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1.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; (24): 46-56, 2024.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1006267

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the mechanism of Baihuan Xiaoyao Decoction (Xiaoyaosan added with Lilii Bulbus and Albiziae Cortex) in alleviating depression-like behaviors of juvenile rats by regulating the polarization of microglia. MethodSixty juvenile SD rats were randomized into normal control, model, fluoxetine, and low-, medium-, and high-dose (5.36, 10.71, 21.42 g·kg-1, respectively) Baihuan Xiaoyao decoction groups. The rat model of juvenile depression was established by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The sucrose preference test (SPT) was carried out to examine the sucrose preference of rats. Forced swimming test (FST) was carried out to measure the immobility time of rats. The open field test (OFT) was conducted to measure the total distance, the central distance, the number of horizontal crossings, and the frequency of rearing. Morris water maze (MWM) was used to measure the escape latency and the number of crossing the platform. The immunofluorescence assay was employed to detect the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, the polarization marker of M1 microglia) and CD206 (the polarization marker of M2 microglia). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was employed to determine the mRNA levels of iNOS, CD206, pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the hippocampus. Western blotting was employed to determine the protein levels of iNOS and CD206 in the hippocampus. The levels of IL-4 and IL-6 in the hippocampus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ResultCompared with the normal control group, the model rats showed a reduction in sucrose preference (P<0.05), an increase in immobility time (P<0.05), decreased motor and exploratory behaviors (P<0.05), and weakened learning and spatial memory (P<0.05). In addition, the model rats showed up-regulated mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, Baihuan Xiaoyao decoction increased the sucrose preference value (P<0.05), shortened the immobility time (P<0.01), increased the motor and exploratory behaviors (P<0.05), and improved the learning and spatial memory (P<0.01). Furthermore, the decoction down-regulated the positive expression and protein level of iNOS, lowered the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P<0.01), promoted the positive expression of CD206, and elevated the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 (P<0.01) in the hippocampus of the high dose group. Moreover, the high-dose Baihuan Xiaoyao decoction group had higher sucrose preference value (P<0.01), shorter immobility time (P<0.01), longer central distance (P<0.01), stronger learning and spatial memory (P<0.01), higher positive expression and protein level of iNOS (P<0.01), lower levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 (P<0.05, P<0.01), lower positive expression and mRNA level of iNOS (P<0.05), and higher levels of IL-4 and IL-10 (P<0.05, P<0.01) than the fluoxetine group. ConclusionBaihuan Xiaoyao decoction can improve the depression-like behavior of juvenile rats by inhibiting the M1 polarization and promoting the M2 polarization of microglia in the hippocampus.

2.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 721-732, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999989

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) require extensive and personalized care to improve outcomes. ChatGPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer), a large language model, holds the potential to provide professional yet patient-friendly support. We aimed to examine the accuracy and reproducibility of ChatGPT in answering questions regarding knowledge, management, and emotional support for cirrhosis and HCC. @*Methods@#ChatGPT’s responses to 164 questions were independently graded by two transplant hepatologists and resolved by a third reviewer. The performance of ChatGPT was also assessed using two published questionnaires and 26 questions formulated from the quality measures of cirrhosis management. Finally, its emotional support capacity was tested. @*Results@#We showed that ChatGPT regurgitated extensive knowledge of cirrhosis (79.1% correct) and HCC (74.0% correct), but only small proportions (47.3% in cirrhosis, 41.1% in HCC) were labeled as comprehensive. The performance was better in basic knowledge, lifestyle, and treatment than in the domains of diagnosis and preventive medicine. For the quality measures, the model answered 76.9% of questions correctly but failed to specify decision-making cut-offs and treatment durations. ChatGPT lacked knowledge of regional guidelines variations, such as HCC screening criteria. However, it provided practical and multifaceted advice to patients and caregivers regarding the next steps and adjusting to a new diagnosis. @*Conclusions@#We analyzed the areas of robustness and limitations of ChatGPT’s responses on the management of cirrhosis and HCC and relevant emotional support. ChatGPT may have a role as an adjunct informational tool for patients and physicians to improve outcomes.

3.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : 453-464, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999956

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Cirrhosis is the most important risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and patients with cirrhosis are recommended to receive semiannual surveillance for early HCC detection. However, early cirrhosis is often asymptomatic and can go undiagnosed for years, leading to underuse of HCC surveillance in clinical practice. We characterized the frequency and associated factors of unrecognized cirrhosis in a national sample of patients with HCC from the United States. @*Methods@#HCC patients aged 68 years and older, diagnosed during 2011 to 2015 were included from the SEERMedicare Linked Database. If cirrhosis was diagnosed within 6 months immediately preceding HCC diagnosis or after HCC diagnosis, cases were categorized as unrecognized cirrhosis. Factors associated with unrecognized cirrhosis were identified using logistic regression analyses. Factors associated with overall survival were evaluated using Cox regression analyses. @*Results@#Among 5,098 HCC patients, 74.8% patients had cirrhosis. Among those with cirrhosis, 57.4% had unrecognized cirrhosis, with the highest proportion (76.3%) among those with NAFLD-related HCC. Male sex (aOR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.83–2.46), non-Hispanic Black race (aOR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.45–2.57), and NAFLD etiology (aOR: 4.46, 95% CI: 3.68–5.41) were associated with having unrecognized cirrhosis. Among NAFLD-related HCC patients, male sex (aOR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.71–3.14) was associated with unrecognized cirrhosis. Unrecognized cirrhosis was independently associated with worse overall survival (aHR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.08–1.27) compared to recognized cirrhosis. @*Conclusions@#Unrecognized cirrhosis is common in NAFLD-related HCC, particularly among male and Black patients, highlighting these groups as important intervention targets to improve HCC surveillance uptake and outcomes.

4.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 399-404, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981282

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genetic subtypes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the prevalence of pretreatment drug resistance in the newly reported HIV-infected men in Guangxi. Methods The stratified random sampling method was employed to select the newly reported HIV-infected men aged≥50 years old in 14 cities of Guangxi from January to June in 2020.The pol gene of HIV-1 was amplified by nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced.The mutation sites associated with drug resistance and the degree of drug resistance were then analyzed. Results A total of 615 HIV-infected men were included in the study.The genetic subtypes of CRF01_AE,CRF07_BC,and CRF08_BC accounted for 57.4% (353/615),17.1% (105/615),and 22.4% (138/615),respectively.The mutations associated with the resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI),non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI),and protease inhibitors occurred in 8 (1.3%),18 (2.9%),and 0 patients,respectively.M184V (0.7%) and K103N (1.8%) were the mutations with the highest occurrence rates for the resistance to NRTIs and NNRTIs,respectively.Twenty-two (3.6%) patients were resistant to at least one type of inhibitors.Specifically,4 (0.7%),14 (2.3%),4 (0.7%),and 0 patients were resistant to NRTIs,NNRTIs,both NRTIs and NNRTIs,and protease inhibitors,respectively.The pretreatment resistance to NNRTIs had much higher frequency than that to NRTIs (2.9% vs.1.3%;χ2=3.929,P=0.047).The prevalence of pretreatment resistance to lamivudine,zidovudine,tenofovir,abacavir,rilpivirine,efavirenz,nevirapine,and lopinavir/ritonavir was 0.8%, 0.3%, 0.7%, 1.0%, 1.3%, 2.8%, 2.9%, and 0, respectively. Conclusions CRF01_AE,CRF07_BC,and CRF08_BC are the three major strains of HIV-infected men≥50 years old newly reported in Guangxi,2020,and the pretreatment drug resistance demonstrates low prevalence.


Subject(s)
Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , China/epidemiology , Mutation , HIV-1/genetics , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Genotype
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 475-485, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981022

ABSTRACT

Pain is a multi-dimensional emotional experience, and pain sensation and pain emotion are the two main components. As for pain, previous studies only focused on a certain link of the pain transmission pathway or a certain key brain region, and there is a lack of evidence that connectivity of brain regions is involved in pain or pain regulation in the overall state. The establishment of new experimental tools and techniques has brought light to the study of neural pathways of pain sensation and pain emotion. In this paper, the structure and functional basis of the neural pathways involved in the formation of pain sensation and the regulation of pain emotion in the nervous system above the spinal cord level, including thalamus, amygdala, midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG), parabrachial nucleus (PB) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), are reviewed in recent years, providing clues for the in-depth study of pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain , Neural Pathways/physiology , Periaqueductal Gray/physiology , Brain , Spinal Cord/physiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
6.
Chinese Journal of Medical Education Research ; (12): 168-172, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-991277

ABSTRACT

At present, some "5+3" integration students have different levels of understanding and application problems in various stages, such as role transformation, professional knowledge and technology, communication ability and humanistic care ability, clinical thinking and evidence-based medicine concepts, clinical research thinking, learning and work attitude. This research will permeate and run through the training of "5+3" integrated students' diagnostic and therapeutic operation ability through the training of modern clinical thinking oriented by post competency, and integrate humanistic care, evidence-based medicine, learning attitude, working attitude, and attitude towards patients in the whole process to gradually complete the comprehensive training goal of clinical thinking oriented by post competency + diagnostic and therapeutic operation ability.

7.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1592-1608, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013746

ABSTRACT

Aim To rapidly prepare and purify hydrogen sulfide specific fluorescent probe (WSP-5), establish and optimize the fluorescent probe method for the determination of hydrogen sulfide in animal tissues, and verify the applicability of the method in the model of malignant pleural effusion. Methods The preparation solvent of fluorescent probe reaction solution, DMSO addition volume, pH, reaction solution solvent and reaction solution volume, sample pretreatment temperature, grinding times, and standing time after grinding were investigated. The mouses model of malignant pleural effusion was established with S-180 ascites tumor cells, and the concentration of hydrogen sulfide in various organs and tissues of the model animal was measured. Results After optimization, silica gel and dextran gel were used as stationary phases, dichloromethane methanol formic acid (60: 1: 0.1, V/V/V) and dichloromethane methanol (1: 1, V/V) were used as eluents for separation and purification, and the first eluting component was taken to prepare WSP-5 with a purity of more than 700 mg. Animal tissue samples and sodium hydrosulfide standard solution were added with 5 times of cold reaction solution, after low temperature vibration grinding, highspeed centrifugation, the supernatant was incubated in dark for 12 hours, the fluorescence intensity was measured by fluorescent microplate reader. Hydrogen sulfide concentration was calculated according to the standard curve. The LOD of this method was about 0. 6 |JLmol • L

8.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 809-813, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008134

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the effects of different application sequences of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet(Nd∶YAG)laser and the desensitizing toothpaste containing stannous fluoride on dentinal tubule occlusion.Methods Twelve intact third molars freshly extracted from human were selected and prepared into dentin slices with a thickness of 0.8 mm.Each dentin slice was subdivided into four small slices,three of which were etched with 6% citric acid and randomly assigned to the following three groups(n=12):(1)control group:no treatment;(2)Nd∶YAG+toothbrushing(TB)group:first irradiated with Nd∶YAG laser and then brushed with desensitizing toothpaste;(3)TB+Nd∶YAG group:first brushed with desensitizing toothpaste and then irradiated with Nd∶YAG laser.The Nd∶YAG laser irradiation were carried out at 1 W,15 pulses/s,and the pulse width of 150 μs for 10 s(for a total of 6 cycles).After the above treatment,the 12 dentin slices from the Nd∶YAG+TB and TB+Nd∶YAG groups were randomly assigned to four subgroups(n=3)and subjected to acid etching in the Coca-Cola solution for 0,5,10,and 15 min.A scanning electron microscope was used to observe and photograph the dentin slices in each group,and eight single-blinded examiners scored the slices according to uniform criteria.The analysis of variance was carried out to compared the scores between groups.Results Before acid etching,the dentin tubule occlusion scores of the Nd∶YAG+TB and TB+Nd∶YAG groups were(4.83±0.09) scores and(3.85±0.66) scores,respectively,which had no significant difference between each other(P=0.0590)and were higher than that[(0.10±0.07)scores]of the control group(both P<0.0001).The dentin tubule occlusion scores of the Nd∶YAG+TB group after acid etching for 5,10,and 15 min were(4.33±0.60)scores,(4.27±0.24)scores,and(3.63±0.07)scores,respectively,which were not significantly different from those[(4.04±0.10)scores,(3.76±0.59)scores,and(3.17±0.29)scores,respectively]of the TB+Nd∶YAG group(all P>0.05).In the Nd∶YAG+TB subgroup,the dentin tubule occlusion score after acid etching for 15 min was significantly lower than that before acid etching(P=0.0011).In the TB+Nd∶YAG group,there was no statistically significant difference in the score between before and after acid etching(P>0.05).Conclusions Nd∶YAG laser irradiation with appropriate parameters combined with the use of desensitizing toothpaste could produce an excellent occluding effect on dentinal tubules regardless of the sequence.However,brushing with desensitizing toothpaste followed by Nd∶YAG laser irradiation produced more consistent dentin sealing after acid etching.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dentin , Dentin Sensitivity/therapy , Lasers, Solid-State/therapeutic use , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Toothpastes/pharmacology
9.
Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae ; (6): 677-682, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008116

ABSTRACT

Cricothyroid membrane puncture and incision,the key techniques to save the lives of the patients in the Can't Intubate,Can't Oxygenate (CICO) emergency,need to be mastered by all the airway management staff.However,the decision to carry out cricothyroid membrane puncture or incision is often delayed due to the unfamiliarity with the adjacent anatomical structure of the cricothyroid membrane and the inability to accurately locate the cricothyroid membrane.As a result,serious complications and rescue failure occur.Therefore,airway management staff should be familiar with the adjacent structure and positioning methods of the cricothyroid membrane,so as to improve the success rate of emergency airway rescue,reduce complications,and protect the airway and life safety of the patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Punctures , Surgical Wound
10.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 3772-3786, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1007992

ABSTRACT

Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is an essential part of the peripheral nervous system and the hub of the peripheral sensory afferent. The dynamic changes of neuronal cells and their gene expression during the development of dorsal root ganglion have been studied through single-cell RNAseq analysis, while the dynamic changes of non-neuronal cells have not been systematically studied. Using single cell RNA sequencing technology, we conducted a research on the non-neuronal cells in the dorsal root ganglia of rats at different developmental stage. In this study, primary cell suspension was obtained from using the dorsal root ganglions (DRGs, L4-L5) of ten 7-day-old rats and three 3-month-old rats. The 10×Genomics platform was used for single cell dissociation and RNA sequencing. Twenty cell subsets were acquired through cluster dimension reduction analysis, and the marker genes of different types of cells in DRG were identified according to previous researches about DRG single cell transcriptome sequencing. In order to find out the non-neuronal cell subsets with significant differences at different development stage, the cells were classified into different cell types according to markers collected from previous researches. We performed pseudotime analysis of 4 types Schwann cells. It was found that subtype Ⅱ Schwann cells emerged firstly, and then were subtype Ⅲ Schwann cells and subtype Ⅳ Schwann cells, while subtype Ⅰ Schwann cells existed during the whole development procedure. Pseudotime analysis indicated the essential genes influencing cell fate of different subtypes of Schwann cell in DRG, such as Ntrk2 and Pmp2, which affected cell fate of Schwann cells during the development period. GO analysis of differential expressed genes showed that the up-regulated genes, such as Cst3 and Spp1, were closely related to biological process of tissue homeostasis and multi-multicellular organism process. The down regulated key genes, such as Col3a1 and Col4a1, had close relationship with the progress of extracellular structure organization and negative regulation of cell adhesion. This suggested that the expression of genes enhancing cell homestasis increased, while the expression of related genes regulating ECM-receptor interaction pathway decreased during the development. The discovery provided valuable information and brand-new perspectives for the study on the physical and developmental mechanism of Schwann cell as well as the non-neuronal cell changes in DRG at different developmental stage. The differential gene expression results provided crucial references for the mechanism of somatosensory maturation during development.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Transcriptome , Neurons/metabolism , Schwann Cells/physiology
11.
Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery ; (12): 460-469, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986912

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the phenotypic-genotypic characteristics of hereditary deafness caused by OTOA gene variations. Methods: Family histories, clinical phenotypes and gene variations of six pedigrees were analyzed, which were diagnosed with hearing loss caused by OTOA gene variations at the PLA General Hospital from September 2015 to January 2022. The sequence variations were verified by Sanger sequencing and the copy number variations were validated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in the family members. Results: The hearing loss phenotype caused by OTOA variations ranged from mild to moderate in the low frequencies, and from moderate to severe in the high frequencies in the probands, which came from six sporadic pedigrees, among which a proband was diagnosed as congenital deafness and five were diagnosed as postlingual deafness. One proband carried homozygous variations and five probands carried compound heterozygous variations in OTOA gene. Nine pathogenic variations (six copy number variations, two deletion variations and one missense variation) and two variations with uncertain significance in OTOA were identified in total, including six copy number variations and five single nucleotide variants, and three of the five single nucleotide variants were firstly reported [c.1265G>T(p.Gly422Val),c.1534delG(p.Ala513Leufs*11) and c.3292C>T(p.Gln1098fs*)]. Conclusions: OTOA gene variations can lead to autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. In this study, the hearing loss caused by OTOA defects mostly presents as bilateral, symmetrical, and postlingual, and that of a few presents as congenital. The pathogenic variations of OTOA gene are mainly copy number variations followed by deletion variations and missense variations.


Subject(s)
Humans , DNA Copy Number Variations , Hearing Loss, Sensorineural/genetics , Deafness/genetics , Hearing Loss/genetics , Phenotype , Genotype , Nucleotides , Pedigree , Mutation , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics
12.
Chinese Journal of Stomatology ; (12): 457-461, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986094

ABSTRACT

To propose a new student-guided teaching method, in which students carried out the clustering of different diseases with the same pathological characteristics, and differentiated diagnosis of these diseases. This method was named pathological feature clustering (PFC). Seventy-seven undergraduates of School of Stomatology, Wuhan University were enrolled. Stratified random sampling method was adopted to divide the students into 4 groups with 18-20 students in each group. Each group of students selected a disease from the following four topics as the theme and summarize the histological characteristics of the disease: ①oral mucosal disease;②odontogenic tumors and tumor-like lesions, oral and maxillofacial cysts; ③salivary gland diseases;④epithelial-derived tumors and tumor-like lesions (referred to as topics 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively). When discussing a specific type of disease, the group which select the topic was the summary group (SG), and the other groups were the non-summary group (NSG). After summarizing, students shared the summary results through PPTs, and teachers made comments and supplements. The teaching effect was evaluated by comparing the results of the pre-class test and the final examination. Students' acceptance of PFC teaching method was evaluated through a questionnaire, which included 8 objective questions and 1 subjective question. Likert-scale was used to design the questionnaire, with 1 to 5 points for each question. Students rated each question according to their own situation. Differences among groups were compared by Mann-Whitney U nonparametric test. The pre-class test results showed that the scores of students in SG group in subjects 1, 2, 3 [(5.6±0.8), 5.0(1.0) and (2.9±1.0) points for subjects 1, 2 and 3, respectively] were higher than those in NSG group [(5.1±1.0), 4.0(2.5) and 1.5(2.5) points] (U=402.50, P=0.047; U=392.00, P=0.026; U=295.00, P=0.003). The final examination results showed that there was no significant difference between the scores of the SG group and the NSG group in subjects 1, 2, 3 and 4 (P>0.05). These results showed that the differences between SG and NSG groups were reduced after the summarizing and share between groups, further demonstrating the effectiveness of the PFC teaching method. The results of questionnaire showed that 81.8%(63/77) students were completely satisfied with PFC teaching method, 13.0%(10/77) students were satisfied and 5.2%(4/77) students were basically satisfied. According to the feedback of Likert scale objective evaluation questionnaire, the mean score of each question ranged from 4.19 to 4.77, indicating that students believed that PFC teaching method had a positive impact on the learning of oral pathology. The PFC teaching method proposed in this study could improve the ability of pathological differential diagnosis of undergraduates.

13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1114-1118, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985641

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the infection status and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C in people aged 1-69 years in Henan Province in 2020. Methods: The estimated sample size was 5 827. From August to December 2020, multistage sampling was used to select 8 counties (districts) in Henan, and two survey sites were selected in each county (district), and a questionnaire survey was conducted in local people aged 1-69 years, blood samples were collected from them for anti-HCV, HCV RNA and genotype detections. Results: A total of 5 165 people aged 1-69 years completed the questionnaire survey. Men accounted for 44.76% (2 312/5 165), women accounted for 55.24% (2 853/5 165). In the people aged 1-69 years, the overall prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 0.69% (95%CI: 0.68%-0.70%) and 0.20% (95%CI: 0.19%-0.21%) respectively. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 0.48% (95%CI: 0.46%-0.50%), 0.09% (95%CI: 0.08%-0.10%) in men and 0.86% (95%CI: 0.85%-0.87%), 0.30% (95%CI: 0.28%-0.32%) in women. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA increased with age. The prevalence rates of anti-HCV and HCV RNA were 0.87% (95%CI: 0.86%-0.88%), 0.28% (95%CI: 0.26%-0.30%) in urban residents and 0.53% (95%CI: 0.51%-0.55%), 0.14% (95%CI: 0.13%-0.15%) in rural residents. The genotyping results of 10 HCV RNA positive samples ware genotype 1b (4/10), genotype 2 (3/10), genotype 1b/3 (1/10), genotype 1b/3/6 (1/10) and genotype 2/6 (1/10). Conclusions: The prevalence of hepatitis C was low in Henan in 2020. It is necessary to strengthen hepatitis C surveillance in people aged 40 years and above. The major HCV genotypes were 1b and 2, and mixed genotype infection existed.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Coinfection , Genotype , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/genetics , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 845-850, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985571

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a dynamic syndromic surveillance system in the border areas of Yunnan Province based on information technology, evaluate its effectiveness and timeliness in the response to common communicable disease epidemics and improve the communicable disease prevention and control in border areas. Methods: Three border counties were selected for full coverage as study areas, and dynamic surveillance for 14 symptoms and 6 syndromes were conducted in medical institutions, the daily collection of information about students' school absence in primary schools and febrile illness in inbound people at border ports were conducted in these counties from January 2016 to February 2018 to establish an early warning system based on mobile phone and computer platform for a field experimental study. Results: With syndromes of rash, influenza-like illness and the numbers of primary school absence, the most common communicable disease events, such as hand foot and mouth disease, influenza and chickenpox, can be identified 1-5 days in advance by using EARS-3C and Kulldorff time-space scanning models with high sensitivity and specificity. The system is easy to use with strong security and feasibility. All the information and the warning alerts are released in the form of interactive charts and visual maps, which can facilitate the timely response. Conclusions: This system is highly effective and easy to operate in the detection of possible outbreaks of common communicable diseases in border areas in real time, so the timely and effective intervention can be conducted to reduce the risk of local and cross-border communicable disease outbreaks. It has practical application value.


Subject(s)
Humans , Influenza, Human , Sentinel Surveillance , Syndrome , China , Cell Phone
15.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 424-432, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984739

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the cytomorphological and immunocytochemical features of tumor cells in the ascites of ovarian plasmacytoma (SOC). Methods: Specimens of serous cavity effusions were collected from 61 tumor patients admitted to the Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2015 to July 2021, including ascites from 32 SOC, 10 gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas, 5 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, 6 lung adenocarcinomas, 4 benign mesothelial hyperplasia and 1 malignant mesothelioma patients, pleural effusions from 2 malignant mesothelioma patients and pericardial effusion from 1 malignant mesothelioma. Serous cavity effusion samples of all patients were collected, conventional smears were made through centrifugation, and cell paraffin blocks were made through centrifugation of remaining effusion samples. Conventional HE staining and immunocytochemical staining were applied to observe and summarize cytomorphological characteristics and immunocytochemical characteristics. The levels of serum tumor markers carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) were detected. Results: Of the 32 SOC patients, 5 had low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC) and 27 had high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). 29 (90.6%) SOC patients had elevated serum CA125, but the difference was not statistically significant between them and patients with non-ovarian primary lesions included in the study (P>0.05); The serum CEA was positive in 9 patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma and 5 patients with lung adenocarcinoma, and the positive rate was higher than that in SOC patients (P<0.001); The serum CA19-9 was positive in 5 patients with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma and 5 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and the positive rate was higher than that in SOC patients (P<0.05). The serum CA125, CEA and CA19-9 were within the normal range in 4 patients with benign mesothelial hyperplasia. LGSOC tumor cells were less heterogeneous and aggregated into small clusters or papillary pattern, and psammoma bodies could be observed in some LGSOC cases. The background cells were fewer and lymphocytes were predominant; the papillary structure was more obvious after making cell wax blocks. HGSOC tumor cells were highly heterogeneous, with significantly enlarged nuclei and varying sizes, which could be more than 3-fold different, and nucleoli and nuclear schizophrenia could be observed in some cases; tumor cells were mostly clustered into nested clusters, papillae and prune shapes; there were more background cells, mainly histiocytes. Immunocytochemical staining showed that AE1/AE3, CK7, PAX-8, CA125, and WT1 were diffusely positively expressed in 32 SOC cases. P53 was focally positive in all 5 LGSOCs, diffusely positive in 23 HGSOCs, and negative in the other 4 HGSOCs. Most of adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract and lung had a history of surgery, and tumor cells of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tend to form small cell nests. Immunocytochemistry can assist in the differential diagnosis of mesothelial-derived lesions with characteristic "open window" phenomenon. Conclusion: Combining the clinical manifestations of the patient, the morphological characteristics of the cells in the smear and cell block of the ascites can provide important clues for the diagnosis of SOC, and the immunocytochemical tests can further improve the accuracy of the diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Carcinoembryonic Antigen , Ascites , CA-19-9 Antigen , Mesothelioma, Malignant/diagnosis , Hyperplasia , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor , Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial , Diagnosis, Differential , Ovarian Neoplasms/pathology , Carbohydrates
16.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1878-1884, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1010053

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the efficacy and safety of colistin sulfate in the treatment of hematonosis patients infected by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB), and discuss the possible factors that affect the efficacy of colistin sulfate.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 85 hematologic patients infected with MDR GNB in the Soochow Hopes Hematonosis Hospital from April 2022 to November 2022 were collected and divided into clinically effective group with 71 cases and ineffective group with 14 cases according to the therapeutic efficacy of colistin sulfate. The age, gender, type of hematologic disease, status of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, infection sites, type of pathogen, timing of administration, daily dose and duration of colistin sulfate, and combination with other antibacterial agents of patients in two groups were compared. Logistic regression was used to analyze on the meaningful variables to study the influencing factors of colistin sulfate. The adverse reactions of colistin sulfate were also evaluated.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in age, gender, type of hematologic disease, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation status, infection sites and pathogen type between the effective group and the ineffective group (P>0.05). Compared with the medication time more than 7 days, meropenem used within 7 days in the clinical effective group, and timely replacement with colistin sulfate could obtain better efficacy, the difference was statistically significant (P=0.018). The duration of tigacycline before colistin sulfate did not affect the efficacy, and there was no significant difference in efficacy between the effective and ineffective groups. The therapeutic effect of colistin sulfate at daily dose of 500 000 U q8h was better than that of 500 000 U q12h, the difference was statistically significant (P=0.035). The time of colistin sulfate use in the clinically effective group was longer than that in the ineffective group, which had a statistical difference (P=0.003). Compared with the clinical ineffective group, the efficacy of combination regimens with colistin sulfate was better than that of colistin sulfate monotherapy, and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.013). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed on the indicators with statistical differences in the two groups of patients, which suggested that the use time of colistin sulfate (B: 2.358; OR: 10.573; CI: 1.567-71.361; P=0.015) and the combination of colistin sulfate (B: 1.720; OR: 5.586; CI: 1.210-25.787; P=0.028) were influential factors in the efficacy of colistin sulfate. During the treatment, the incidence of nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and peripheral neurotoxicity were 5.9%, 1.2% and 1.2%, respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The use of colistin sulfate improves the clinical efficacy of MDR GNB infections in hematological patients, and the timing of colistin sulfate administration and the combination of drugs are independent factors affecting its clinical efficacy, and the safety during treatment is high.


Subject(s)
Humans , Colistin/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Meropenem/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hematologic Diseases
17.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 1185-1190, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009209

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analysis and determine MR signs of Harris score ARCO stages 2-4 in osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH).@*METHODS@#Thirty-four patients with ONFH of ARCO stages 2 to 4 who underwent routine MR, T2 mapping, 3D-SPACE sequence examination and Harris score were retrospectively collected from January 2019 to June 2020, and 3 patients were excluded, and 31 patients were finally included, including 23 males and 8 females, aged from 18 to 62 years old with an average of(40.0±10.8) years old. Among them 21 patients with bilateral femoral head necrosis, totally 52 cases, including 17 with ARCO stage 2 patients, 24 ARCO stage 3, and 11 ARCO stage 4. MR imaging signs (femoral head collapse depth, ONFH index, bone marrow edema, hyperplasia, grade and T2 value of cartilage injury, and joint effusion) were scored and measured on the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workstation, and the cartilage quantitative parameter T2 value was calculated and measured on Siemens postprocessing workstation. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between various MR signs and Harris score, and then multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine impact of MR signs on Harris hip score.@*RESULTS@#Femoral head collapse depth(r=-0.563, P=0.000), grade of cartilage injury(r=-0.500, P=0.000), and joint effusion (r=-0.535, P=0.000) were negatively correlated with Harris score by Pearson correlation analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that joint effusion(β=-6.198, P=0.001) and femoral head collapse depth(β=-4.085, P=0.014) had a significant negative impact on Harris hip score.@*CONCLUSION@#Femoral head collapse depth and joint effusion both had significant negative relationship with Harris hip score. It is recommended to routinely evaluate femoral head collapse depth and joint effusion quantitatively and gradedly, so as to efficiently and accurately assist clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Femur Head Necrosis/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Femur Head/diagnostic imaging , Bone Transplantation/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Treatment Outcome
18.
Gut and Liver ; : 24-33, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966862

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the world. NAFLD is a hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance, the core pathophysiology of diabetes. Multiple clinical studies show that diabetes increases the risk of liver disease progression and cirrhosis development in patients with NAFLD. Diabetes has causal associations with many different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). More recent studies demonstrate that diabetes increases the risk of HCC in patients with underlying NAFLD cirrhosis, confirming the direct hepatocarcinogenic effect of diabetes among cirrhosis patients. Diabetes promotes hepatocarcinogenesis via the activation of inflammatory cascades producing reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines, leading to genomic instability, cellular proliferation, and inhibition of apoptosis. Given the global increase in the burden of NAFLD and HCC, high-risk patients such as older diabetic individuals should be carefully monitored for HCC development. Future larger studies should explore whether the effect of diabetes on HCC risk in NAFLD cirrhosis is modifiable by the type of antidiabetic medication and the effectiveness of diabetes control.

19.
Clinical and Molecular Hepatology ; : S32-S42, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966584

ABSTRACT

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. The estimated global incidence of NAFLD is 47 cases per 1,000 population and is higher among males than females. The estimated global prevalence of NAFLD among adults is 32% and is higher among males (40%) compared to females (26%). The global prevalence of NAFLD has increased over time, from 26% in studies from 2005 or earlier to 38% in studies from 2016 or beyond. The prevalence of NAFLD varies substantially by world region, contributed by differing rates of obesity, and genetic and socioeconomic factors. The prevalence of NAFLD exceeds 40% in the Americas and South-East Asia. The prevalence of NAFLD is projected to increase significantly in multiple world regions by 2030 if current trends are left unchecked. In this review, we discuss trends in the global incidence and prevalence of NAFLD and discuss future projections.

20.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 238-243, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971066

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a febrile disease mainly observed in children aged <5 years, with medium- and small-vessel vasculitis as the main lesion. Although KD has been reported for more than 50 years and great progress has been made in the etiology and pathology of KD in recent years, there is still a lack of specific indicators for the early diagnosis of KD, especially with more difficulties in the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease (IKD). At present, there are no clear diagnostic criteria for IKD, which leads to the failure of the timely identification and standardized treatment of IKD in clinical practice and even induce the development of coronary artery lesion. This article reviews the concept, epidemiological features, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up management of IKD, in order to deepen the understanding of IKD among clinical workers and help to improve the clinical diagnosis and treatment of KD in China.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Infant , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Coronary Vessels , China
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