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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 111-120, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969251

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Although the taller-than-wide (TTW) sign has been regarded as one of the most specific ultrasound (US) features of thyroid malignancy, uncertainty still exists regarding the US probe’s orientation when evaluating it. This study investigated which US plane would be optimal to identify the TTW sign based on malignancy risk stratification using a registry-based imaging dataset. @*Methods@#A previous study by 17 academic radiologists retrospectively analyzed the US images of 5,601 thyroid nodules (≥1 cm, 1,089 malignant and 4,512 benign) collected in the webbased registry of Thyroid Imaging Network of Korea through the collaboration of 26 centers. The present study assessed the diagnostic performance of the TTW sign itself and fine needle aspiration (FNA) indications via a comparison of four international guidelines, depending on the orientation of the US probe (criterion 1, transverse plane; criterion 2, either transverse or longitudinal plane). @*Results@#Overall, the TTW sign was more frequent in malignant than in benign thyroid nodules (25.3% vs. 4.6%). However, the statistical differences between criteria 1 and 2 were negligible for sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) based on the size effect (all P0.05, respectively). @*Conclusion@#A longitudinal US probe orientation provided little additional diagnostic value over the transverse orientation in detecting the TTW sign of thyroid nodules.

2.
Ultrasonography ; : 203-213, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969239

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine the ultrasound (US) features of normal parathyroid glands (PTGs) and to evaluate whether normal PTGs can be differentiated from metastatic lymph nodes (LNs) in thyroid cancer. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 10 normal PTGs and 95 metastatic LNs from thyroid cancer showing suspicious US features. The echogenicity, echotexture, echogenic foci (calcifications), cystic change, abnormal vascularity, size, shape, and location were retrospectively assessed and compared between normal PTGs and metastatic LNs. @*Results@#The echogenicity of normal PTGs was significantly different from that of metastatic LNs (P<0.001). Normal PTGs exhibited marked hyperechogenicity (100%), homogeneous echotexture (80%), focal intraglandular hypoechogenicity (20%), ovoid shape (90%), and focal cystic change in one case (10%). The echogenicity of metastatic LNs was markedly hyperechoic (0%), moderately hyperechoic (15.8%), mildly hyperechoic (53.7%), and hypoechoic (28.4%). The size and long axis/short axis ratios of normal PTGs were significantly smaller and larger than those of metastatic LNs (P<0.01 and P=0.022, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Marked hyperechogenicity was found only in normal PTGs, and small, ovoid, markedly hyperechoic structures in the paramedian central neck characterized normal PTGs. Normal PTGs may be differentiated from metastatic LNs in thyroid cancer.

3.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 22-30, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968267

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography (US) is a primary imaging modality for diagnosing nodular thyroid disease and has an essential role in identifying the most appropriate management strategy for patients with nodular thyroid disease. Standardized imaging techniques and reporting formats for thyroid US are necessary. For this purpose, the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) organized a task force in June 2021 and developed recommendations for standardized imaging technique and reporting format, based on the 2021 KSThR consensus statement and recommendations for US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules. The goal was to achieve an expert consensus applicable to clinical practice.

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 117-128, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966819

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the diagnostic performance of biopsy criteria in four society ultrasonography risk stratification systems (RSSs) for thyroid nodules, including the 2021 Korean (K)-Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS). @*Methods@#The Ovid-MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and KoreaMed databases were searched and a manual search was conducted to identify original articles investigating the diagnostic performance of biopsy criteria for thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) in four widely used society RSSs. @*Results@#Eleven articles were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74% to 87%) and 60% (95% CI, 52% to 67%) for the American College of Radiology (ACR)-TIRADS, 89% (95% CI, 85% to 93%) and 34% (95% CI, 26% to 42%) for the American Thyroid Association (ATA) system, 88% (95% CI, 81% to 92%) and 42% (95% CI, 22% to 67%) for the European (EU)-TIRADS, and 96% (95% CI, 94% to 97%) and 21% (95% CI, 17% to 25%) for the 2016 K-TIRADS. The sensitivity and specificity were 76% (95% CI, 74% to 79%) and 50% (95% CI, 49% to 52%) for the 2021 K-TIRADS1.5 (1.5-cm size cut-off for intermediate-suspicion nodules). The pooled unnecessary biopsy rates of the ACR-TIRADS, ATA system, EU-TIRADS, and 2016 K-TIRADS were 41% (95% CI, 32% to 49%), 65% (95% CI, 56% to 74%), 68% (95% CI, 60% to 75%), and 79% (95% CI, 74% to 83%), respectively. The unnecessary biopsy rate was 50% (95% CI, 47% to 53%) for the 2021 K-TIRADS1.5. @*Conclusion@#The unnecessary biopsy rate of the 2021 K-TIRADS1.5 was substantially lower than that of the 2016 K-TIRADS and comparable to that of the ACR-TIRADS. The 2021 K-TIRADS may help reduce potential harm due to unnecessary biopsies.

5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 280-288, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918219

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare core needle biopsy (CNB) and repeat fine-needle aspiration (rFNA) to reduce the rate of diagnostic surgery and prevent unnecessary surgery in nodules initially diagnosed as atypia/follicular lesions of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS). @*Materials and Methods@#This study included 231 consecutive patients (150 female and 81 male; mean age ± standard deviation, 51.9 ± 11.7 years) with 235 thyroid nodules (≥ 1 cm) initially diagnosed as AUS/FLUS, who later underwent both rFNA and CNB. The nodules that required diagnostic surgery after the biopsy were defined using three different scenarios according to the rFNA and CNB results: criterion 1, surgery for low-risk indeterminate (categories I and III); criterion 2, surgery for high-risk indeterminate (categories IV and V); and criterion 3, surgery for all indeterminate nodules (categories I, III, IV, and V). We compared the expected rates of diagnostic surgery between CNB and rFNA in all 235 nodules using the three surgical criteria. In addition, the expected rates of unnecessary surgery (i.e., surgery for benign pathology) were compared in a subgroup of 182 nodules with available final diagnoses. @*Results@#CNB showed significantly lower rates of nondiagnostic, AUS/FLUS, and suspicious for malignancy diagnoses (p ≤ 0.016) and higher rates of follicular neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (p < 0.001) and malignant diagnoses (p = 0.031). CNB showed a significantly lower expected rate of diagnostic surgery than rFNA for criterion 1 (29.8% vs. 48.1%, p < 0.001) and criterion 3 (46.4% vs. 55.3%, p = 0.029), and a significantly higher rate for criterion 2 (16.6% vs. 7.2%, p = 0.001). CNB showed a significantly lower expected rate of unnecessary surgery than rFNA for criterion 1 (18.7% vs. 29.7%, p = 0.024). @*Conclusion@#CNB was superior to rFNA in reducing the rates of potential diagnostic surgery and unnecessary surgery for nodules initially diagnosed as AUS/FLUS in a scenario where nodules with low-risk indeterminate results (categories I and III) would undergo surgery.

6.
Ultrasonography ; : 678-688, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969216

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine whether the normal parotid gland (PG) and submandibular gland (SMG) can be used as reference standards for normal thyroid echogenicity. @*Methods@#In total, 1,302 consecutive patients with normal salivary glands were included in this study. The echogenicity of the SMG and PG was assessed during real-time ultrasound examinations, and the glands were categorized as hyperechogenic, isoechogenic, and hypoechogenic relative to the thyroid parenchyma in patients without diffuse thyroid disease (group 1, n=1,106) and with diffuse thyroid disease (group 2, n=196). The frequency of the echogenicity categories of the normal PG and SMG was assessed according to patients’ age. @*Results@#In group 1, the normal PG showed isoechogenicity in 94.0% and hypoechogenicity or hyperechogenicity in 6.0%, and the normal SMG showed isoechogenicity in 73.6% and hypoechogenicity in 26.4% of patients (P<0.001). There was no significant association of the frequency of isoechoic PG with age (P=0.834); however, there was a trend for an increasing frequency of isoechoic SMG with aging (22.9%-81.4%) (P<0.001). Similar findings were found in group 2 patients without decreased thyroid echogenicity. @*Conclusion@#The normal PG was mostly isoechoic to the normal thyroid parenchyma, whereas the normal SMG showed hypoechogenicity at various frequencies according to age. The echogenicity of the normal PG can be used as an alternative reference standard for normal thyroid echogenicity; however, the normal SMG is not suitable for a reference standard when assessing thyroid nodule echogenicity in patients who have diffuse thyroid disease with decreased parenchymal echogenicity.

7.
Ultrasonography ; : 670-677, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969208

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the malignancy risk of minimally cystic thyroid nodules (MCTNs) using cyto-histopathologic diagnoses as the reference standard. @*Methods@#From June 2015 to September 2015, 5,601 thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) from 4,989 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid ultrasonography (US) at 26 institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Each thyroid nodule was categorized according to its cystic proportion: purely solid, minimally cystic (≤10%), and partially cystic (>10%). The malignancy risk of MCTNs was compared with those of purely solid nodules and partially cystic thyroid nodules (PCTNs). The malignancy risk of MCTNs was assessed according to echogenicity and the presence of suspicious US features. @*Results@#The prevalence of MCTNs was 22.5%. The overall malignancy risk of MCTNs was 8.8%, which was significantly lower than that of purely solid nodules (29.5%) (P0.05). MCTNs were associated with a higher risk of malignancy in hypoechoic nodules than in isohyperechoic nodules and in nodules with suspicious US features than in those without suspicious US features (all P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The malignancy risk of MCTNs was significantly lower than that of purely solid nodules. MCTNs could be categorized as PCTNs rather than as solid nodules to increase the accuracy of the risk stratification system for thyroid nodules.

8.
Ultrasonography ; : 474-485, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919549

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) compared with five society risk stratification systems (RSSs) according to nodule size. @*Methods@#In total, 3,826 consecutive thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) with final diagnoses in 3,088 patients were classified according to five RSSs. The K-TIRADS was modified by raising the biopsy size threshold for low-suspicion nodules and subcategorizing intermediate-suspicion nodules. We assessed the performance of the RSSs as triage tests and their diagnostic accuracy according to nodule size (with a threshold of 2 cm). @*Results@#Of all nodules, 3,277 (85.7%) were benign and 549 (14.3%) were malignant. In small thyroid nodules (≤2 cm), the American College of Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS) had the highest reduction rate of unnecessary biopsies (76.3%) and the lowest sensitivity (76.1%). The modified K-TIRADS had the second highest reduction rate of unnecessary biopsies (67.6%) and sensitivity (86.6%). The modified K-TIRADS and ACR TI-RADS had the highest diagnostic odds ratios (P=0.165) and the highest areas under the curve (P=0.315). In large nodules (>2 cm), the sensitivity of the ACR TI-RADS for malignancy was significantly lower (88.8%) than the sensitivities of the modified K-TIRADS and other RSSs, which were very high (98.7%-99.3%) (P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#The modified K-TIRADS allows a large proportion of unnecessary biopsies to be avoided, while maintaining high sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy for small malignant tumors and very high sensitivity for large malignant tumors.

9.
Ultrasonography ; : 594-601, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919533

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study compared the diagnostic performance of the modified Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) for thyroid malignancy with three international guidelines. @*Methods@#From June to September 2015, 5,708 thyroid nodules (≥1.0 cm) in 5,081 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid ultrasound (US) at 26 institutions were evaluated. The US features of the thyroid nodules were retrospectively reviewed and classified according to all four guidelines. In the modified K-TIRADS, the biopsy size threshold was changed to 2.0 cm for K-TIRADS 3 and 1.0 or 1.5 cm for K-TIRADS 4 (K-TIRADS1.0cm and K-TIRADS1.5cm, respectively). We compared the diagnostic performance and unnecessary fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) rates for thyroid malignancy between the modified K-TIRADS and three international guidelines. @*Results@#Of the 5,708 thyroid nodules, 4,597 (80.5%) were benign and 1,111 (19.5%) were malignant. The overall sensitivity was highest for the modified K-TIRADS1.0cm (91.0%), followed by the European (EU)-TIRADS (84.6%), American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists/American College of Endocrinology/Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AACE/ACE/AME) (80.5%), American College of Radiology (ACR)-TIRADS (76.1%), and modified K-TIRADS1.5cm (76.1%). For large nodules (>2.0 cm), the sensitivity increased to 98.0% in both the modified K-TIRADS1.0cm and K-TIRADS1.5cm. For small nodules (≤2.0 cm), the unnecessary FNAB rate was lowest with the modified K-TIRADS1.5cm (17.6%), followed by the ACR-TIRADS (18.6%), AACE/ACE/AME (19.3%), EU-TIRADS (28.1%), and modified K-TIRADS1.0cm (31.2%). @*Conclusion@#The modified K-TIRADS1.5cm can reduce the unnecessary FNAB rate for small nodules (1.0-2.0 cm), while maintaining high sensitivity for detecting malignancies >2.0 cm.

10.
Ultrasonography ; : 342-348, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919529

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The normal submandibular gland (SMG) and parotid gland (PG) are thought to have similar homogeneous ultrasound (US) hyperechogenicity; however, this has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether the normal SMG and PG have similar US echogenicity. @*Methods@#We included 969 consecutive adult patients with normal salivary glands. The patients were categorized into three age groups: group 1 (19 to 29 years, n=27), group 2 (30 to 49 years, n=273), and group 3 (≥50 years, n=669). The echogenicities of the SMG and PG were prospectively evaluated by an experienced radiologist. Computed tomography (CT) attenuation in Hounsfield units (HUs) was quantitatively measured for the SMG, PG, and sternocleidomastoid muscle in 140 patients. @*Results@#Relative to the PG, the echogenicity of the SMG was similar in 706 (73.0%) and homogeneously hypoechoic in 263 patients (27.0%). The frequency of SMG hypoechogenicity decreased with increasing age (group 1, 59.3%; group 2, 36.3%; group 3, 22.1%; P<0.001). The CT attenuation levels (in HUs) of the SMG and PG were significantly higher in patients with hypoechoic SMGs than in patients with SMG echogenicity similar to that of the PG (P<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Hypoechogenicity of the SMG was observed in more than a quarter of this sample of adults with normal salivary glands. The SMG may be inadequate as a reference standard for evaluating thyroid nodule echogenicity in patients with diffuse thyroid disease with decreased echogenicity.

11.
Ultrasonography ; : 115-125, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919511

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was conducted to determine the malignancy risk and diagnostic value of various types of nonshadowing echogenic foci (NEF) in the risk stratification of thyroid nodules. @*Methods@#A total of 1,018 consecutive thyroid nodules (≥1 cm) with final diagnoses were included. The presence of NEF was determined and types of NEF were classified according to the presence of a comet tail artifact (CTA), location, and size through a prospective evaluation. The associations with malignancy, malignancy risk, and diagnostic value of various types of NEF were assessed. @*Results@#Intrasolid punctate NEF without CTA was the only type of NEF that was an independent predictor of malignancy (P0.05). @*Conclusion@#Intrasolid punctate NEF without CTA was the only independent predictor of malignancy. However, solid hypoechoic nodules with intrasolid punctate NEF should be classified as high-suspicion nodules regardless of coexisting CTA. Other types of NEF had no added value for detecting malignancy compared to intrasolid punctate NEF without CTA.

12.
Ultrasonography ; : 75-82, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919501

ABSTRACT

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a thermal ablation technique widely used for the management of benign thyroid nodules. To date, five academic societies in various countries have reported clinical practice guidelines, opinion statements, or recommendations regarding the use of thyroid RFA. However, despite some similarities, there are also differences among the guidelines, and a consensus is required regarding safe and effective treatment in Asian countries. Therefore, a task force was organized by the guideline committee of the Asian Conference on Tumor Ablation with the goal of devising recommendations for the clinical use of thyroid RFA. The recommendations in this article are based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus opinion of the task force members.

13.
Ultrasonography ; : 228-236, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919496

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy is influenced by several factors, including differences in the Bethesda categorization for malignancy, the inclusion or exclusion of non-diagnostic results, the definition used for the final diagnosis, and the definition of an inconclusive diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to provide an understanding of the factors influencing the diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy. @*Methods@#We collected data retrospectively between January and December 2013 from a cohort of 6,762 thyroid nodules from 6,493 consecutive patients who underwent biopsy. In total, 4,822 nodules from 4,553 patients were included. We calculated the biopsy sensitivity according to the inclusion of different Bethesda categories in the numerator and the exclusion of non-diagnostic results, as well as the diagnostic accuracy according to different definitions of a benign diagnosis. We obtained the conclusive and inconclusive diagnosis rates. @*Results@#The sensitivity increased when more Bethesda categories were included in the numerator and when non-diagnostic results were excluded. When a benign thyroid nodule diagnosis was defined as benign findings on surgical resection, concordant benign results on at least two occasions, or an initial benign biopsy result and follow-up for more than 12 months, the accuracy was higher than when the diagnosis was based on surgical resection alone (68.7% vs. 91.1%). A higher conclusive diagnosis rate was obtained (78.3% vs. 72.8%, P<0.001) when Bethesda categories I and III were considered inconclusive. @*Conclusion@#Understanding the concepts presented herein is important in order to appropriately interpret the diagnostic performance of thyroid biopsy.

14.
Ultrasonography ; : 256-264, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919493

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Thermal ablation is a novel treatment alternative for benign thyroid nodules, and one of the most promising thermal ablation techniques is radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Considering the increasing use of thyroid RFA, some scientific societies have proposed clinical practice guidelines. We systemically reviewed and compared these guidelines for thyroid RFA to identify a standard treatment strategy that represents the positions of most societies. @*Methods@#We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for studies with human participants that were published in English between January 1, 2000 and August 2, 2019. Studies containing clinical practice guidelines for the RFA of benign thyroid nodules were included. We extracted data regarding indications, pre- and post-procedural evaluations, treatment techniques, and the need to obtain informed consent. @*Results@#Of the 83 studies found, four studies were included, and one study was added after searching the bibliographies of those articles. The five included studies were guidelines developed by the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology, a group of experts from Italian scientific societies, the Italian Working Group on Minimally Invasive Treatments of the Thyroid, the United Kingdom’s National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, and a group of four professional Austrian thyroid associations. Indications, pre- and post-procedural evaluations, and techniques were similar across studies; however, differences in each of these categories were found. @*Conclusion@#While the reviewed guidelines are similar with regard to major categories, international guidelines for the RFA of benign thyroid nodules should be established in the future.

15.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 2094-2123, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918179

ABSTRACT

Incidental thyroid nodules are commonly detected on ultrasonography (US). This has contributed to the rapidly rising incidence of low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma over the last 20 years. The appropriate diagnosis and management of these patients is based on the risk factors related to the patients as well as the thyroid nodules. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published consensus recommendations for US-based management of thyroid nodules in 2011 and revised them in 2016. These guidelines have been used as the standard guidelines in Korea. However, recent advances in the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules have necessitated the revision of the original recommendations. The task force of the KSThR has revised the Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System and recommendations for US lexicon, biopsy criteria, US criteria of extrathyroidal extension, optimal thyroid computed tomography protocol, and US follow-up of thyroid nodules before and after biopsy. The biopsy criteria were revised to reduce unnecessary biopsies for benign nodules while maintaining an appropriate sensitivity for the detection of malignant tumors in small (1–2 cm) thyroid nodules. The goal of these recommendations is to provide the optimal scientific evidence and expert opinion consensus regarding US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules.

16.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1569-1578, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894801

ABSTRACT

The Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) is an ultrasound-based risk stratification system for thyroid nodules that has been widely applied for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules since 2016. This review article provides an overview of the use of the K-TIRADS compared with other risk stratification systems. Moreover, this review describes the challenges in the clinical application of the K-TIRADS, as well as future development directions toward the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules.

17.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 840-860, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894763

ABSTRACT

Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and characterization of thyroid diseases, and the information provided by imaging studies is essential for management planning. A referral guideline for imaging studies may help physicians make reasonable decisions and minimize the number of unnecessary examinations. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) developed imaging guidelines for thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer using an adaptation process through a collaboration between the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and the working group of KSThR, which is composed of radiologists specializing in thyroid imaging. When evidence is either insufficient or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence for recommending imaging. Therefore, we suggest rating the appropriateness of imaging for specific clinical situations in this guideline.

18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 663-671, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894695

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the association of macrocalcification and rim calcification with malignancy and to stratify the malignancy risk of thyroid nodules with macrocalcification and rim calcification based on ultrasound (US) patterns. @*Materials and Methods@#The study included a total of 3603 consecutive nodules (≥ 1 cm) with final diagnoses. The associations of macrocalcification and rim calcification with malignancy and malignancy risk of the nodules were assessed overall and in subgroups based on the US patterns of the nodules. The malignancy risk of the thyroid nodules was categorized as high (> 50%), intermediate (upper-intermediate: > 30%, ≤ 50%; lower-intermediate: > 10%, ≤ 30%), and low (≤ 10%). @*Results@#Macrocalcification was independently associated with malignancy in all nodules and solid hypoechoic (SH) nodules (p < 0.001). Rim calcification was not associated with malignancy in all nodules (p = 0.802); however, it was independently associated with malignancy in partially cystic or isoechoic and hyperechoic (PCIH) nodules (p = 0.010). The malignancy risks of nodules with macrocalcification were classified as upper-intermediate and high in SH nodules, and as low and lowerintermediate in PCIH nodules based on suspicious US features. The malignancy risks of nodules with rim calcification were stratified as low and lower-intermediate based on suspicious US features. @*Conclusion@#Macrocalcification increased the malignancy risk in all and SH nodules with or without suspicious US features, with low to high malignancy risks depending on the US patterns. Rim calcification increased the malignancy risk in PCIH nodules, with low and lower-intermediate malignancy risks based on suspicious US features. However, the role of rim calcification in risk stratification of thyroid nodules remains uncertain.

19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1569-1578, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902505

ABSTRACT

The Korean Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (K-TIRADS) is an ultrasound-based risk stratification system for thyroid nodules that has been widely applied for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules since 2016. This review article provides an overview of the use of the K-TIRADS compared with other risk stratification systems. Moreover, this review describes the challenges in the clinical application of the K-TIRADS, as well as future development directions toward the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules.

20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 840-860, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902467

ABSTRACT

Imaging plays a key role in the diagnosis and characterization of thyroid diseases, and the information provided by imaging studies is essential for management planning. A referral guideline for imaging studies may help physicians make reasonable decisions and minimize the number of unnecessary examinations. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) developed imaging guidelines for thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer using an adaptation process through a collaboration between the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and the working group of KSThR, which is composed of radiologists specializing in thyroid imaging. When evidence is either insufficient or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence for recommending imaging. Therefore, we suggest rating the appropriateness of imaging for specific clinical situations in this guideline.

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