titanium (Ti) surface during osseointegration, and to confirm the possibility of using RA as a safe natural substance for the control of peri-implantitis (PI) in Ti-based dental implants. @*Methods@#A disk diffusion test was conducted to confirm the antimicrobial activity of RA against oral microorganisms. In order to confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of RA, inflammatory conditions were induced with 100 ng/ml of LPS in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells on the Ti surface treated with or without 14 mg/ml of RA. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-stimulated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells on the Ti surface was confirmed using an NO assay kit and PGE2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were performed to confirm the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in total RNA and protein. @*Results@#RA showed weak antimicrobial effects against Streptococcus mutans and Escherichia coli, but no antimicrobial activity against the bacteria Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and the fungus Candida albicans. RA reduced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, NO and PGE2, and proinflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-1β, in LPS-stimulated MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells on the Ti surface at the protein and mRNA levels. @*Conclusion@#RA not only has anti-oral microbial activity, but also anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts on the Ti surface, therefore, it can be used as a safe functional substance derived from plants for the prevention and control of PI for successful Ti-based implants.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919672

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study tries to compare and analyze the removal effect of dental plaque of general dentifrice and pregnant women’s dentifrice and quantify the results to provide basic data so that consumers can make reasonable choices when purchasing dentifrice, and also increase interest in the dental plaque. @*Methods@#After forming a dental plaque (carbohydrate porridge) on the labial surface of the bovine teeth, a disclosing agent was applied. Then the same experimenter brushed the surface of the bovine teeth using an electric toothbrush and took photographs using a DSLR camera. Thereafter, the residual amount of dental plaque was analyzed using the ImageJ program, and SPSS 26.0 was used for statistical processing. @*Results@#The average residual amount of dental plaque using the general dentifrice was 11.71% for Perio, 9.45% for Cliden, and 8.47% for 2080, and the average residual amount for the three types was approximately 9.88%. The average residual amount of dental plaque of pregnant women’s dentifrice was 13.95% for Jeninmothers, 12.53% for Tntnmoms, and 12.63% for Mommiracle, and the average residual amount of the three types was approximately 13.04%. On comparing the average residual amount of dental plaque between general and pregnant women’s dentifrices, it was observed to be 3.16% higher for the latter. However, the results were not statistically significant. @*Conclusion@#According to the research results, there was no significant difference in removal effects of general dentifrice and pregnant women’s dentifrice. In addition, when a pregnant woman uses the right toothbrushing method with pregnant women’s dentifrice, it can prevent or inhibit the progression of the gestational periodontal disease. Therefore, we recommend pregnant women to use pregnant women’s dentifrices.

10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919671

ABSTRACT

Background@#In this study, the bleaching effect and surface damage of two types of over-the-counter home tooth bleaching agents were explored using an in vitro study of bleaching agents applied to bovine teeth specimens for 14 days. @*Methods@#Domestic over-the-counter home tooth bleaching agents of gel and patch form that shared common active ingredients and manufacturers were selected and tested. The experiment specimens were made using composite resin with bovine tooth samples and then measured the initial microhardness. Specimens were then divided into a Gel group and a Patch group and underwent bleaching treatment once a day for two weeks for 30 to 60 minutes (recommended) or 7 hours. All specimens were coffee-stained prior to bleaching. The bleaching effect was measured using a spectrophotometer and surface damage was measured using a microhardness meter. @*Results@#The difference in color following the bleaching procedure was positive in both the Gel and Patch group, although there were no statistically significant differences in bleaching effect between groups. There was no significant difference in bleaching effect based on duration. The microhardness test revealed that both the Gel group and the Patch group had surface damage after bleaching. The greatest surface damage was found in the Patch group that had undergone a 7-hour bleaching treatment, although the differences were not statistically significant. @*Conclusion@#The bleaching effect of the home tooth bleaching agent was visible to the naked eye. However, longer applications than recommended did not result in greater bleaching, unlike consumers’ expectations, and instead increased the chance of enamel damage. As such, there is a need for consumers to be alert and adhere to recommendations provided by each company.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919670

ABSTRACT

Background@#A comprehensive history taking at the first visit could be an important start of treatment. This study investigated the current status of the initial history taking for dental patients in S area, and the implementation and importance of the initial history taking process. Based on this, we intend to provide basic data for the development of organized and standardized questionnaires in dental clinics. @*Methods@#In April 2019, 303 dental clinics in S area were targeted and special dental clinics (orthodontics, children, and disabled) were excluded. The questionnaire consisted of 29 items, including general characteristics, systemic disease history, dental history, oral health behaviors, and the data were obtained through self-administered questionnaire. @*Results@#Initial history taking was mostly implemented using oral and questionnaire at the time of the first visit. Systemic disease history, dental history, and oral health behaviors differed in the work experience of the dental clinic staff. As a result of analyzing the importance according to implementation, there were significant differences in all questions except drug-related items. The importance of the questionnaire was highly recognized, but the reason it was not actually implemented was because of existing the questionnaire in the clinic and lack of time. @*Conclusion@#Considering that the initial history taking implementation rate showed low, it is necessary to develop standardize a practical questionnaire and interview skills for dental clinics in the future. In addition, training programs should be provided to dental staff that can recognize the importance of initial history taking questionnaires and contribute to active implementation.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764408

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The light-emitting diode (LED) curing light used is presumed to be safe. However, the scientific basis for this is unclear, and the safety of LED curing light is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of LED curing light irradiation according to the conditions applied for the polymerization of composite resins in dental clinic on the cell viability and inflammatory response in Raw264.7 macrophages and to confirm the stability of LED curing light. METHODS: Cell viability and cell morphology of Raw264.7 macrophages treated with 100 ng/ml of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or/and LED curing light with a wavelength of 440~490 nm for 20 seconds were confirmed by methylthiazolydiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and microscopic observation. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was confirmed by NO assay and PGE2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in total RNA and protein was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The LED curing light did not affect the viability and morphology of normal Raw264.7 cells but affected the cell viability and induced cytotoxicity in the inflammation-induced Raw264.7 cells by LPS. The irradiation of the LED curing light did not progress to the inflammatory state in the inflammation-induced Raw264.7 macrophage. However, LED curing light irradiation in normal Raw264.7 cells induced an increase in NO and PGE2 production and mRNA and protein expression of IL-1β and TNF-α, indicating that it is possible to induce the inflammatory state. CONCLUSION: The irradiation of LED curing light in RAW264.7 macrophage may induce an excessive inflammatory reaction and damage oral tissues. Therefore, it is necessary to limit the long-term irradiation which is inappropriate when applying LED curing light in a dental clinic.


Subject(s)
Blotting, Western , Cell Survival , Composite Resins , Dental Clinics , Dinoprostone , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interleukins , Macrophages , Nitric Oxide , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymerization , Polymers , Reverse Transcription , RNA , RNA, Messenger , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, four types of effervescent vitamins marketed in Korea were analyzed for their acidity and vitamin content. For this purpose, bovine teeth were immersed in vitamin, and surface microhardness and appearance were measured before and after immersion to evaluate tooth demineralization and erosion.METHODS: Bovine permanent incisors with sound surface enamel were cut to 5×5 mm size, embedded in acrylic resin, and polished using a polishing machine with Sic-paper. The prepared samples were analyzed for pH, vitamin content, and surface hardness before and after immersion using a surface microhardness meter. Demineralization of surface dental enamel was observed using a scanning electron microscope.RESULTS: The average pH of the four effervescent vitamins was less than 5.5; the pH of the positive control Oronamin C was the lowest at 2.76, while that of the negative control Samdasoo was the highest at 6.86. The vitamin content was highest in Berocca and lowest in the DM company Multivitamin. On surface microhardness analysis, surface hardness values of all enamel samples were found to be decreased significantly after 1 and 10 minutes of immersion (p<0.05). After 10 minutes of immersion, there was a significant difference in the decrease in hardness between the experimental groups (p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that dental enamel demineralization after 10 minutes of immersion was the most severe in Oronamin C except for Samdasoo, followed by DM company Multivitamin and VitaHEIM. Immersion in BeroNew and Berocca resulted in similar effects.CONCLUSION: There is a risk of tooth erosion due to decreased tooth surface microhardness when using the four types of effervescent vitamins and vitamin carbonated beverages with pH below 5.5. Therefore, high pH vitamin supplements are recommended to prevent tooth erosion.


Subject(s)
Carbonated Beverages , Dental Enamel , Hardness , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immersion , Incisor , Korea , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Tablets , Tooth , Tooth Demineralization , Tooth Erosion , Vitamins
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717323

ABSTRACT

This study aims to contribute to managing the human resource of dental hygienists and qualitatively enhancing dental medical services by examining factors that affect their turnover intention. Therefore, it attempted to examine their degrees of emotional labor, job satisfaction, and social support and the effects of each variable on turnover intention. This study administered self-reporting questionnaires to dental hygienists working in dental hospitals, dental clinics, and general or university hospitals in Seoul Metropolis and Gyeonggi-do by conducting convenience sampling, from May 18, 2017 to August 4, 2017. Among a total of 224 copies that were distributed, a total of 223 copies, excluding 1 copy with poor responses, were used in the data analysis. The research tools comprised 12 questions on general characteristics, 24 questions on emotional labor (4-point Likert scale), 16 questions on job satisfaction (5-point Likert scale), 8 questions on social support (4-point Likert scale), and 4 questions on turnover (5-point Likert scale). The scores of dental hygienists were as follows: emotional labor, 2.49 out of 4; job satisfaction, 3.14 out of 5; social support, 3.04 out of 4; and turnover intention, 3.07 out of 5. Their turnover intention has a positive correlation with emotional labor, but a negative correlation with job satisfaction and social support. It was found that some factors that significantly influence turnover intention included the amount of overtime work and job satisfaction. Thus, dental medical institutes should search for measures, including improvement of the working environment, to reduce the amount of overtime work and enhance job satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Dental Clinics , Dental Hygienists , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intention , Job Satisfaction , Seoul , Statistics as Topic
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717317

ABSTRACT

Although scaling is the primary method for improving oral health, it is also associated with dental fear. The objective of this study was to empirically verify whether the use of gel anesthetic within the gingival sulcus during scaling relieves pain and improves other factors. A total of 128 patients scheduled to undergo scaling at a dental clinic of a general hospital located in the Gyeonggi Province, between July 2014 and July 2015, were enrolled in the study. The participants underwent scaling following the application of 20% benzocaine gel or placebo gel anesthetic within the gingival sulcus, and the data was collected using a questionnaire. There was a significant difference in the severity of pain, participant satisfaction, perceived sensitivity, overall discomfort, and fear of scaling between the two groups. The two groups were compared in terms of perceived need for gel anesthesia, willingness to pay for anesthesia costs, and willingness to receive scaling in the future. There were significant differences in all the three parameters depending on whether gel anesthesia was used or not. There were significant differences between the two groups in perceived sensitivity immediately after scaling and one day after scaling, with no difference seen one week after scaling. With regards to overall discomfort over time, there were significant differences between the two groups immediately after scaling. Based on these findings, we expect that application of gel anesthetic within the gingival sulcus during scaling will reduce pain, perceived sensitivity, overall discomfort, and fear of scaling with increased satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Benzocaine , Dental Anxiety , Dental Clinics , Dental Scaling , Hospitals, General , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Methods , Oral Health
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715136

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Acanthopanax sessiliflorum fruit (ASF; Ogaza) extracts on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which are agents that cause dental caries, and on Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus salivarius, the microbial flora of the oral cavity. The ASF extracts obtained using 70% ethanol were fractionated in the order of ethyl acetate and n-Butanol, concentrated under reduced pressure, and lyophilized to give powdery solvent extracts. The antimicrobial activity of ASF extracts from each solvent was examined using the disk diffusion method. As a result, only those extracts obtained using an ethyl acetate solvent showed antimicrobial activity. These extracts were selected, and the minimum inhibitory concentration was measured by disk diffusion method at various extract concentrations. Results showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 32 mg/ml. The viable cell count was measured to confirm the minimum bactericidal concentration. Results showed a minimum bactericidal concentration of 64 mg/ml. In the cytotoxicity test using normal human dermal fibroblast cells, the absorbance value of the test group was similar to that of the control group at 0.64, 1.28, and 6.4 mg/ml. The bacteria and their colonies were examined using a scanning electron microscope. Boundaries between the antimicrobial activity region and non-antimicrobial activity region were observed around the paper disk, which was immersed in the extract with 32 mg/ml concentration. Bacterial colonization was not observed in the area with antimicrobial activity. This finding suggests that ASF extracts can inhibit the growth of some microorganisms in the oral cavity, in addition to the effects of these extracts known to date. In particular, ASF extracts may be used as a preparation for preventing dental caries by adding the extract to the toothpaste or oral mouthwash.


Subject(s)
1-Butanol , Bacteria , Cell Count , Colon , Dental Caries , Diffusion , Eleutherococcus , Ethanol , Fibroblasts , Fruit , Humans , Methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mouth , Streptococcus , Streptococcus mitis , Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sobrinus , Toothpastes
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715134

ABSTRACT

To improve the oral health status of Korean people, it is necessary to encourage proper oral hygiene management habits, such as toothbrushing, through appropriate health promotion techniques. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the removal of plaque and tooth abrasion using ultra-soft (filament 0.11~0.12 mm) and soft toothbrushes for toothbrushing. The plaque removal was performed using a dentiform and Arti-spray, and the Patient Hygiene Performance (PHP) index was calculated as the sum total score divided by the total number of surfaces. In the abrasivity experiment, according to the number of brushings, a micro Vickers hardness tester was used, and a sample in the range of 280~380 Vickers hardness number was selected. The number of toothbrushing stroke were 1,800 (2 months), 5,400 (6 months), 10,800 (12 months), and 21,600 (24 months). The tooth abrasion was measured using a scanning electron microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. According to the results, there was no statistically significant difference in the degree of plaque removal between ultra-soft and soft toothbrushes. The difference in tooth abrasion between before and after toothbrushing was found to be greater with the soft toothbrushes than with the ultra-soft toothbrushes. Therefore, the ultra-soft toothbrush not only lowers tooth damage by reducing tooth abrasion, but also shows a similar ability to remove plaque as soft toothbrushes.


Subject(s)
Dental Plaque , Hardness , Hardness Tests , Health Promotion , Humans , Hygiene , Oral Health , Oral Hygiene , Stroke , Tooth Abrasion , Tooth , Toothbrushing
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-647687

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of chewable toothbrush and manual toothbrush and provide basic data for recommendation of the chewable toothbrush in specific groups and situations. A total of 20 subjects participated in this study (rolling method, 10; non-rolling method, 10). After professional prophylaxis, participants used the manual toothbrush to brush their teeth for 3 minutes. After a 7-day wash-out period, participants used the chewable toothbrush according to the manufacturer's instructions. Pre- and post-plaque indexing of the teeth was performed. The dental plaque index was assessed using the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (TMQHPI) for amount of plaque and Silness-Löe Plaque Index (SLPI) for plaque thickness. The difference between pre- and post-dental plaque index was analyzed using a paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The Mann-Whitney U test was also used to compare the dental plaque index reduction rates. The dental plaque index differed significantly between the chewable toothbrush and the manual toothbrush. The TMQHPI reduction rate was significantly different between the rolling and non-rolling method groups for the manual toothbrush but not the chewable toothbrush. The difference in SLPI reduction rate between the rolling and non-rolling method groups was significant for the manual toothbrush but not for the chewable toothbrush. Differences in the dental plaque index reduction rates between the chewable and manual toothbrushes were not significant in the non-rolling method group. The results of this study showed higher reduction rates in dental plaque with manual toothbrush use than with chewable toothbrush use. However, the non-rolling method group did not show statistically significant differences according to toothbrush type. The present study showed that a chewable toothbrush can be an alternative to a manual toothbrush for individuals who have difficulty using the generally recommended rolling method.


Subject(s)
Abstracting and Indexing , Dental Plaque Index , Dental Plaque , Methods , Pilot Projects , Tooth
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-655343

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to provide basic understanding regarding possible enamel erosion by three kinds of fist-aid antipyretic and analgesic medicines over a period of time, with comparison and analysis of the resulting deciduous teeth surface and microhardness changes. The analysis was performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine the surface erosion and changes. The Kruskal-Wallis test show differences in surface erosion and changes after 3, 5 and 8 days of treatment as well as before and after the treatment in each group. According to the results, there was no significant difference in the early deciduous teeth enamel surface microhardness (p>0.01). However there were signigicant changes after 3, 5, and 8 days (p0.05). In the surface observation with the SEM treatment with Children's Tylenol® tablet, which has the lowest pH, looked the roughest, followed by Brufen syrup for children and Children's Tylenol® suspension. Based on these results, it should be considered that antipyretic and analgesic medicines for children, which have lower pH values, may cause tooth erosion. Hence, it is necessary to give special attention to oral hygiene in young children or infants by brushing their teeth after such drugs are administered.


Subject(s)
Child , Dental Enamel , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ibuprofen , Infant , Oral Hygiene , Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission , Tooth , Tooth Erosion , Tooth, Deciduous
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-651981

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the number of existing permanent teeth is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a representative sample of Korean adults. Data from 3,107 subjects who participated in the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were examined. The dependent variable was COPD and the independent variable was the number of existing permanent teeth. Spirometry results were classified into three groups (normal pattern, restrictive pattern, and obstructive pattern) by trained technicians. We used dichotomized COPD variables (no vs. yes). The number of existing permanent teeth was evaluated by oral examination and divided into 3 groups (0∼19, 20∼27, and 28). Demographic factors (age group and sex group), socioeconomic status (education and income), health behaviors (smoking and drinking), oral health and behavior (frequency of toothbrushing; periodontitis; decayed, missing, filled, permanent teeth index; and denture status), and general health status (body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension) were included as confounders in the analysis. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses including confounders were applied, and all analyses considered a complex sampling design. Stratified analysis was performed by smoking status. After controlling for various confounders, there was a significant association between the number of existing permanent teeth and COPD (odds ratio [OR], 1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20∼3.00 for the 20∼27 group; OR, 3.93; 95% CI, 1.75∼8.84 for the 0∼19 group). The association was more significant in current smokers (OR, 8.90; 95% CI, 2.53∼31.33). Our data indicate that the number of existing permanent teeth was independently associated with COPD, especially in current smokers. Further longitudinal research is needed to determine whether oral health promotion plays a role in the improvement of lung function and prevention of COPD.


Subject(s)
Adult , Demography , Dentures , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnosis, Oral , Health Behavior , Humans , Korea , Logistic Models , Lung , Nutrition Surveys , Oral Health , Periodontitis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Respiration Disorders , Smoke , Smoking , Social Class , Spirometry , Tooth , Toothbrushing
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