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1.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 189-201, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967542

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: Abdominal ultrasonography (USG) is recommended as a surveillance test for high-risk groups for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to analyze the current status of the national cancer surveillance program for HCC in South Korea and investigate the effects of patient-, physician-, and machine-related factors on HCC detection sensitivity. @*Methods@#This multicenter retrospective cohort study collected surveillance USG data from the high-risk group for HCC (liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis B or C >40 years of age) at eight South Korean tertiary hospitals in 2017. @*Results@#In 2017, 45 experienced hepatologists or radiologists performed 8,512 USG examinations. The physicians had a mean 15.0±8.3 years of experience; more hepatologists (61.4%) than radiologists (38.6%) participated. Each USG scan took a mean 12.2±3.4 minutes. The HCC detection rate by surveillance USG was 0.3% (n=23). Over 27 months of follow-up, an additional 135 patients (0.7%) developed new HCC. The patients were classified into three groups based on timing of HCC diagnosis since the 1st surveillance USG, and no significant intergroup difference in HCC characteristics was noted. HCC detection was significantly associated with patient-related factors, such as old age and advanced fibrosis, but not with physician- or machine-related factors. @*Conclusions@#This is the first study of the current status of USG as a surveillance method for HCC at tertiary hospitals in South Korea. It is necessary to develop quality indicators and quality assessment procedures for USG to improve the detection rate of HCC.

2.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 127-136, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002984

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Chronic hepatitis C is a major risk factor for liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and hepatic failure. Although traditional practices, including acupuncture, tend to increase the risk of HCV infection, the association remains controversial. Therefore, the current meta-analytical study was undertaken to evaluate the risks of acupuncture and hepatitis C transmission. @*Methods@#Two researchers independently screened studies from the databases encompassing the period from inception to May 12, 2022. Baseline demographics, HCV transmission OR, and 95% CIs were extracted, pooled, and analyzed using random-effect models.Subgroup analyses utilizing study design and ethnicity were performed. Heterogeneity and publication bias were analyzed using the Higgins I2 test and funnel plots, respectively. @*Results@#In all, 28 studies with 194,826 participants (178,583 controls [91.7%] vs. 16,243 acupuncture users [8.3%]) were included in the final analysis. The pooled analysis showed that acupuncture users had a significantly higher HCV transmission rate than controls with heterogeneity (OR, 1.84 [1.46–2.32]; p<0.001; I2 =80%). In the subgroup analysis, both cross-sectional case-control (n=14; OR, 1.96 [1.47–2.61]; p<0.001; I2 =88%) and cross-sectional studies (n=12; OR, 1.85 [1.32–2.61]; p<0.001; I2 =0%) showed significantly higher HCV infection rates in the acupuncture group than in the control group. Both Asian and non-Asian acupuncture users showed a higher HCV transmission risk than the controls (all Ps <0.001). No significant publication bias was observed. @*Conclusions@#Our findings indicate that acupuncture increases the risk of HCV transmission. Due to HCV's contagiousness, unsafe medical and social practices (including acupuncture) should be performed with caution.

3.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 757-767, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939102

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#L-carnitine is potentially beneficial in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). We aimed to evaluate the impact of L-carnitine on the quality of life and liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis and covert HE. @*Methods@#We conducted an investigator-initiated, prospective, multi-center, double- blind, randomized phase III trial in patients with covert HE. A total of 150 patients were randomized 1:1 to L-carnitine (2 g/day) or placebo for 24 weeks. Changes in quality of life and liver function were assessed at 6 months. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES), and the Stroop Test were evaluated in all patients. @*Results@#The total SF-36 score significantly improved in the L-carnitine group after 24 weeks (difference: median, 2; interquartile range, 0 to 11; p < 0.001); however, these values were comparable between the two groups. Furthermore, there was a significant ordinal improvement in PHES scores among patients with minimal HE who were in the L-carnitine group (p = 0.007). Changes in the total carnitine level also positively correlated with improvements in the Stroop test in the L-carnitine group (color test, r = 0.3; word test, r = 0.4; inhibition test, r = 0.5; inhibition/switching test, r = 0.3; all p < 0.05). Nevertheless, the MELD scores at week 24 did not differ between the groups. @*Conclusions@#Twenty-four weeks of L-carnitine supplementation was safe but ineffective in improving quality of life and liver function.

4.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 425-472, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937328

ABSTRACT

The global burden of chronic liver disease (CLD) is substantial. Due to the limited indication of and accessibility to antiviral therapy in viral hepatitis and lack of effective pharmacological treatment in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the beneficial effects of antidiabetics and non–antidiabetics in clinical practice have been continuously investigated in patients with CLD. In this narrative review, we focused on non-antidiabetic drugs, including ursodeoxycholic acid, silymarin, dimethyl4,4’-dimethoxy-5,6,5’,6’-dimethylenedixoybiphenyl-2,2’-dicarboxylate, L-ornithine L-aspartate, branched chain amino acids, statin, probiotics, vitamin E, and aspirin, and summarized their beneficial effects in CLD. Based on the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties, and regulatory functions in glucose or lipid metabolism, several non–antidiabetic drugs have shown beneficial effects in improving liver histology, aminotransferase level, and metabolic parameters and reducing risks of hepatocellular carcinoma and mortality, without significant safety concerns, in patients with CLD. Although the effect as the centerpiece management in patients with CLD is not robust, the use of these non-antidiabetic drugs might be potentially beneficial as an adjuvant or combined treatment strategy.

5.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 219-231, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925762

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor of liver cirrhosis (LC). However, the association between LC-related systemic inflammation and sarcopenia is unclear. @*Methods@#Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with thioacetamide (TAA) or saline as a control. Rifaximin was administered to TAA-induced LC rats. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to measure inflammatory mediators in rat serum. RT-PCR was performed to measure the molecular expression in tissues. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to investigate tissue pathology. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α levels, liver stiffness (LS), and the L3 skeletal muscle index (L3SMI) were measured in 60 patients with chronic liver disease. @*Results@#LC and sarcopenia were successfully induced by TAA. Serum TNF-α levels were increased in LC rats and correlated with myostatin expression, muscle weight, and myofiber diameter. The expression of intestinal occludin and zona occludens-1 was reduced in LC rats and associated with serum TNF-α levels and sarcopenia. In patients with LS ≥7 kPa or sarcopenia, serum TNF-α levels were significantly increased, which was also confirmed when we raised the LS cutoff to 10 kPa. The L3SMI was inversely correlated with serum TNF-α levels in patients with LS ≥7 kPa. TNF-α was reduced by rifaximin, which might have resulted in reduced expression of muscular MuRF1 and myostatin and improvements in myofiber diameters within muscle tissues. @*Conclusions@#These results suggest that serum TNF-α is associated with LC-related sarcopenia. Rifaximin might be effective in reducing serum TNF-α levels and improving sarcopenia in LC, but these results need to be validated in future studies.

6.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 346-359, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897659

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV), an acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, shows potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus. Our previous 48-week trial revealed that BSV has comparable antiviral efficacy to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and better safety profiles in terms of improved renal and bone safety. This extension study evaluated the prolonged efficacy and safety of BSV in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. @*Methods@#Patients continued to participate in an open-label BSV study after an initial 48-week double-blind comparison of BSV and TDF treatment. The antiviral efficacy and drug safety was evaluated up to 192 weeks in two groups: patients continuing BSV treatment (BSV-BSV) and patients switching from TDF to BSV after 48 weeks (TDF-BSV). @*Results@#Among 197 patients receiving randomized treatments, 170 (86%) entered the open-label phase and 152 (77%) entered the 192-week extension study. Virological response rates over 192 weeks were 92.50% and 93.06% in the BSV-BSV and TDF-BSV groups, respectively (P=0.90). Hepatitis B envelop antigen seroconversion and alanine aminotransferase normalization rates were similar between the groups (P=0.75 and P=0.36, respectively). There were no drug-resistant mutations to BSV. Bone mineral density and renal function were well preserved in the BSV-BSV group, whereas these initially worsened then recovered after switching therapy in the TDF-BSV group. @*Conclusions@#BSV maintained potent antiviral efficacy after 192 weeks and showed no evidence of drug resistance. BSV was safe, well tolerated, and effective in patients who switched from TDF to BSV. Trial Registration Number: NCT01937806 (date: 10 Sep 2013).

7.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 346-359, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889955

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV), an acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, shows potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus. Our previous 48-week trial revealed that BSV has comparable antiviral efficacy to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and better safety profiles in terms of improved renal and bone safety. This extension study evaluated the prolonged efficacy and safety of BSV in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. @*Methods@#Patients continued to participate in an open-label BSV study after an initial 48-week double-blind comparison of BSV and TDF treatment. The antiviral efficacy and drug safety was evaluated up to 192 weeks in two groups: patients continuing BSV treatment (BSV-BSV) and patients switching from TDF to BSV after 48 weeks (TDF-BSV). @*Results@#Among 197 patients receiving randomized treatments, 170 (86%) entered the open-label phase and 152 (77%) entered the 192-week extension study. Virological response rates over 192 weeks were 92.50% and 93.06% in the BSV-BSV and TDF-BSV groups, respectively (P=0.90). Hepatitis B envelop antigen seroconversion and alanine aminotransferase normalization rates were similar between the groups (P=0.75 and P=0.36, respectively). There were no drug-resistant mutations to BSV. Bone mineral density and renal function were well preserved in the BSV-BSV group, whereas these initially worsened then recovered after switching therapy in the TDF-BSV group. @*Conclusions@#BSV maintained potent antiviral efficacy after 192 weeks and showed no evidence of drug resistance. BSV was safe, well tolerated, and effective in patients who switched from TDF to BSV. Trial Registration Number: NCT01937806 (date: 10 Sep 2013).

8.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 65-70, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834059

ABSTRACT

Alcoholic liver disease is a major cause of liver disease that results in significant morbidity and mortality in Korea. Abstinence isthe most important strategy to prevent disease progression. Corticosteroids improve the one-month survival in patients with severealcoholic hepatitis, but it was not effective on long-term survival. An N-acetylcysteine treatment combined with corticosteroidsmay provide a short-term survival benefit than corticosteroids alone. Pentoxifylline is unlikely to affect short-termsurvival. Hence, studies on new therapies, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and fecal microbiota transplantation, areongoing. This paper briefly reviews the current knowledge of the medical treatment of alcoholic liver disease.

9.
Gut and Liver ; : 792-807, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833167

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Multiple meta-analyses and observational studies have reported that alcohol is a risk factor for liver cancer. However, whether there is a safe level of alcohol consumption remains unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between low-level alcohol consumption and the risk of liver cancer. @*Methods@#Nested case-control studies and cohort studies involving the general population published prior to July 2019 were searched. In total, 28 publications (31 cohorts) with 4,899 incident cases and 10,859 liver cancer-related deaths were included. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. @*Results@#Compared with those with low levels of alcohol consumption, moderate and heavy drinkers (≥1 drink/day for females and ≥2 drinks/day for males) had pooled ORs of 1.418 (95% CI, 1.192 to 1.687; p<0.001) for liver cancer incidence and 1.167 (95% CI, 1.056to 1.290; p=0.003) for liver cancer mortality. The pooled OR for liver disease-related mortality for those with more than low levels of alcohol consumption was 3.220 (95% CI, 2.116 to 4.898; p<0.001) and that for all-cause mortality was 1.166 (95% CI, 1.065 to 1.278; p=0.001). The sensitivity analysis showed that none of the studies had a strong effect on the pooled OR. The Egger test, Begg rank correlation test, and the funnel plot showed no overt indication of publication bias. @*Conclusions@#Continuous consumption of more than a low-level of alcohol (≥1 drink/day for females and ≥2 drinks/ day for males) is related to a higher risk of liver cancer.

10.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 540-553, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832284

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the risk factors associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding, and evaluated the effects of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) on the prognosis of these patients. @*Methods@#This study was retrospectively conducted on patients registered in the Korean acute-on-chronic liver failure study cohort, and on 474 consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding from January 2013 to December 2013 at 21 university hospitals. ACLF was defined as described by the European Association for the Study of Liver-Chronic Liver Failure Consortium. @*Results@#Among a total of 474 patients, 61 patients were diagnosed with ACLF. The cumulative overall survival (OS) rate was lower in the patients with ACLF than in those without (P<0.001), and patients with higher ACLF grades had a lower OS rate (P<0.001). The chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) score was identified as a significant prognostic factor in patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30–1.50; P<0.001), even in ACLF patients with variceal bleeding (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19–1.46, P<0.001). Concerning the prediction of the mortality risk at 28- and 90-day using CLIF-SOFA scores, c-statistics were 0.895 (95% CI, 0.829–0.962) and 0.897 (95% CI, 0.842–0.951), respectively, and the optimal cut-off values were 6.5 and 6.5, respectively. @*Conclusions@#In cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding, the prognosis was poor when accompanied by ACLF, especially depending upon CLIF-SOFA score. CLIF-SOFA model well predicted the 28-day or 90-day mortality for cirrhotic patients who experienced variceal bleeding.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 658-668, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Advanced hepatic fibrosis is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the association between noninvasive serum fibrosis markers and the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in subjects with NAFLD. METHODS: We analyzed 665 NAFLD subjects without chronic liver disease or heart disease between 2011 and 2015. The noninvasive fibrosis markers that were used to evaluate the severity of hepatic fibrosis included the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS), fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score, Forn's index, and the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI). RESULTS: The areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves for the NFS, FIB-4 score, Forn's index and APRI for predicting CACS >100 were 0.689, 0.683, 0.659, and 0.595, respectively. According to the multivariate analysis, older age, increased body mass index (BMI), and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were significant factors associated with CACS >100. The NFS, FIB-4 score and APRI were significantly associated with CACS >100 after adjusting for age and gender (p=0.006, p=0.012, and p=0.012, respectively) and after adjusting for age, gender, BMI and eGFR (p=0.013, p=0.022, and p=0.027, respectively). Scores integrating noninvasive fibrosis markers and other risk factors improved the predictive accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The NFS and FIB-4 score were associated with coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with NAFLD. Furthermore, scores integrating these noninvasive scores and risk factors for CVD showed good discriminatory power in predicting CACS >100. Therefore, noninvasive serum fibrosis markers may be useful tools for identifying NAFLD subjects at a high risk for CVD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood Platelets , Body Mass Index , Calcium , Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessels , Fibrosis , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Heart Diseases , Liver Diseases , Multivariate Analysis , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Risk Factors , ROC Curve
12.
Gut and Liver ; : 191-196, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763829

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of daclatasvir (DCV) and asunaprevir (ASV) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on hemodialysis. METHODS: We performed a single-arm, multicenter prospective study. Twenty-one chronic hemodialysis patients with HCV infection were prospectively enrolled from February 2016 to April 2017. We evaluated the virological responses at weeks 4, 12, and 24 (end of treatment [EOT]) and the sustained virological response at 12 weeks after the EOT (SVR12). The tolerability and safety of the drugs were also assessed. RESULTS: None of the 20 patients had the NS5A resistance-associated variant (NS5A RAV), and one patient was indeterminate for the NS5A RAV. Seventeen patients (80%) completed the 24 weeks of treatment with DCV and ASV. Four patients discontinued the study prior to week 12. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the SVR12 was 76.1%. In a per-protocol analysis, patients who completed DCV and ASV treatment achieved an SVR12 of 100%. DCV and ASV were well tolerated by the majority of patients. Three patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events (AEs) including dizziness, dyspnea, and neutropenia. The patient with indeterminate NS5A RAV showed viral breakthrough and discontinued treatment. CONCLUSIONS: DCV and ASV combination therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients with HCV infection achieved a high SVR12 rate with few AEs. To maximize the SVR12 rate, it is important to identify candidates by baseline RAV testing. Close monitoring of the safety and tolerability of DCV and ASV may be necessary in HCV-infected patients on hemodialysis. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT02580474)


Subject(s)
Humans , Dizziness , Dyspnea , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis , Neutropenia , Prospective Studies , Renal Dialysis
13.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 66-69, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742140

ABSTRACT

Abdominal ultrasound examinations are performed by many gastroenterologists in clinical practice, but abdominal ultrasound education has not been included in internal medicine resident or gastroenterology fellowship training courses. Abdominal ultrasound education was established as an essential part of the resident training program in 2017, and since then interest in ultrasound has increased. An educational accreditation system for trainers of ultrasonography in the internal medicine field was developed in 2018, but accredited ultrasound trainers and equipment and space for ultrasound education are lacking. This article describes how to revitalize ultrasound education program for resident and fellowship training.


Subject(s)
Accreditation , Education , Fellowships and Scholarships , Gastroenterology , Internal Medicine , Ultrasonography
14.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 56-63, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716213

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is defined as bacterial infections that occur in patients with cirrhosis and ascites without any significant intraperitoneal infection, accounting for approximately 10–30% of bacterial infections in hospitalized patients. SBP develops in patients with liver cirrhosis because bacterial translocations are increased by changes in the intestinal bacteria and mucosal barriers. In addition, the decreased host immune response cannot remove the bacteria and their products. The most common cause of SBP is Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species, and infections by Gram-positive bacteria are increasing. SBP is diagnosed by the presence of >250 polymorphonuclear leukocyte/mm³ in ascites after paracentesis. If SBP is diagnosed, empirical antibiotic therapy should be started immediately. Empirical antibiotic treatment should distinguish between community acquired infections and nosocomial infections. Cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding or low ascitic protein concentrations should consider primary prevention and those who recover from SBP should consider secondary prevention. This review describes the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of SBP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ascites , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross Infection , Diagnosis , Escherichia coli , Fibrosis , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Hemorrhage , Klebsiella , Liver Cirrhosis , Paracentesis , Peritonitis , Primary Prevention , Secondary Prevention
15.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1484-1490, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-200233

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to validate a new paper and pencil test battery to diagnose minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in Korea. A new paper and pencil test battery was composed of number connection test-A (NCT-A), number connection test-B (NCT-B), digit span test (DST), and symbol digit modality test (SDMT). The norm of the new test was based on 315 healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 70 years old. Another 63 healthy subjects (n = 31) and cirrhosis patients (n = 32) were included as a validation cohort. All participants completed the new paper and pencil test, a critical flicker frequency (CFF) test and computerized cognitive function test (visual continuous performance test [CPT]). The scores on the NCT-A and NCT-B increased but those of DST and SDMT decreased according to age. Twelve of the cirrhotic patients (37.5%) were diagnosed with MHE based on the new paper and pencil test battery. The total score of the paper and pencil test battery showed good positive correlation with the CFF (r = 0.551, P < 0.001) and computerized cognitive function test. Also, this score was lower in patients with MHE compared to those without MHE (P < 0.001). Scores on the CFF (32.0 vs. 28.7 Hz, P = 0.028) and the computer base cognitive test decreased significantly in patients with MHE compared to those without MHE. Test-retest reliability was comparable. In conclusion, the new paper and pencil test battery including NCT-A, NCT-B, DST, and SDMT showed good correlation with neuropsychological tests. This new paper and pencil test battery could help to discriminate patients with impaired cognitive function in cirrhosis (registered at Clinical Research Information Service [CRIS], https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris, KCT0000955).


Subject(s)
Humans , Cognition , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Fibrosis , Healthy Volunteers , Hepatic Encephalopathy , Information Services , Korea , Liver Cirrhosis , Neuropsychological Tests , Reproducibility of Results
16.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 168-173, 2017.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100917

ABSTRACT

The abscopal effect is a rare phenomenon that characterized by tumor regression of untreated metastatic lesions after a local radiotherapy. The mechanisms of abscopal effect are speculated to be associated with cytokine release and host immune system. In this case, we report a case of abscopal effect in a 64-year-old male with hepatocellular carcinoma with lung and bone metastasis, who had complete response in the lung after receiving radiation to the metastatic bone lesions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Immune System , Lung , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiotherapy
17.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 128-137, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-43206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metronomic chemotherapy (MET) is frequently administered in comparatively low doses as a continuous chemotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and overall survival (OS) of MET compared to sorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). METHODS: A total of 54 patients with advanced HCC and PVTT who had undergone MET were analyzed between 2005 and 2013. A total of 53 patients who had undergone sorafenib therapy were analyzed as the control group. The primary endpoint of this study was OS. RESULTS: The median number of MET cycles was two (1-15). The OS values for the MET group and sorafenib group were 158 days (132-184) and 117 days (92-142), respectively (P=0.029). The Cox proportional-hazard model showed that a higher risk of death was correlated with higher serum alpha fetoprotein level (≥400 mg/dL, hazard ratio [HR]=1.680, P=0.014) and Child-Pugh class B (HR=1.856, P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: MET was associated with more favorable outcomes in terms of overall survival than was sorafenib in patients with advanced HCC with PVTT, especially in patients with poor liver function. Therefore, MET can be considered as a treatment option in patients with advanced HCC with PVTT and poor liver function.


Subject(s)
Humans , Administration, Metronomic , alpha-Fetoproteins , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Drug Therapy , Liver , Portal Vein , Thrombosis
18.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 1-6, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-119395

ABSTRACT

Sorafenib is the standard treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system. However, because of its unsatisfactory efficacy, adverse effects, and high cost, the use of sorafenib is limited, and other treatment modalities are required. Recent studies reported that treatment modalities other than sorafenib, such as hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy and transarterial radioembolization, showed comparable or better response rates and survival rates than sorafenib. In this review, treatment modalities that could be used as alternatives to sorafenib will be discussed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Drug Therapy , Liver Neoplasms , Survival Rate
19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 242-252, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We compared the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the survival of patients who received radiofrequency ablation (RFA) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with patients treated with TACE or RFA alone. METHODS: This study included 201 patients with HCC, who were consecutively enrolled at Seoul St. Mary's Hospital between December 2004 and February 2010. Inclusion criteria were a single HCC < or = 5.0 cm or up to three HCCs < or = 3.0 cm. We used a propensity score model to compare HCC patients (n = 87) who received RFA after TACE (TACE + RFA) with those who received TACE (n = 71) or RFA alone (n = 43). RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 33.3 months (range, 6.8 to 80.9). The TACE + RFA group showed significantly lower local recurrence than the RFA or TACE groups (hazard ratio [HR], 0.309; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.130 to 0.736; p = 0.008; and HR, 0.352; 95% CI, 0.158 to 0.787; p = 0.011, respectively). The overall survival was significantly better in the TACE + RFA group compared to the RFA group (HR, 0.422; 95% CI, 0.185 to 0.964; p = 0.041). However, the survival benefit was not different between the TACE + RFA and TACE groups (p = 0.124). Subgroup analysis showed that among patients with a tumor size < 3 cm, the TACE + RFA group had significantly better long-term survival than those in the TACE or RFA groups (p = 0.017, p = 0.004, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: TACE + RFA combination treatment showed favorable local recurrence and better overall survival rates in early-stage HCC patients. Patients with tumors < 3 cm are likely to benefit more from TACE + RFA combination treatment. Additional studies are needed for the selection of suitable HCC patients for TACE + RFA treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Catheter Ablation/adverse effects , Chemoembolization, Therapeutic/adverse effects , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Disease-Free Survival , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Neoadjuvant Therapy/adverse effects , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Neoplasm Staging , Patient Selection , Proportional Hazards Models , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Burden
20.
Journal of Liver Cancer ; : 92-99, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Metronomic (MET) chemotherapy is a treatment characterized by frequent infusion of low doses of chemotherapeutic agent without extended break. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of MET chemotherapy compared with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in patients with child B class advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Seventy-three patients with child B class advanced HCC were analyzed between April, 2007 and August, 2013 according to two treatment groups: (i) MET chemotherapy group (n=43, Epirubicin 35 mg/body surface area [BSA] every 4 weeks, and cisplatin 15 mg/BSA and 5-fluorouracil 50 mg/BSA weekly for 3 weeks) via an implantable port system with 1 week break. (ii) TACE group (n=30, Adriamycin 20-50 mg) every 4 weeks. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: The median survival times in the MET and TACE groups were 4.5 months and 3.1 months, respectively. The overall survival rate showed significantly better in the MET treatment group than in the TACE group (P=0.039). When the factors affecting patient OS were analyzed, MET chemotherapy (P=0.038, hazard ratio {HR} 0.538 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.299-0.967]) was independently associated with OS. Larger maximal tumor size, extrahepatic metastasis and advanced stage also were significant factors for OS (P=0.009, HR 1.064 [95% CI 1.014-16.064]; P=0.014, HR 2.120 [95% CI 1.164-3.861]; P=0.019, HR 2.046 [95% CI 1.125-3.720], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MET chemotherapy showed survival benefit than TACE in patients with child class B advanced HCC. Therefore, MET chemotherapy may be considered as a treatment option for advanced HCC with poor liver function.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cisplatin , Doxorubicin , Drug Therapy , Epirubicin , Fluorouracil , Liver , Neoplasm Metastasis , Survival Rate
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