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1.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 112-120, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977064

ABSTRACT

Background@#For acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with history of prior stroke (PS) and diabetes mellitus (DM), intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) therapy in the 3- to 4.5-hour window is off-label in Korea. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of IV-tPA in these patients. @*Methods@#Using data from a prospective multicenter stroke registry between January 2009 and March 2021, we identified AIS patients who received IV-tPA in the 3- to 4.5-hour window, and compared the outcomes of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH), 3-month mortality, 3-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-1 and 3-month mRS distribution between patients with both PS and DM (PS/DM, n=56) versus those with neither PS nor DM, or with only one (non-PS/DM, n=927). @*Results@#The PS/DM group versus the non-PS/DM group was more likely to have a prior disability, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease and less likely to have atrial fibrillation. The PS/DM and the non-PS/DM groups had comparable rates of SICH (0% vs. 1.7%; p>0.999) and 3-month mortality (10.7% vs. 10.2%; p=0.9112). The rate of 3-month mRS 0-1 was non-significantly lower in the PS/DM group than in the non-PS/DM group (30.4% vs. 40.7%; adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.81 [0.41-1.59]). @*Conclusions@#In the 3- to 4.5-hour window, AIS patients with PS/DM, as compared to those with non-PS/DM, might benefit less from IV-tPA. However, given the similar risks of SICH and mortality, IV-tPA in the late time window could be considered in patients with both PS and DM.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e254-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938033

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to present the prognosis after minor acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA), using a definition of subsequent stroke in accordance with recent clinical trials. In total, 9,506 patients with minor AIS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale ≤ 5) or high-risk TIA (acute lesions or ≥ 50% cerebral artery steno-occlusion) admitted between November 2010 and October 2013 were included. The primary outcome was the composite of stroke (progression of initial event or a subsequent event) and all-cause mortality. The cumulative incidence of stroke or death was 11.2% at 1 month, 13.3% at 3 months and 16.7% at 1 year. Incidence rate of stroke or death in the first month was 12.5 per 100 person-months: highest in patients with large artery atherosclerosis (17.0). The risk of subsequent events shortly after a minor AIS or high-risk TIA was substantial, particularly in patients with large artery atherosclerosis.

3.
International Journal of Stem Cells ; : 270-282, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937696

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives@#Menkes disease (MNK) is a rare X-linked recessive disease, caused by mutations in the copper transporting ATP7A gene that is required for copper homeostasis. MNK patients experience various clinical symptoms including neurological defects that are closely related to the prognosis of MNK patients. Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) produce new neurons throughout life, and defects in DG neurogenesis are often correlated with cognitive and behavioral problems. However, neurodevelopmental defects in the DG during postnatal period in MNK have not been understood yet. @*Methods@#and Results: Mottled-brindled (Mo Br/y ) mice (MNK mice) and littermate controls were used in this study. In vivo microCT imaging and immunohistochemistry results demonstrate that blood vasculatures in hippocampus are abnormally decreased in MNK mice. Furthermore, postnatal establishment of NSC population and their neurogenesis are severely compromised in the DG of MNK mice. In addition, in vitro analyses using hippocampal neurosphere culture followed by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting suggest that neurogenesis from MNK NSCs is also significantly compromised, corresponding to defective neurogenic gene expression in MNK derived neurons. @*Conclusions@#Our study is the first reports demonstrating that improper expansion of the postnatal NSC population followed by significant reduction of neurogenesis may contribute to neurodevelopmental symptoms in MNK. In conclusion, our results provide new insight into early neurodevelopmental defects in MNK and emphasize the needs for early diagnosis and new therapeutic strategies in the postnatal central nerve system damage of MNK patients.

4.
Journal of the Korean Radiological Society ; : 178-183, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916884

ABSTRACT

Polycythemia vera (PV) is a rare myeloproliferative disease that causes elevated absolute red blood cell (RBC) mass due to uncontrolled RBC production. Moreover, this condition has been associated with a high risk of ischemic stroke and large vessel stenosis or occlusion, with many studies reporting cerebral infarction in PV patients. Despite these findings, there have been no reports on the vessel wall MRI (VW-MRI) findings of the narrowed vessels in PV-associated ischemic stroke patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in English regarding the carotid VW-MRI findings of a 30-year-old male diagnosed with PV after being hospitalized due to stroke.

5.
Journal of Stroke ; : 12-36, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874959

ABSTRACT

Despite recent advances in recanalization therapy, mechanical thrombectomy will never be a treatment for every ischemic stroke because access to mechanical thrombectomy is still limited in many countries. Moreover, many ischemic strokes are caused by occlusion of cerebral arteries that cannot be reached by intra-arterial catheters. Reperfusion using thrombolytic agents will therefore remain an important therapy for hyperacute ischemic stroke. However, thrombolytic drugs have shown limited efficacy and notable hemorrhagic complication rates, leaving room for improvement. A comprehensive understanding of basic and clinical research pipelines as well as the current status of thrombolytic therapy will help facilitate the development of new thrombolytics. Compared with alteplase, an ideal thrombolytic agent is expected to provide faster reperfusion in more patients; prevent re-occlusions; have higher fibrin specificity for selective activation of clot-bound plasminogen to decrease bleeding complications; be retained in the blood for a longer time to minimize dosage and allow administration as a single bolus; be more resistant to inhibitors; and be less antigenic for repetitive usage. Here, we review the currently available thrombolytics, strategies for the development of new clot-dissolving substances, and the assessment of thrombolytic efficacies in vitro and in vivo.

6.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 70-76, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874682

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to determine the relationships of 33 biomarkers of inflammation, oxidation, and adipokines with the risk of progression of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS). @*Methods@#Fifty-two of 409 patients who participated in the TOSS-2 (Trial of Cilostazol in Symptomatic Intracranial Stenosis-2) showed progression of symptomatic ICAS in magnetic resonance angiography at 7 months after an index stroke. We randomly selected 20 patients with progression as well as 40 age- and sex-matched control patients. We serially collected blood samples at baseline, 1 month, and 7 months after an index stroke. Multiplex analysis of biomarkers was then performed. @*Results@#Demographic features and risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, and smoking history were comparable between the two groups. Univariate analyses revealed that the levels of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA [median (interquartile range)=1.64 (0.76–4.57) vs. 0.77 (0.51–1.71) ng/mL], PDGF-AB/BB [10.31 (2.60–25.90) vs. 2.35 (0.74–6.70) ng/mL], and myeloperoxidase [10.5 (7.5–22.3) vs. 7.8 (5.5–12.2) ng/mL] at 7 months were higher in the progression group. In the multivariate analysis using logistic regression, the PDGF AB/BB level at 7 months was independently associated with the progression of ICAS (p=0.02). @*Conclusions@#The PDGF-AB/BB level is associated with the progression of ICAS, and so may play a significant role in the progression of human ICAS.

7.
Journal of Stroke ; : 263-272, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900642

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Long-term changes in post-stroke depression (PSD), post-stroke emotional incontinence (PSEI), and post-stroke anger (PSA) have rarely been studied. @*Methods@#This is a sub-study of EMOTION, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, that examined the efficacy of escitalopram on PSD, PSEI, and PSA in patients with stroke. We interviewed patients at the long-term period (LTP) using predefined questionnaires: Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS) for PSD, modified Kim’s criteria for PSEI, and Spielberger trait anger scale for PSA. Additionally, the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) for the social support state and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were measured. We investigated the changes in and factors behind PSD, PSEI, and PSA at LTP. @*Results@#A total of 222 patients were included, and the median follow-up duration was 59.5 months (interquartile range, 50 to 70). Compared to the data at 6 months post-stroke, the prevalence of PSEI (11.7% at 6 months, 6.3% at LTP; P=0.05) and mean anger score (21.62, 16.24; P<0.01) decreased, while the prevalence of PSD (35.6%, 44.6%; P=0.03) and mean MADRS (6.16, 8.67; P<0.01) increased at LTP. ESSI was associated with PSD and PSA, but not with PSEI. The effect of the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on PSD decreased over time. The effect of low social support on PSD was greater than that of mRS at LTP. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence and degree of PSD significantly increased, while those of PSEI and PSA decreased at LTP. PSD in this stage appeared to be more closely associated with a lack of social support than patients' physical disabilities.

8.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e77-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899966

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the association between geographic proximity to hospitals and the administration rate of reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke. @*Methods@#We identified patients with acute ischemic stroke who visited the hospital within 12 hours of symptom onset from a prospective nationwide multicenter stroke registry. Reperfusion therapy was classified as intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), endovascular therapy (EVT), or combined therapy. The association between the proportion of patients who were treated with reperfusion therapy and the ground transport time was evaluated using a spline regression analysis adjusted for patient-level characteristics. We also estimated the proportion of Korean population that lived within each 30-minute incremental service area from 67 stroke centers accredited by the Korean Stroke Society. @*Results@#Of 12,172 patients (mean age, 68 ± 13 years; men, 59.7%) who met the eligibility criteria, 96.5% lived within 90 minutes of ground transport time from the admitting hospital. The proportion of patients treated with IVT decreased significantly when stroke patients lived beyond 90 minutes of the transport time (P = 0.006). The proportion treated with EVT also showed a similar trend with the transport time. Based on the residential area, 98.4% of Korean population was accessible to 67 stroke centers within 90 minutes. @*Conclusion@#The use of reperfusion therapy for acute stroke decreased when patients lived beyond 90 minutes of the ground transport time from the hospital. More than 95% of the South Korean population was accessible to 67 stroke centers within 90 minutes of the ground transport time.

9.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 516-523, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899153

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeThe impact of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense vessels (FHVs) on outcomes in patients ineligible for recanalization therapy with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) is unclear. We investigated the impact of FHVs determined using the FHV– Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) on clinical outcomes in patients with LVO stroke of mild-to-moderate severity ineligible for recanalization therapy. @*Methods@#Sixty-eight consecutive patients with M1-middle cerebral artery occlusion who underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 24 hours of symptom onset and were ineligible for recanalization were included. Patients were dichotomized into a severe-FHV group (FHV-ASPECTS ≤4; n=33) and a mild-FHV group (FHV-ASPECTS >4; n=35), and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships of FHV scores with early neurological deterioration (END) and an unfavorable 3-month outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥3). @*Results@#Mean age was 66.2±13.5 years (mean±SD), and 30 (44%) were female. The severe-FHV group had a larger infarct volume (median, 5.5 mL vs. 3 mL) and more frequently exhibited the susceptibility vessel sign (30% vs. 3%) than the mild-FHV group. Ipsilateral old nonlacunar infarct was more frequent in the mild-FHV group than in the severe-FHV group (37% vs. 15%). The severe-FHV group had a fivefold higher risk of END (odds ratio [OR] 5.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–18.45) and unfavorable outcome (OR 5.97, 95% CI 1.18–33.31, p=0.03) compared with the mild-FHV group. @*Conclusions@#Greater FHV extent was associated with higher risk of END and unfavorable outcome in patients with LVO stroke of mild-to-moderate severity.

10.
Journal of Stroke ; : 263-272, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892938

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose Long-term changes in post-stroke depression (PSD), post-stroke emotional incontinence (PSEI), and post-stroke anger (PSA) have rarely been studied. @*Methods@#This is a sub-study of EMOTION, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, that examined the efficacy of escitalopram on PSD, PSEI, and PSA in patients with stroke. We interviewed patients at the long-term period (LTP) using predefined questionnaires: Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale (MADRS) for PSD, modified Kim’s criteria for PSEI, and Spielberger trait anger scale for PSA. Additionally, the ENRICHD Social Support Instrument (ESSI) for the social support state and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were measured. We investigated the changes in and factors behind PSD, PSEI, and PSA at LTP. @*Results@#A total of 222 patients were included, and the median follow-up duration was 59.5 months (interquartile range, 50 to 70). Compared to the data at 6 months post-stroke, the prevalence of PSEI (11.7% at 6 months, 6.3% at LTP; P=0.05) and mean anger score (21.62, 16.24; P<0.01) decreased, while the prevalence of PSD (35.6%, 44.6%; P=0.03) and mean MADRS (6.16, 8.67; P<0.01) increased at LTP. ESSI was associated with PSD and PSA, but not with PSEI. The effect of the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on PSD decreased over time. The effect of low social support on PSD was greater than that of mRS at LTP. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence and degree of PSD significantly increased, while those of PSEI and PSA decreased at LTP. PSD in this stage appeared to be more closely associated with a lack of social support than patients' physical disabilities.

11.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e77-2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892262

ABSTRACT

Background@#We investigated the association between geographic proximity to hospitals and the administration rate of reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke. @*Methods@#We identified patients with acute ischemic stroke who visited the hospital within 12 hours of symptom onset from a prospective nationwide multicenter stroke registry. Reperfusion therapy was classified as intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), endovascular therapy (EVT), or combined therapy. The association between the proportion of patients who were treated with reperfusion therapy and the ground transport time was evaluated using a spline regression analysis adjusted for patient-level characteristics. We also estimated the proportion of Korean population that lived within each 30-minute incremental service area from 67 stroke centers accredited by the Korean Stroke Society. @*Results@#Of 12,172 patients (mean age, 68 ± 13 years; men, 59.7%) who met the eligibility criteria, 96.5% lived within 90 minutes of ground transport time from the admitting hospital. The proportion of patients treated with IVT decreased significantly when stroke patients lived beyond 90 minutes of the transport time (P = 0.006). The proportion treated with EVT also showed a similar trend with the transport time. Based on the residential area, 98.4% of Korean population was accessible to 67 stroke centers within 90 minutes. @*Conclusion@#The use of reperfusion therapy for acute stroke decreased when patients lived beyond 90 minutes of the ground transport time from the hospital. More than 95% of the South Korean population was accessible to 67 stroke centers within 90 minutes of the ground transport time.

12.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 516-523, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891449

ABSTRACT

Background@#and PurposeThe impact of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense vessels (FHVs) on outcomes in patients ineligible for recanalization therapy with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) is unclear. We investigated the impact of FHVs determined using the FHV– Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) on clinical outcomes in patients with LVO stroke of mild-to-moderate severity ineligible for recanalization therapy. @*Methods@#Sixty-eight consecutive patients with M1-middle cerebral artery occlusion who underwent magnetic resonance imaging within 24 hours of symptom onset and were ineligible for recanalization were included. Patients were dichotomized into a severe-FHV group (FHV-ASPECTS ≤4; n=33) and a mild-FHV group (FHV-ASPECTS >4; n=35), and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships of FHV scores with early neurological deterioration (END) and an unfavorable 3-month outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥3). @*Results@#Mean age was 66.2±13.5 years (mean±SD), and 30 (44%) were female. The severe-FHV group had a larger infarct volume (median, 5.5 mL vs. 3 mL) and more frequently exhibited the susceptibility vessel sign (30% vs. 3%) than the mild-FHV group. Ipsilateral old nonlacunar infarct was more frequent in the mild-FHV group than in the severe-FHV group (37% vs. 15%). The severe-FHV group had a fivefold higher risk of END (odds ratio [OR] 5.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36–18.45) and unfavorable outcome (OR 5.97, 95% CI 1.18–33.31, p=0.03) compared with the mild-FHV group. @*Conclusions@#Greater FHV extent was associated with higher risk of END and unfavorable outcome in patients with LVO stroke of mild-to-moderate severity.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e240-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765071

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Using data from a large national stroke registry, we aimed to investigate the incidence and determinants of in-hospital and post-discharge recovery after acute ischemic stroke and the independence of their occurrence. METHODS: In-hospital recovery was defined as an improvement of 4 points or > 40% in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score from admission to discharge. Post-discharge recovery was defined as any improvement in the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score from discharge to 3 months after stroke onset. Two analytic methods (multivariate and multivariable logistic regression) were applied to compare the effects of 18 known determinants of 3-month outcome and to verify whether in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occur independently. RESULTS: During 54 months, 11,088 patients with acute ischemic stroke meeting the eligibility criteria were identified. In-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 36% and 33% of patients, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression with an equality test for odds ratios showed that 7 determinants (age, onset-to-admission time, NIHSS score at admission, blood glucose at admission, systolic blood pressure, smoking, recanalization therapy) had a differential effect on in-hospital and post-discharge recovery in the way of the opposite direction or of the same direction with different degree (all P values < 0.05). Both in-hospital and post-discharge recovery occurred in 12% of the study population and neither of them in 43%. The incidence of post-discharge recovery in those with in-hospital recovery was similar to that in those without (33.8% vs. 32.7%, respectively), but multivariable analysis showed that these 2 types of recovery occurred independently. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that, in patients with acute ischemic stroke, in-hospital and post-discharge recovery may occur independently and largely in response to different factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Incidence , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Prognosis , Registries , Smoke , Smoking , Stroke
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e164-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients who survive an acute phase of stroke are at risk of falls and fractures afterwards. However, it is largely unknown how frequent fractures occur in the Asian stroke population. METHODS: Patients with acute (< 7 days) ischemic stroke who were hospitalized between January 2011 and November 2013 were identified from a prospective multicenter stroke registry in Korea, and were linked to the National Health Insurance Service claim database. The incidences of fractures were investigated during the first 4 years after index stroke. The cumulative incidence functions (CIFs) were estimated by the Gray's test for competing risk data. Fine and Gray model for competing risk data was applied for exploring risk factors of post-stroke fractures. RESULTS: Among a total of 11,522 patients, 1,616 fracture events were identified: 712 spine fractures, 397 hip fractures and 714 other fractures. The CIFs of any fractures were 2.63% at 6 months, 4.43% at 1 year, 8.09% at 2 years and 13.00% at 4 years. Those of spine/hip fractures were 1.11%/0.61%, 1.88%/1.03%, 3.28%/1.86% and 5.79%/3.15%, respectively. Age by a 10-year increment (hazard ratio [HR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–1.30), women (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.54–1.97), previous fracture (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.54–1.92) and osteoporosis (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.27–1.63) were independent risk factors of post-stroke fracture. CONCLUSION: The CIFs of fractures are about 8% at 2 years and 13% at 4 years after acute ischemic stroke in Korea. Older age, women, pre-stroke fracture and osteoporosis raised the risk of post-stroke fractures.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Accidental Falls , Asian People , Epidemiology , Hip Fractures , Incidence , Korea , National Health Programs , Osteoporosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Spine , Stroke
15.
Journal of Stroke ; : 69-77, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombectomy within 24 hours can improve outcomes in selected patients with a clinical-infarct mismatch. We devised an easy-to-use visual estimation tool that allows infarct volume estimation in centers with limited resources. METHODS: We identified 1,031 patients with cardioembolic or large-artery atherosclerosis infarction on diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained before recanalization therapy and within 24 hours of onset, and occlusion of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery. Acute DWIs were mapped onto a standard template and used to create visual reference maps with known lesion volumes, which were then used in a validation study (with 130 cases) against software estimates of infarct volume. RESULTS: The DWI reference map chart comprises 144 maps corresponding to 12 different infarct volumes (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, and 19 mL) in each of 12 template slices (Montreal Neurological Institute z-axis –15 to 51 mm). Infarct volume in a patient is estimated by selecting a slice with a similar infarct size at the corresponding z-axis level on the reference maps and then adding up over all slices. The method yielded good correlations to software volumetrics and was easily learned by both experienced and junior physicians, with approximately 1 to 2 minutes spent per case. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting threshold infarct volumes ( 90%). CONCLUSIONS: We developed easy-to-use reference maps that allow prompt and reliable visual estimation of infarct volumes for triaging patients to thrombectomy in acute stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Decision Making , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Infarction , Medical Staff, Hospital , Methods , Middle Cerebral Artery , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke , Thrombectomy
16.
Journal of Stroke ; : 180-196, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714421

ABSTRACT

Cardiac embolism continues to be a leading etiology of ischemic strokes worldwide. Although pathologies that result in cardioembolism have not changed over the past decade, there have been significant advances in the treatment and stroke prevention methods for these conditions. Atrial fibrillation remains the prototypical cause of cardioembolic strokes. The availability of new long-term monitoring devices for atrial fibrillation detection such as insertable cardiac monitors has allowed accurate detection of this leading cause of cardioembolism. The non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants have improved our ability to prevent strokes for many patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Advances in left atrial appendage closure and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of the WATCHMAN (Boston Scientific) device for stroke prevention in NVAF patients who have an appropriate rationale for a nonpharmacological alternative, have revolutionized the field and provided a viable option for patients at higher hemorrhagic risk. The role of patent foramen ovale closure for secondary prevention in selected patients experiencing cryptogenic ischemic strokes at a relatively young age has become clearer thanks to the very recent publication of long-term outcomes from three major studies. Advances in the management of infective endocarditis, heart failure, valvular diseases, and coronary artery disease have significantly changed the management of such patients, but have also revealed new concerns related to assessment of ischemic versus hemorrhagic risk in the setting of antithrombotic use. The current review article aims to discuss these advances especially as they pertain to the stroke neurology practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anticoagulants , Atrial Appendage , Atrial Fibrillation , Coronary Artery Disease , Embolism , Endocarditis , Foramen Ovale, Patent , Heart Failure , Neurology , Pathology , Publications , Secondary Prevention , Stroke , United States Food and Drug Administration
17.
Journal of Stroke ; : 258-267, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of post-stroke depression (PSD) is complex and may differ according to an individual’s mood immediately after stroke. Here, we compared the therapeutic response and clinical characteristics of PSD at a later stage between patients with and without depression immediately after stroke. METHODS: This study involved a post hoc analysis of data from EMOTION (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01278498), a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial that examined the efficacy of escitalopram (10 mg/day) on PSD and other emotional disturbances among 478 patients with acute stroke. Participants were classified into the Baseline-Blue (patients with baseline depression at the time of randomization, defined per the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] ≥8) or the Baseline-Pink groups (patients without baseline depression). We compared the efficacy of escitalopram and predictors of 3-month PSD (MADRS ≥8) between these groups. RESULTS: There were 203 Baseline-Pink and 275 Baseline-Blue patients. The efficacy of escitalopram in reducing PSD risk was more pronounced in the Baseline-Pink than in the Baseline-Blue group (p for interaction=0.058). Several risk factors differentially affected PSD development based on the presence of baseline depression (p for interaction < 0.10). Cognitive dysfunction was an independent predictor of PSD in the Baseline-Blue, but not in the Baseline-Pink group, whereas the non-use of escitalopram and being female were more strongly associated with PSD in the Baseline-Pink group. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to escitalopram and predictors of PSD 3 months following stroke differed based on the presence of baseline depression. Our data suggest that PSD pathophysiology is heterogeneous; therefore, different therapeutic strategies may be needed to prevent PSD emergence following stroke.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Affective Symptoms , Anger , Citalopram , Depression , Random Allocation , Risk Factors , Stroke
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 131-139, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Following the positive results from recent trials on endovascular therapy (EVT), bridging therapy (intravenous alteplase plus EVT) is increasingly being used for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. However, the optimal dose of intravenous alteplase remains unknown in centers where bridging therapy is actively performed. The optimal dose for eventual recanalization and positive clinical outcomes in patients receiving bridging therapy also remains unknown. METHODS: In this prospective Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study (ENCHANTED) sub-study, we explored the outcomes following treatment with two different doses (low- [0.6 mg/kg] or standard-dose [0.9 mg/kg]) of intravenous alteplase across 12 Korean centers where EVT is actively performed. The primary endpoint was a favorable outcome at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale scores 0 to 1). Secondary endpoints included symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in all patients, and the recanalization rate and favorable outcome in patients who underwent cerebral angiography for EVT (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01422616). RESULTS: Of 351 patients, the primary outcome occurred in 46% of patients in both the standard-(80/173) and low-dose (81/178) groups (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.81; P=0.582), although ICHs tended to occur more frequently in the standard-dose group (8% vs. 3%, P=0.056). Of the 67 patients who underwent cerebral angiography, there was no significant difference in favorable functional outcome between the standard- and low-dose groups (39% vs. 21%; OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 0.73 to 7.78; P=0.149). CONCLUSIONS: There was no difference in functional outcome between the patients receiving different doses of alteplase in centers actively performing bridging therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cerebral Angiography , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Hypertension , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Prospective Studies , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator
20.
Journal of Stroke ; : 417-417, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717259

ABSTRACT

On page 149, 9th line of the third paragraph in ‘Antiplatelet therapy,’‘without’ was misspelled. The correct word is ‘with.’

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