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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830785

ABSTRACT

Background@#For volar soft tissue defects of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint, free flaps are technically challenging, but have more esthetic and functional advantages than local or distant flaps. In this study, we compared the long-term surgical outcomes of arterial (hypothenar, thenar, or second toe plantar) and venous free flaps for volar defects of the PIP joint. @*Methods@#This was a single-center retrospective review of free flap coverage of volar defects between the distal interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joint from July 2010 to August 2019. Patients with severe crush injuries (degloving, tendon or bone defects, or comminuted/intra-articular fractures), thumb injuries, multiple-joint and finger injuries, dorsal soft tissue defects, and defects >6 cm in length were excluded from the study, as were those lost to follow-up within 6 months. Thirteen patients received arterial (hypothenar, thenar, or second toe plantar) free flaps and 12 received venous free flaps. Patients’ age, follow-up period, PIP joint active range of motion (ROM), extension lag, grip-strength ratio of the injured to the uninjured hand, and Quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder & Hand (QuickDASH) score were compared between the groups. @*Results@#Arterial free flaps showed significantly higher PIP joint active ROM (P=0.043) and lower extension lag (P=0.035) than venous free flaps. The differences in flexion, grip strength, and QuickDASH scores were not statistically significant. @*Conclusions@#The surgical outcomes of arterial free flaps were superior to those of venous free flaps for volar defects of the PIP joint.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830764

ABSTRACT

Background@#The introduction of the partial second toe pulp free flap has enabled superior aesthetic and functional results for fingertip reconstruction in adults. Children undergoing fingertip amputation for various reasons have limited options for reconstruction. Conventional treatment could shorten the finger, leading to poor cosmesis and function. We report 18 years of our experiences with fingertip reconstruction using partial second toe pulp free flaps in patients in early childhood. @*Methods@#Medical charts of children who had undergone fingertip reconstruction using partial second toe pulp free flaps from 2001 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The surgical procedures were identical to those for adults, except for the usage of 11-0 nylon sutures. Patients’ demographic data, vessel size, flap dimensions, length of the distal phalanx, and functional outcomes over the course of long-term follow-up were documented. The statistical analysis was performed with the Student t-test, the Mann-Whitney U test, and Pearson correlation analysis. @*Results@#Eighteen toe pulp flaps in 17 patients (mean age, 3.0 years) were identified. All the flaps survived without any major complications. In long-term follow-up, the flap-covered distal phalanges showed growth in line with regular development. There was no donor-site morbidity, and all children adapted to daily life without any problems. In two-point discrimination tests, the fingertip sensation recovered to almost the same level as that in the contralateral finger. @*Conclusions@#Partial second toe pulp free flaps are an excellent option for fingertip reconstruction in young children, as well as in adults.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Full-thickness nail bed defects with significant exposure of the distal phalanx are typically challenging to reconstruct. We describe a novel method of nail bed defect reconstruction using a thenar fascial flap combined with nail bed grafting. METHODS: Full-thickness nail bed defects were reconstructed in a 2-stage operation involving the placement of a thenar fascial flap and subsequent nail bed grafting. A proximally-based skin flap was designed on the thenar eminence. The flap was elevated distally to proximally, and the fascial layer covering the thenar muscle was dissected proximally to distally. The skin flap was then closed and the dissected fascial flap was turned over (proximal to distal) and inset onto the defect. The finger was immobilized for 2 weeks, and the flap was dressed with wet and ointment dressings. After 2 weeks, the flap was divided and covered with a split-thickness nail bed graft from the great toe. Subsequent nail growth was evaluated on follow-up. RESULTS: Nine patients (9 fingers) treated with the novel procedure were evaluated at follow-up examinations. Complete flap survival was noted in all cases, and all nail bed grafts took successfully. Five outcomes (55.6%) were graded as excellent, three (33.3%) as very good, and one (11.1%) as fair. No donor site morbidities of the thenar area or great toe were observed. CONCLUSIONS: When used in combination with a nail bed graft, the thenar fascial flap provides an excellent means of nail bed reconstruction.


Subject(s)
Bandages , Fascia , Finger Injuries , Fingers , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Methods , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Skin , Surgical Flaps , Tissue Donors , Toes , Transplants
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#There are various reconstructive options for nail bed defects. However, it is challenging not to leave a deformity. In this study, we investigated differences in outcomes depending on the reconstruction method, attempted to determine which method was better, and analyzed other factors that may affect outcomes.@*METHODS@#The long-term outcomes of nail bed reconstruction were reviewed retrospectively. We performed three types of reconstruction depending on the defect type: composite grafts of severed segments, nail bed grafts from the big toe, and two-stage surgery (flap coverage first, followed by a nail bed graft). Subsequent nail growth was evaluated during follow-up, and each outcome was graded based on Zook’s criteria. The reconstruction methods were statistically analyzed. Other factors that could contribute to the outcomes, including age, the timing of surgery, germinal matrix involvement, defect size, and the presence of bone injuries, were also compared.@*RESULTS@#Twenty-one patients (22 digits) who underwent nail bed reconstruction were evaluated. The type of reconstruction method did not show a significant relationship with the outcomes. However, patients who sustained injuries in the germinal matrix and patients with a defect larger than half the size of the nail bed had significantly worse outcomes than the comparison groups.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The results suggest that no operative method was superior to another in terms of the outcomes of nail bed reconstruction. Nevertheless, involvement of the germinal matrix and defect size affected the outcomes.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Volar plate avulsion fracture of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint is one of the most common hand injuries. In this study, we divided patients into two groups: patients with pure volar plate avulsion fracture, and patients with volar plate avulsion fracture concomitant with collateral ligament rupture. The purpose of this study was to compare long-term surgical outcomes between the two groups. As a secondary measure, the Mitek bone anchoring and polydioxanone (PDS) bone suturing techniques were compared. METHODS: A single-institutional retrospective review of the surgical treatment of volar plate avulsion fracture was performed. The cases were divided into those with pure volar plate avulsion fracture (group A, n=15) and those with volar plate avulsion fracture concomitant with collateral ligament rupture (group B, n=15). Both groups underwent volar plate reattachment using Mitek bone anchoring or PDS bone suturing followed by 2 weeks of immobilization in a dorsal protective splint. RESULTS: The average range of motion of the PIP joint and extension lag were significantly more favorable in group A (P < 0.05). Differences in age; follow-up period; flexion function; visual analog scale scores; disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand scores; and the grip strength ratio between the two groups were non-significant. No significant differences were found in the surgical outcomes of Mitek bone anchoring and PDS bone suturing in group A. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the surgical outcomes of volar plate reattachment were successful irrespective of whether the collateral ligaments were torn. However, greater extension lag was observed in cases of collateral ligament injury.


Subject(s)
Arm , Collateral Ligaments , Finger Joint , Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Hand Injuries , Hand Strength , Humans , Immobilization , Joints , Polydioxanone , Range of Motion, Articular , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Shoulder , Splints , Suture Anchors , Visual Analog Scale
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739420

ABSTRACT

Figure 1 was printed with incorrect text. In the Figure, “Radial artery” should be corrected to “Axillary artery.”

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759283

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of open debridement and polyethylene exchange (ODPE) combined with proper antibiotic therapy in strictly selected patients with infection after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and analyze factors associated with treatment failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2010 to January 2014, 25 cases that underwent ODPE under the diagnosis of infection within four weeks after TKA or acute hematogenous infection within five days of symptom onset were reviewed in this study. RESULTS: Treatment was successful in 22 out of 25 cases (88.0%). Factors associated with failure were accompanying infection (periprosthetic infection in the ipsilateral foot, cervical parotid abscess, and masticator space abscess) and diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before TKA. Resistant bacteria did not entail a risk. On clinical results, the mean postoperative Lysholm score and Korean Knee score were 81.4 and 79.4, respectively, the knee range of motion was 115.4°±12.9°, and duration of hospitalization was 32.3±8.4 days. On radiographic results, 3.47±1.56 mm joint line elevation and a valgus change of 0.61°±2.35° in knee alignment were observed. CONCLUSIONS: ODPE combined with appropriate antibiotics therapy could be a useful treatment method for infection after TKA if the procedure is performed within a symptom duration of five days or less in the absence of accompanying infection in patients whose indication for TKA was not RA.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Arthroplasty , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Bacteria , Debridement , Diagnosis , Foot , Hospitalization , Humans , Joints , Knee , Methods , Polyethylene , Range of Motion, Articular , Treatment Failure
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The authors sought to determine whether a shallow needle approach to the axillary artery would improve complete sensory blocks of median, radial, and ulnar nerves as compared with a perpendicular approach when transarterial axillary block is performed using a scalp vein needle (23G, 3/4'). METHODS: Fifty-four patients were allocated equally to a perpendicular group (the PA group) or a shallow approach group (SA group). Sensory and motor scores were evaluated and compared in the two groups at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes after block. The main outcome variables were rates of blockage of median, radial, and ulnar nerves. RESULTS: Excellent block rates (defined as completion of surgery using brachial plexus block alone) were obtained in both groups (SA group 77.8% vs. PA group 70.3%, P = 0.755). However, the rate of blockage of all three nerves was significantly higher in the SA group (74% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.013). Furthermore, the rate of complete sensory block of the radial nerve at 20 minutes was significantly greater in the SA group (85.2% vs. 59.3%, P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: A shallow needle approach to the axillary artery resulted in a significantly higher median, radial, and ulnar nerve block rate at 20 minutes after LA injection than a perpendicular approach.


Subject(s)
Axillary Artery , Brachial Plexus Block , Brachial Plexus , Humans , Needles , Radial Nerve , Scalp , Ulnar Nerve , Veins
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-136430

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The authors sought to determine whether a shallow needle approach to the axillary artery would improve complete sensory blocks of median, radial, and ulnar nerves as compared with a perpendicular approach when transarterial axillary block is performed using a scalp vein needle (23G, 3/4'). METHODS: Fifty-four patients were allocated equally to a perpendicular group (the PA group) or a shallow approach group (SA group). Sensory and motor scores were evaluated and compared in the two groups at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes after block. The main outcome variables were rates of blockage of median, radial, and ulnar nerves. RESULTS: Excellent block rates (defined as completion of surgery using brachial plexus block alone) were obtained in both groups (SA group 77.8% vs. PA group 70.3%, P = 0.755). However, the rate of blockage of all three nerves was significantly higher in the SA group (74% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.013). Furthermore, the rate of complete sensory block of the radial nerve at 20 minutes was significantly greater in the SA group (85.2% vs. 59.3%, P = 0.033). CONCLUSIONS: A shallow needle approach to the axillary artery resulted in a significantly higher median, radial, and ulnar nerve block rate at 20 minutes after LA injection than a perpendicular approach.


Subject(s)
Axillary Artery , Brachial Plexus Block , Brachial Plexus , Humans , Needles , Radial Nerve , Scalp , Ulnar Nerve , Veins
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It can be difficult to select an appropriate flap for various defects on the hand. Although defects of the hand usually must be covered with a skin flap, some defects require a flap with rich blood supply and adequate additive soft tissue volume. The authors present their experience with the anconeus muscle free flap in the reconstruction of various defects and the release of scar contractures of the hand. METHODS: Ten patients underwent reconstruction of the finger or release of the first web space using the anconeus muscle free flap from May 1998 to October 2013. Adequate bed preparations with thorough debridement or contracture release were performed. The entire anconeus muscle, located at the elbow superficially, was harvested, with the posterior recurrent interosseous artery as a pedicle. The defects were covered with a uniformly trimmed anconeus muscle free flap. Additional debulking of the flap and skin coverage using a split-thickness skin graft were performed 3 weeks after the first operation. RESULTS: The average flap size was 18.7 cm² (range, 13.5–30 cm²). All flaps survived without significant complications. Vein grafts for overcoming a short pedicle were necessary in 4 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The anconeus muscle free flap can be considered a reliable reconstructive option for small defects on the hand or contracture release of the web space, because it has relatively consistent anatomy, provides robust blood supply within the same operative field, and leads to no functional loss at the donor site.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Cicatrix , Contracture , Debridement , Elbow , Fingers , Free Tissue Flaps , Hand , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , Osteomyelitis , Skin , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Veins
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It can be difficult to select an appropriate flap for various defects on the hand. Although defects of the hand usually must be covered with a skin flap, some defects require a flap with rich blood supply and adequate additive soft tissue volume. The authors present their experience with the anconeus muscle free flap in the reconstruction of various defects and the release of scar contractures of the hand. METHODS: Ten patients underwent reconstruction of the finger or release of the first web space using the anconeus muscle free flap from May 1998 to October 2013. Adequate bed preparations with thorough debridement or contracture release were performed. The entire anconeus muscle, located at the elbow superficially, was harvested, with the posterior recurrent interosseous artery as a pedicle. The defects were covered with a uniformly trimmed anconeus muscle free flap. Additional debulking of the flap and skin coverage using a split-thickness skin graft were performed 3 weeks after the first operation. RESULTS: The average flap size was 18.7 cm² (range, 13.5–30 cm²). All flaps survived without significant complications. Vein grafts for overcoming a short pedicle were necessary in 4 cases. CONCLUSIONS: The anconeus muscle free flap can be considered a reliable reconstructive option for small defects on the hand or contracture release of the web space, because it has relatively consistent anatomy, provides robust blood supply within the same operative field, and leads to no functional loss at the donor site.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Cicatrix , Contracture , Debridement , Elbow , Fingers , Free Tissue Flaps , Hand , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal , Osteomyelitis , Skin , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Veins
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adequate fixation of replanted digits is essential not only for short-term healing but for long-term function. Various bony fixation methods using Kirschner (K-) and intraosseous wire are available in replantation. We examined clinical and radiographic outcomes of fixation methods on bone union after digital replantation. METHODS: A single institutional retrospective review identified 992 patients who had undergone 1,247 successful replantations between July 2009 and September 2015. Exclusion criteria included amputations of the distal phalanx, comminuted fractures, and intra-articular fractures. Patients were classified according to 5 categories of fixation methods: single K-wire, double longitudinal K-wires, cross K-wires, wire with, and wire without K-wire support. Bone union was evaluated by 5-month postoperative X-ray and fixation outcomes were compared across the 5 groups. RESULTS: The exclusion criteria were applied, and 88 patients with 103 replanted digits remained for analysis. Single K-wire fixation was used in 40 digits, double longitudinal K-wires in 30, and cross fixation in 14. Wire with and without K-wire support was required in 15 and 4 digits. Nonunion was observed in 32 digits (31.1%), of which 13 required additional operations such as bone graft or corrective osteotomy. The highest percent of nonunion was observed after cross fixation (35.7%) and the lowest after wire alone (25.0%). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, contrary to general knowledge, we found that single K-wire fixation was not associated with poorer outcomes. Successful bone union outcomes may be achieved by careful selection of bone fixation methods. This study provides useful information for planning bone fixation in digital replantation.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Fingers , Fracture Fixation , Fractures, Comminuted , Humans , Intra-Articular Fractures , Methods , Osteotomy , Replantation , Retrospective Studies , Transplants
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21719

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Hand
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759218

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study is to identify preoperative cautions for revision of infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by understanding the differences in hematologic and hemodynamic changes between primary TKA and revision of infected TKA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 40 patients in each of the two groups: one group with patients who underwent TKA and the other group with patients who underwent revision of infected TKA. All patients matched for age and body mass index. The following data were compared between the groups: changes in blood pressure, variations in hemoglobin level, amount of postoperative blood loss and transfused blood, incidence of blood transfusion, white blood cell (WBC) count, albumin level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and liver enzyme level. RESULTS: The hemoglobin levels, transfusion rate, and the amount of blood loss were significantly higher in the revision group (p=0.012). In both groups, CRP reached the highest level on the 3rd postoperative day but it was normalized 2 weeks postoperatively; however, the revision TKA group showed a greater tendency to normalization (p=0.029). There were significant differences between the groups in ESR, WBC, blood pressure, and changes in liver enzyme levels. CONCLUSIONS: Revision of infected TKA results in greater hemodynamic variations than primary TKA. Therefore, more efforts should be made to identify pre- and postoperative hemodynamic changes and hematologic status.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Blood Pressure , Blood Sedimentation , Blood Transfusion , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein , Hematology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Incidence , Knee , Leukocytes , Liver , Postoperative Hemorrhage
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-113639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fascial free flaps have been widely used for reconstruction of the hand because they are thin. However, studies reporting objective data regarding the advantages of this approach are lacking. Thus, we report our experience with such flaps. METHODS: Forty-five cases of fascial free flaps between November 2006 and March 2014 were reviewed. Nine cases involving reconstructed dorsal or lateral defects were included. Four anterolateral thigh fascial free flaps and 5 lateral arm fascial free flaps were examined. Maximal flap contour was assessed by measuring reconstructed tissue thickness at the central area from the surface of the skin to below the bone in a vertical manner using ultrasonography and X-ray data. Contralateral regions were examined in the same manner and a comparative analysis was performed. A questionnaire survey regarding aesthetic satisfaction was also administered. RESULTS: All reconstructed parts had a thicker contour than the contralateral side. The average relative percentage of reconstructed tissue thickness was found to be 152% using ultrasonography and 143% using X-ray imaging. According to the aesthetic satisfaction survey, the average rate of satisfaction for patients was 62%, and satisfaction with the flap contour was 72%. CONCLUSIONS: Using a fascial free flap, the reconstructed tissue was approximately 1.5× as thick as the contour of the normal side, which led to positive responses regarding aesthetic satisfaction.


Subject(s)
Arm , Fascia , Free Tissue Flaps , Hand , Humans , Patient Satisfaction , Skin , Thigh , Thinness , Ultrasonography
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we characterize the morbidity at the donor-site of partial second toe pulp free flaps in terms of wound management as well as long-term outcomes. METHODS: A single-institutional retrospective review was performed for patients who had undergone partial second toe pulp free flap transfer to the fingertip. Patient charts were reviewed for infection, skin necrosis, wound dehiscence, and hematoma for the donor site. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was given to patients who had a follow-up of longer than 1 year to characterize long-term postoperative pain and appearance. RESULTS: The review identified a total of 246 cases. Early wound complications were significant for wound dehiscence (n=8) and hematoma (n=5) for a wound complication rate of 5.3%. The questionnaire was distributed to 109 patients, and 54 patients completed the survey. Out of these 54 patients, 15 patients continued to have donor-site pain (28%) at a mean follow-up period of 32.4 months. However, the pain intensity was relatively low in the range between 2 to 5, on a 0-10 scale. None of these patients felt this donor-site pain interfered significantly with daily activity, nor did any patient require pain medications of any type. Donor-site appearance was satisfactory to most patients. CONCLUSIONS: The partial second toe pulp flap was associated with low rates of wound complications and favorable long-term outcomes. Given the functional and aesthetic gain in the recipient finger, donor-site morbidities appear acceptable in this patient population. This study can be helpful in counseling patients regarding donor-site morbidity during the informed consent process.


Subject(s)
Counseling , Fingers , Follow-Up Studies , Free Tissue Flaps , Hematoma , Humans , Informed Consent , Necrosis , Pain, Postoperative , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Tissue Donors , Toes , Transplant Donor Site , Wounds and Injuries
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-31007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify comprehensive hand injury patterns in different pediatric age groups and to assess their risk factors. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted among patients younger than 16-year-old who presented to the emergency room of a general hospital located in Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea, and were treated for an injury of the finger or hand from January 2010 to December 2014. The authors analyzed the medical records of 344 patients. Age was categorized according to five groups. RESULTS: A total of 391 injury sites of 344 patients were evaluated for this study. Overall and in each group, male patients were in the majority. With regard to dominant or non-dominant hand involvement, there were no significant differences. Door-related injuries were the most common cause in the age groups of 0 to 3, 4 to 6, and 7 to 9 years. Sport/recreational activities or physical conflict injuries were the most common cause in those aged 10 to 12 and 13 to 15. Amputation and crushing injury was the most common type in those aged 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years. However, in those aged 10 to 12 and 13 to 15, deep laceration and closed fracture was the most common type. With increasing age, closed injuries tended to increase more sharply than open injuries, extensor tendon rupture more than flexor injuries, and the level of injury moved proximally. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology of hand injuries in the pediatric population.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Amputation , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epidemiology , Fingers , Fractures, Closed , Hand Injuries , Hand , Hospitals, General , Humans , Lacerations , Male , Medical Records , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rupture , Tendons
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-92446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand strength deficit following digital replantation is usually attributed to the mechanical deficiency of the replanted digit. Zone 1 replantation, however, should not be associated with any mechanical deficit, as the joint and tendon are intact. We evaluate short-term motor functions in patients who have undergone single-digit zone 1 replantation. METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review was performed for all patients who underwent zone 1 replantation. Hand and pinch strengths were evaluated using standard dynamometers. Each set of measurements was pooled according to follow-up periods (within 1 month, 1 to 2 months, 2 to 3 months, and after 3 months). The uninjured hand was used as reference for measurements. RESULTS: The review identified 53 patients who had undergone zone 1 replantation and presented for follow-up visits. Compared to the uninjured hand, dynamometer measurements revealed significantly less strength for the hand with replanted digit at one month. The relative mean grip, pulp, and key pinch strength were 31%, 46%, and 48% of the uninjured hand. These three strength measurements gradually increased, with relative strength measurements of 59%, 70%, and 78% for 4-month follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lack of joint or tendon injury, strength of the injured hand was significantly lower than that of the uninjured hand during the 4 months following replantation. Improved rehabilitation strategies are needed to diminish the short-term negative impact that an isolated zone 1 replantation has on the overall hand strength.


Subject(s)
Follow-Up Studies , Hand , Hand Strength , Humans , Joints , Pinch Strength , Range of Motion, Articular , Rehabilitation , Replantation , Retrospective Studies , Tendon Injuries , Tendons
19.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 97-101, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121243

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify factors that affect the size of benign thyroid nodules and to predict nodule size by using a newly developed model. Because most thyroid nodules are benign, they are commonly only monitored. Only a few studies have evaluated the natural progression or regression of benign thyroid nodules. Large-scale studies on the subject are nonexistent. Between January 2001 and December 2011, our study subjects were selected from among 1,564 patients with benign thyroid nodules (2,469 nodules) in a retrospective analysis. We measured nodule size and volume and attempted to predict nodule size by using a newly developed model. Nodules were considered to have increased in size if the total volume increased by >15%. Nodules that increased in size over time required a longer follow-up period than nodules that decreased in size. The proportion of females and the cystic proportion of the nodules were relatively high in our study sample. For thyroid nodules that increased in size, we analyzed potential predictive factors. Larger nodule volume, extended follow-up period, and high cystic proportion were positively associated with increased nodule size. According to the model we developed in our study, the nodules in the group with an increase in size grew at an approximate rate of 0.034 cm3 per year when controlled for other factors. Percutaneous ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation is performed for cosmetic purposes and proper functioning if or when nodules reach a certain size. The model used in our study may offer helpful insight in determining an optimal treatment schedule for benign thyroid nodules.


Subject(s)
Ablation Techniques , Appointments and Schedules , Catheter Ablation , Ethanol , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule
20.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 97-101, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788310

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify factors that affect the size of benign thyroid nodules and to predict nodule size by using a newly developed model. Because most thyroid nodules are benign, they are commonly only monitored. Only a few studies have evaluated the natural progression or regression of benign thyroid nodules. Large-scale studies on the subject are nonexistent. Between January 2001 and December 2011, our study subjects were selected from among 1,564 patients with benign thyroid nodules (2,469 nodules) in a retrospective analysis. We measured nodule size and volume and attempted to predict nodule size by using a newly developed model. Nodules were considered to have increased in size if the total volume increased by >15%. Nodules that increased in size over time required a longer follow-up period than nodules that decreased in size. The proportion of females and the cystic proportion of the nodules were relatively high in our study sample. For thyroid nodules that increased in size, we analyzed potential predictive factors. Larger nodule volume, extended follow-up period, and high cystic proportion were positively associated with increased nodule size. According to the model we developed in our study, the nodules in the group with an increase in size grew at an approximate rate of 0.034 cm3 per year when controlled for other factors. Percutaneous ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation is performed for cosmetic purposes and proper functioning if or when nodules reach a certain size. The model used in our study may offer helpful insight in determining an optimal treatment schedule for benign thyroid nodules.


Subject(s)
Ablation Techniques , Appointments and Schedules , Catheter Ablation , Ethanol , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule
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