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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 129-135, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969245

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic role of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and analyze factors associated with false-negative FNAC results in patients with parathyroid incidentaloma who were referred for ultrasonography (US)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules. @*Methods@#In this study, 121 patients with suspected parathyroid lesions were enrolled. The patients underwent US-guided FNAC with measurements of washout parathyroid hormone (PTH) between January 2015 and May 2020. The diagnostic performance of FNAC for the diagnosis of parathyroid lesions was assessed using surgical results and elevated washout PTH as a reference standard. The clinical and radiologic features associated with false-negative results on FNAC for the diagnosis of parathyroid lesions were evaluated. @*Results@#Among the 121 nodules assessed, 38 were parathyroid lesions (31.4%), and 83 were non-parathyroid lesions (68.6%). The diagnostic performance of FNAC for parathyroid incidentaloma showed a sensitivity of 31.6% (12/38), specificity of 100% (83/83), positive predictive values of 100% (12/12), negative predictive values of 76.1% (83/109), and accuracy of 78.5% (95/121). The FNAC results of non-parathyroid lesions included thyroid nodules, lymph nodes, neurogenic tumors, and fat tissue. True-positive results on FNAC were significantly associated with performing FNA twice (58.3% vs. 23.1%, P=0.043). @*Conclusion@#Considering the low sensitivity of FNAC, measuring washout PTH in addition to FNAC may help accurately diagnose parathyroid incidentaloma on thyroid US. Further, the falsenegative rate for FNAC can be reduced by obtaining two or more FNA samples.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1028-1037, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002415

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the computed tomography (CT) features for diagnosing metastatic cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and validate the CT-based risk stratification system suggested by the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) guidelines. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 463 LNs from 399 patients with DTC who underwent preoperative CT staging and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration were included. The following CT features for each LN were evaluated: absence of hilum, cystic changes, calcification, strong enhancement, and heterogeneous enhancement. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent CT features associated with metastatic LNs, and their diagnostic performances were evaluated. LNs were classified into probably benign, indeterminate, and suspicious categories according to the K-TIRADS and the modified LN classification proposed in our study. The diagnostic performance of both classification systems was compared using the exact McNemar and Kosinski tests. @*Results@#The absence of hilum (odds ratio [OR], 4.859; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.593–14.823; P = 0.005), strong enhancement (OR, 28.755; 95% CI, 12.719–65.007; P < 0.001), and cystic changes (OR, 46.157; 95% CI, 5.07–420.234; P = 0.001) were independently associated with metastatic LNs. All LNs showing calcification were diagnosed as metastases. Heterogeneous enhancement did not show a significant independent association with metastatic LNs. Strong enhancement, calcification, and cystic changes showed moderate to high specificity (70.1%–100%) and positive predictive value (PPV) (91.8%–100%). The absence of the hilum showed high sensitivity (97.8%) but low specificity (34.0%). The modified LN classification, which excluded heterogeneous enhancement from the K-TIRADS, demonstrated higher specificity (70.1% vs. 62.9%, P = 0.016) and PPV (92.5% vs. 90.9%, P = 0.011) than the K-TIRADS. @*Conclusion@#Excluding heterogeneous enhancement as a suspicious feature resulted in a higher specificity and PPV for diagnosing metastatic LNs than the K-TIRADS. Our research results may provide a basis for revising the LN classification in future guidelines.

3.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 312-322, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-924934

ABSTRACT

Background@#Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is an entity that can involve the thyroid gland. The spectrum of IgG4-related thyroid disease (IgG4-RTD) includes Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and its fibrotic variant, Riedel thyroiditis, as well as Graves’ disease. The early diagnosis of IgG4-RTD is important because it is a medically treatable disease, and a delay in the diagnosis might result in unnecessary surgery. We present a case series of IgG4-RTD with a review of the literature. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentation and the radiological and pathological findings of patients diagnosed with IgG4-RTD between 2017 and 2021 at a tertiary medical center in Korea. We also conducted a literature review of IgG4-RTD. @*Results@#Five patients were diagnosed with IgG4-RTD during the study period. The patients’ age ranged from 31 to 76 years, and three patients were men. Most patients visited the clinic for a neck mass, and hypoechogenic nodular lesions were observed on neck ultrasonography. Three patients had IgG4 HT, and two patients had IgG4 Riedel thyroiditis. All patients developed hypothyroidism that necessitated L-thyroxine replacement. The diagnosis of IgG4-RTD was confirmed after a pathological examination of the surgical specimen in the first two cases. However, the early diagnosis was possible after a core needle biopsy in three clinically suspected patients. @*Conclusion@#The diagnosis of IgG4-RTD requires clinical suspicion combined with serology and histological analyses using IgG4 immunostaining. The early diagnosis of IgG4-RTD is difficult; thus, biopsy with IgG4 immunostaining and serum IgG4 measurements will help diagnose patients suspected of having IgG4-RTD.

4.
Ultrasonography ; : 228-236, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919496

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy is influenced by several factors, including differences in the Bethesda categorization for malignancy, the inclusion or exclusion of non-diagnostic results, the definition used for the final diagnosis, and the definition of an inconclusive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to provide an understanding of the factors influencing the diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy. @*Methods@#We collected data retrospectively between January and December 2013 from a cohort of 6,762 thyroid nodules from 6,493 consecutive patients who underwent biopsy. In total, 4,822 nodules from 4,553 patients were included. We calculated the biopsy sensitivity according to the inclusion of different Bethesda categories in the numerator and the exclusion of non-diagnostic results, as well as the diagnostic accuracy according to different definitions of a benign diagnosis. We obtained the conclusive and inconclusive diagnosis rates. @*Results@#The sensitivity increased when more Bethesda categories were included in the numerator and when non-diagnostic results were excluded. When a benign thyroid nodule diagnosis was defined as benign findings on surgical resection, concordant benign results on at least two occasions, or an initial benign biopsy result and follow-up for more than 12 months, the accuracy was higher than when the diagnosis was based on surgical resection alone (68.7% vs. 91.1%). A higher conclusive diagnosis rate was obtained (78.3% vs. 72.8%, P<0.001) when Bethesda categories I and III were considered inconclusive. @*Conclusion@#Understanding the concepts presented herein is important in order to appropriately interpret the diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy.

5.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 123-133, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874541

ABSTRACT

Background@#Assessing nuclear features is diagnostically challenging in the aspect of thyroid pathology. The aim of this study was to determine whether pathologists could distinguish BRAF-like and RAS-like nuclear features morphologically and identify morphological features to differentiate thyroid tumors with RAS-like mutations from encapsulated papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with predominant follicular growth and BRAFV600E mutation. @*Methods@#Representative whole slide images of 16 encapsulated thyroid tumors with predominant follicular growth were reviewed by 12 thyroid pathologists using a web browser-based image viewer. Total nuclear score was calculated from semi-quantitatively scored eight nuclear features. The molecular profile of RAS and BRAF genes was determined by Sanger sequencing. @*Results@#Total nuclear score ranging 0 to 24 could differentiate BRAF-like tumors from RAS-like tumors with a cut-off value of score 14. The interobserver agreement was the highest for the assessment of nuclear pseudoinclusions (NPIs) but the lowest for nuclear elongation and sickle-shaped nuclei. NPIs were found in tumors with BRAFV600E mutation, but not in tumors with RAS-like mutations. Total nuclear scores were significantly higher for tumors with BRAFV600E than for those with RAS-like mutations (P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that NPIs and high nuclear scores have diagnostic utility as rule-in markers for differentiating PTC with BRAFV600E mutation from benign or borderline follicular tumors with RAS-like mutations. Relaxation of rigid criteria for nuclear features resulted in an overdiagnosis of PTC. Immunostaining or molecular testing for BRAFV600E mutation is a useful adjunct for cases with high nuclear scores to identify true PTC.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1187-1195, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833578

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to determine the sonographic features suggestive of extrathyroidal extension (ETE) of thyroid cancers. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed the sonographic images of 1656 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroidectomy in 2017. The diagnostic performance of sonographic features suggestive of ETE was evaluated using operation and histopathologic reports. Sonographic features for gross ETE to the strap muscle and minor ETE were assessed for thyroid cancer abutting the anterolateral thyroid capsule. Sonographic features for tracheal invasion were assessed according to whether the angle between the tumor and the trachea was an acute, right, or obtuse angle. Sonographic features for recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) invasion were assessed based on the association between the tumor and tracheoesophageal groove (TEG) as preserved normal tissue, abutting or protruding into the TEG. @*Results@#ETE was observed in 783 patients (47.3%), including 123 patients with gross ETE (7.4% [strap muscle, n = 97; RLN, n = 24; and trachea, n = 14]) and 660 patients with minor ETE (39.9%). Regarding the diagnosis of gross and minor ETE to the strap muscle, sonographic features of replacement of the strap muscle and capsular disruption showed the highest positive predictive value (75.9% and 58.5%, respectively). Thyroid cancer forming an obtuse angle with the trachea had the highest sensitivity for the diagnosis of tracheal invasion (85.7%), and thyroid cancer protrusion into the TEG showed the highest sensitivity for the diagnosis of RLN (83.3%). @*Conclusion@#Sonography is considered beneficial in the diagnosis of ETE to the strap muscle, trachea, and RLN. Assessment of ETE is important for the accurate staging of thyroid cancer, which in turn determines the extent of surgery or whether active surveillance is appropriate or not.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 369-376, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-810976

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for the evaluation of thyroid nodules is non-inferior to radiologists with different levels of experience.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with thyroid nodules with a decisive diagnosis of benign or malignant nodule were consecutively enrolled from November 2017 to September 2018. Three radiologists with different levels of experience (1 month, 4 years, and 7 years) in thyroid ultrasound (US) reviewed the thyroid US with and without using the CAD system. Statistical analyses included non-inferiority testing of the diagnostic accuracy for malignant thyroid nodules between the CAD system and the three radiologists with a non-inferiority margin of 10%, comparison of the diagnostic performance, and the added value of the CAD system to the radiologists.RESULTS: Altogether, 197 patients were included in the study cohort. The diagnostic accuracy of the CAD system (88.48%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 82.65–92.53) was non-inferior to that of the radiologists with less experience (1 month and 4 year) of thyroid US (83.03%, 95% CI = 76.52–88.02; p < 0.001), whereas it was inferior to that of the experienced radiologist (7 years) (95.76%, 95% CI = 91.37–97.96; p = 0.138). The sensitivity and negative predictive value of the CAD system were significantly higher than those of the less-experienced radiologists were, whereas no significant difference was found with those of the experienced radiologist. A combination of US and the CAD system significantly improved sensitivity and negative predictive value, although the specificity and positive predictive value deteriorated for the less-experienced radiologists.CONCLUSION: The CAD system may offer support for decision-making in the diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules for operators who have less experience with thyroid US.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cohort Studies , Diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
8.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 169-178, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of benign thyroid nodules along with cytomorphological alteration, and any malignant transformation through biopsy. METHODS: The data were retrospectively collected between April 2008 and June 2013 and core needle biopsy (CNB) was performed on 16 benign thyroid nodules previously treated using RFA. The parameters of the patients were compared, between the time of enrollment and the last follow-up examination, using linear mixed model statistical analysis. RESULTS: No atypical cells or neoplastic transformation were detected in the undertreated peripheral portion of treated benign nodules on the CNB specimen. RFA altered neither the thyroid capsule nor the thyroid tissue adjacent to the treated area. On histopathological examinations, we observed 81.2% acellular hyalinization, which was the most common finding. After a mean follow-up period of over 5 years, the mean volume of thyroid nodule had decreased to 6.4±4.2 mL, with a reduction rate of 81.3%±5.8% (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: RFA is a technically feasible treatment method for benign thyroid nodules, with no carcinogenic effect or tissue damage of the normal thyroid tissue adjacent to the RFA-treated zone.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Catheter Ablation , Follow-Up Studies , Hyalin , Methods , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
9.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 129-135, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766008

ABSTRACT

Patients with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) are predisposed to developing embryonal tumors, with hepatoblastoma being the most common type. Our patient showed hemihypertrophy, macroglossia, and paternal uniparental disomy in chromosome 11 and was diagnosed with BWS. When the patient was 9 months old, a 2.5×1.5 cm oval hypoechoic exophytic mass was detected in the inferior tip of his right liver. Preoperative imaging identified it as hepatoblastoma; however, histologic, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopic findings were compatible with adrenal cortical neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential. The origin of the adrenal tissue seemed to be heterotopic. Here, we describe for the first time an adrenal cortical neoplasm with uncertain malignant potential arising in the heterotopic adrenal cortex located in the liver of a patient with BWS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenal Cortex , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 , Hepatoblastoma , Immunohistochemistry , Liver , Macroglossia , Uniparental Disomy
10.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 378-385, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the present multi-institutional study, the prevalence and clinicopathologic characteristics of non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) were evaluated among Korean patients who underwent thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).METHODS: Data from 18,819 patients with PTC from eight university hospitals between January 2012 and February 2018 were retrospectively evaluated. Pathology reports of all PTCs and slides of potential NIFTP cases were reviewed. The strict criterion of no papillae was applied for the diagnosis of NIFTP. Due to assumptions regarding misclassification of NIFTP as non-PTC tumors, the lower boundary of NIFTP prevalence among PTCs was estimated. Mutational analysis for BRAF and three RAS isoforms was performed in 27 randomly selected NIFTP cases.RESULTS: The prevalence of NIFTP was 1.3% (238/18,819) of all PTCs when the same histologic criteria were applied for NIFTP regardless of the tumor size but decreased to 0.8% (152/18,819) when tumors ≥1 cm in size were included. The mean follow-up was 37.7 months and no patient with NIFTP had evidence of lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, or disease recurrence during the follow-up period. A difference in prevalence of NIFTP before and after NIFTP introduction was not observed. BRAF(V600E) mutation was not found in NIFTP. The mutation rate for the three RAS genes was 55.6% (15/27).CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence and indolent clinical outcome of NIFTP in Korea was confirmed using the largest number of cases to date. The introduction of NIFTP may have a small overall impact in Korean practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Papillary , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Genes, ras , Hospitals, University , Korea , Lymph Nodes , Mutation Rate , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pathology , Prevalence , Protein Isoforms , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
11.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 15-18, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764092

ABSTRACT

Borderline thyroid tumors are composed of hyalinizing trabecular tumor (HTT), well differentiated tumor of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP), follicular tumor of uncertain malignant potential (FT-UMP) and non-invasive follicular tumor with papillary like nuclear feature (NIFTP) by World Health Organization (WHO) definition. They have different pathological feature from each other. However, it is difficult to diagnose with diagnostic imaging, fine needle aspiration (FNA) or core biopsy preoperatively. Thus, the diagnosis is usually made after diagnostic lobectomy. Main surgical concerns about borderline tumor are not performing total thyroidectomy because of relatively indolent nature of these tumors. Unfortunately, some of these tumors can be diagnosed as malignant tumor preoperatively. The other surgical concern is performing completion thyroidectomy or not after diagnostic lobectomy. Decision making is difficult even though it is generally considered that lobectomy alone is enough. In this article, we will discuss clinical features of borderline malignant tumors and surgical strategy for these tumors.


Subject(s)
Biopsy , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Decision Making , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging , Hyalin , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy , World Health Organization
12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 158-165, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719588

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies demonstrated that core needle biopsy (CNB) can effectively reduce the possibility of inconclusive results and prevent unnecessary diagnostic surgery. However, the effectiveness of CNB in patients with suspicious thyroid nodules has not been fully evaluated. This prospective study aimed to determine the potential of CNB to assess thyroid nodules with suspicious ultrasound (US) features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing CNB for thyroid nodules with suspicious features on US were enrolled between May and August 2016. Diagnostic performance and the incidence of non-diagnostic results, inconclusive results, conclusive results, malignancy, unnecessary surgery, and complications were analyzed. Subgroup analysis according to nodule size was performed. The risk factors associated with inconclusive results were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 93 patients (102 thyroid nodules) were evaluated. All samples obtained from CNB were adequate for diagnosis. Inconclusive results were seen in 12.7% of cases. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for diagnosis of malignancy were 93.8%, 100%, 100%, 78.9%, and 95%, respectively. None of the patients underwent unnecessary surgery. The diagnostic performance was not significantly different according to nodule size. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, larger nodule size and shorter needle length were independent risk factors associated with inconclusive results. CONCLUSION: Samples obtained by CNB were sufficient for diagnosis in all cases and resulted in high diagnostic values and conclusive results in the evaluation of suspicious thyroid nodules. These findings indicated that CNB is a promising diagnostic tool for suspicious thyroid nodules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Diagnosis , Incidence , Logistic Models , Needles , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography , Unnecessary Procedures
13.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 62-69, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BRAF V600E mutation is the most common genetic alteration identified in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Because of its costs effectiveness and sensitivity, direct Sanger sequencing has several limitations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of immunohistochemistry (IHC) as an alternative method to detect the BRAF V600E mutation in preoperative and postoperative tissue samples. METHODS: We evaluated 71 patients who underwent thyroid surgery with the result of direct sequencing of the BRAF V600E mutation. IHC staining of the BRAF V600E mutation was performed in 49 preoperative and 23 postoperative thyroid specimens. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients (87.3%) had PTC, and of these, BRAF V600E was confirmed by direct sequencing in 57 patients (91.9%). In 23 postoperative tissue samples, the BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 16 samples (70%) by direct sequencing and 18 samples (78%) by IHC. In 24 fine needle aspiration (FNA) samples, BRAF V600E was detected in 18 samples (75%) by direct sequencing and 16 samples (67%) by IHC. In 25 core needle biopsy (CNB) samples, the BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 15 samples (60%) by direct sequencing and 16 samples (64%) by IHC. The sensitivity and specificity of IHC for detecting the BRAF V600E mutation were 77.8% and 66.7% in FNA samples and 99.3% and 80.0% in CNB samples. CONCLUSION: IHC could be an alternative method to direct Sanger sequencing for BRAF V600E mutation detection both in postoperative and preoperative samples. However, application of IHC to detect the BRAF V600E mutation in FNA samples is of limited value compared with direct sequencing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Immunohistochemistry , Methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
14.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 410-417, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) has standardized the reporting of thyroid cytology specimens. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the nationwide usage of TBSRTC and assess the malignancy rates in each category of TBSRTC in Korea. METHODS: Questionnaire surveys were used for data collection on the fine needle aspiration (FNA) of thyroid nodules at 74 institutes in 2012. The incidences and follow-up malignancy rates of each category diagnosed from January to December, 2011, in each institute were also collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Sixty out of 74 institutes answering the surveys reported the results of thyroid FNA in accordance with TBSRTC. The average malignancy rates for resected cases in 15 institutes were as follows: nondiagnostic, 45.6%; benign, 16.5%; atypical of undetermined significance, 68.8%; suspicious for follicular neoplasm (SFN), 30.2%; suspicious for malignancy, 97.5%; malignancy, 99.7%. CONCLUSIONS: More than 80% of Korean institutes were using TBSRTC as of 2012. All malignancy rates other than the SFN and malignancy categories were higher than those reported by other countries. Therefore, the guidelines for treating patients with thyroid nodules in Korea should be revisited based on the malignancy rates reported in this study.


Subject(s)
Humans , Academies and Institutes , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Data Collection , Follow-Up Studies , Incidence , Korea , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule
15.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 269-276, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-82846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic innervation in liver diseases is not fully understood. We here evaluated S100B expression as a marker of hepatic nerves in patients with various chronic liver diseases, topographically and semi-quantitatively. METHODS: Liver specimens were obtained from 70 subjects (three controls, and 32 chronic hepatitis B, 14 chronic hepatitis C, 14 liver cirrhosis, and seven hepatocellular carcinoma patients). The hepatic nerve density was calculated based on immunohistochemical staining of S100B protein in the portal tracts and hepatic lobules. S100B mRNA levels were semi-quantitatively assessed as the S100B/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA ratio. RESULTS: The densities of the hepatic nerves in portal tracts of chronic liver diseases were not significantly different from those of normal controls but the hepatic nerve densities in lobular areas of liver cirrhosis were significantly decreased (p = 0.025). Compared to the control, the S100B/GAPDH mRNA ratio was significantly decreased in chronic liver diseases (p = 0.006) and most decreased in chronic hepatitis C patients (p = 0.023). In chronic liver diseases, The S100B/GAPDH mRNA ratio tended to decrease as the fibrosis score > 0 (p = 0.453) but the overall correlation between the S100B/GAPDH mRNA ratio and fibrosis score was not statistically significant (r = 0.061, p = 0.657). CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic innervation is decreased in cirrhotic regenerating nodules compared to the control group and seems to decrease in early stages of fibrosis progression. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between changes of hepatic innervation and chronic liver disease progression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Fibrosis , Hepatitis , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Diseases , Liver , Nerve Fibers , Oxidoreductases , RNA, Messenger , S100 Proteins
16.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 764-771, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25086

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to describe rare variants of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) and to compare the prognosis with that of conventional ACC. We retrospectively reviewed 8 cases of myxoid variant, 1 sarcomatoid variant, and 14 cases of conventional ACC, who underwent surgical resection at the Asan Medical Center between 1996 and 2014. An analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics, including the Weiss score, Ki-67 labeling index, and reticulin framework assessment is presented. The mean age of patients with myxoid/sarcomatoid ACC was 45 years; 4 out of 9 patients were women. Mean primary tumor size was 12.9 cm and the mean weight was 702.4 g. Seven patients presented in an advanced stage (stage III/IV); 8 of these eventually developed distant metastasis. The mean Weiss score was 5.0 points and the Ki-67 labeling index was 15.6%. The extent of myxoid or sarcomatoid change on histological examination ranged from 10% to 75% of the examined tumor areas; reticulin framework alteration was observed in all cases. Four patients showed venous tumor thrombus. Most of the clinicopathological parameters were not significantly different from those of conventional ACC. However, myxoid or sarcomatoid variant (hazard ratios [HR], 3.59; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.13–11.38; P = 0.030) and Ki-67 labeling index (HR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.18–13.41; P = 0.030) were independent predictors of overall survival after adjusting for age and sex. Myxoid or sarcomatoid histological features or an increased Ki-67 labeling index may be associated with poor overall survival in patients with ACC.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Adrenocortical Carcinoma , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Reticulin , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Tertiary Healthcare , Thrombosis
17.
Ultrasonography ; : 327-334, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-731058

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether malignant-looking thyroid nodules with size reduction were malignant or not. METHODS: From November 2010 to July 2011, we retrospectively enrolled 16 patients with 16 nodules (11 females and five males; mean age, 55 years) who underwent core needle biopsy (CNB), and whose thyroid nodules had malignant ultrasonographic (US) features, although they showed size reduction (>20% decrease in maximum diameter) during the follow-up period (mean, 37±27 months). The histologic findings of the CNB specimen were reviewed and correlated with the US findings. US studies were analyzed for their internal content, shape, margin, echogenicity, the presence of microcalcification and macrocalcification, inner isoechoic rim, and low-echoic halo. RESULTS: All nodules were confirmed as benign by CNB. Pathologic analysis was available for 12 CNB specimens. US imaging showed central hypoechogenicity or marked hypoechogenicity in all cases and a peripheral isoechoic rim in 15 nodules. US-pathologic correlation showed that the central hypoechoic area was primarily composed of fibrosis (12/12) and hemorrhage (8/12) and that the isoechoic rim was composed of follicular cells. CONCLUSION: In our study, the CNB results of all of the malignant-looking thyroid nodules with size reduction were benign and were primarily composed of internal fibrosis and hemorrhage. Understanding these US and pathologic features could prevent repeated fine-needle aspiration or unnecessary diagnostic surgery.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Nodule , Ultrasonography
18.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 180-184, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134006

ABSTRACT

Post-therapeutic whole body scan (RxWBS) after radioactive iodine (RAI) remnant ablation (RRA) is useful for detect recurrent or metastatic foci of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after total thyroidectomy. However, there is rare possibility of false positive iodine uptake in WBS. Here, we report a case of a 72-year-old woman, who underwent RRA after total thyroidectomy due to follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. There is an abnormal iodine uptake in RxWBS in pelvic cavity. Additional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-computed tomography (CT) imaging showed an intensive I-131 avid mass in left ovary. There was a multiple calcified mass in left ovary and enhancing wall thickening in left ureter with hydronephrosis in contrast enhanced CT. She underwent hysterectomy, oophorectomy, left ureterectomy and nephrectomy and diagnosed as mature cystic teratoma with thyroid tissues and ureter cancer. Struma ovarii should be considered if there was abnormal RAI uptake in pelvic cavity. I-131 SPECT-CT is useful for differential diagnosis of abnormal iodine uptakes in WBS.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Diagnosis, Differential , Hydronephrosis , Hysterectomy , Iodine , Nephrectomy , Ovariectomy , Ovary , Struma Ovarii , Teratoma , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Ureter , Ureteral Neoplasms , Whole Body Imaging
19.
International Journal of Thyroidology ; : 180-184, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134004

ABSTRACT

Post-therapeutic whole body scan (RxWBS) after radioactive iodine (RAI) remnant ablation (RRA) is useful for detect recurrent or metastatic foci of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) after total thyroidectomy. However, there is rare possibility of false positive iodine uptake in WBS. Here, we report a case of a 72-year-old woman, who underwent RRA after total thyroidectomy due to follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. There is an abnormal iodine uptake in RxWBS in pelvic cavity. Additional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-computed tomography (CT) imaging showed an intensive I-131 avid mass in left ovary. There was a multiple calcified mass in left ovary and enhancing wall thickening in left ureter with hydronephrosis in contrast enhanced CT. She underwent hysterectomy, oophorectomy, left ureterectomy and nephrectomy and diagnosed as mature cystic teratoma with thyroid tissues and ureter cancer. Struma ovarii should be considered if there was abnormal RAI uptake in pelvic cavity. I-131 SPECT-CT is useful for differential diagnosis of abnormal iodine uptakes in WBS.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Diagnosis, Differential , Hydronephrosis , Hysterectomy , Iodine , Nephrectomy , Ovariectomy , Ovary , Struma Ovarii , Teratoma , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon , Ureter , Ureteral Neoplasms , Whole Body Imaging
20.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 586-591, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-154213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Molecular analysis for common somatic mutations in thyroid cancer can improve diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the nondiagnostic or indeterminate category of thyroid nodules. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of molecular diagnosis from residual liquid-based cytology (LBC) material after cytological diagnosis. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 53 patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as nondiagnostic, atypia of undetermined significance (AUS), or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) after FNAC. DNAs and RNAs were isolated from residual LBC materials. BRAF(V600E) and RAS point mutations, PAX8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), RET/PTC1, and RET/PTC3 rearrangements were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing. RESULTS: All DNAs from 53 residual LBC samples could be analysed and point mutations were detected in 10 samples (19%). In 17 AUS nodules, seven samples (41%) had point mutations including BRAF (n=4), NRAS (n=2), and KRAS (n=1). In 20 FLUS nodules, three samples (15%) had NRAS point mutations. RNA from only one FLUS nodule could be analysed for rearrangements and there was no abnormality. CONCLUSION: Molecular analysis for BRAF and RAS mutations was feasible in residual LBC materials and might be useful for diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biopsy, Fine-Needle , Diagnosis , DNA , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Point Mutation , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule
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