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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an increased risk for dementia. The effects of hypoglycemia on dementia are controversial. Thus, we evaluated whether hypoglycemia increases the risk for dementia in senior patients with T2DM.METHODS: We used the Korean National Health Insurance Service Senior cohort, which includes >10% of the entire senior population of South Korea. In total, 5,966 patients who had ever experienced at least one episode of hypoglycemia were matched with those who had not, using propensity score matching. The risk of dementia was assessed through a survival analysis of matched pairs.RESULTS: Patients with underlying hypoglycemic events had an increased risk for all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's dementia (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) compared with those who had not experienced a hypoglycemic event (hazard ratio [HR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.166 to 1.349; P<0.001 for all-cause dementia; HR, 1.264; 95% CI, 1.162 to 1.375; P<0.001 for AD; HR, 1.286; 95% CI, 1.110 to 1.490; P<0.001 for VaD). According to number of hypoglycemic episodes, the HRs of dementia were 1.170, 1.201, and 1.358 in patients with one hypoglycemic episode, two or three episodes, and more than three episodes, respectively. In the subgroup analysis, hypoglycemia was associated with an increased risk for dementia in both sexes with or without T2DM microvascular or macrovascular complications.CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that patients with a history of hypoglycemia have a higher risk for dementia. This trend was similar for AD and VaD, the two most important subtypes of dementia.


Subject(s)
Cohort Studies , Dementia , Dementia, Vascular , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Korea , National Health Programs , Propensity Score
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated predictors of institutionalization in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in South Korea. METHODS: In total, 2,470 patients with AD aged 74.5±7.8 years (mean±standard deviation, 68.1% females) were enrolled from November 2005 to December 2013. The dates of institutionalization were identified from the public Long-Term-Care Insurance program in January 2014. We used a Cox proportional-hazards model to identify predictors for future institutionalization among characteristics at the time of diagnosis in 2,470 AD patients. A similar Cox proportional-hazards model was also used to investigate predictors among variables that reflected longitudinal changes in clinical variables before institutionalization in 816 patients who underwent follow-up testing. RESULTS: A lower Mini Mental State Examination score [hazard ratio (HR)=0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.92–0.97] and higher scores for the Clinical Dementia Rating and Neuro-Psychiatric Inventory (HR=1.01, 95% CI=1.00–1.01) at baseline were independent predictors of institutionalization. The relationship of patients with their main caregivers, presence of the apolipoprotein E e4 allele, and medication at baseline were not significantly associated with the rate of institutionalization. In models with variables that exhibited longitudinal changes, larger annual change in Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes score (HR=1.15, 95% CI=1.06–1.23) and higher medication possession ratio of antipsychotics (HR=1.89, 95% CI=1.20–2.97) predicted earlier institutionalization. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that among Korean patients with AD, lower cognitive ability, higher dementia severity, more-severe behavioral symptoms at baseline, more-rapid decline in dementia severity, and more-frequent use of antipsychotics are independent predictors of earlier institutionalization.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Alzheimer Disease , Antipsychotic Agents , Apolipoproteins , Behavioral Symptoms , Caregivers , Dementia , Diagnosis , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Institutionalization , Insurance , Korea
3.
Neurology Asia ; : 105-106, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-628427

ABSTRACT

Sustained downgaze mostly occurs in association with lesions affecting the dorsal midbrain. We report sustained downgaze in a patient with hepatic encephalopathy. The sustained downgaze existed for seven more days after she regained her consciousness. The persistent downgaze even after regaining full consciousness indicates localized pretectal dysfunction rather than diffuse encephalopathy as the mechanism of sustained downgaze in our patient. The ocular motor dysfunction in hepatic encephalopathy may be due to localized dysfunction of the brainstem

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-11851

ABSTRACT

A 64-year-old woman presented with headache and visual disturbance which occurred 10 minutes after bee venom acupuncture. She was normotensive. Her pupils were isocoric and normally reflexive but she could precept only lights just in front of her eyes. The brain MRI showed vasogenic edema in the cerebellum and occipitotemporoparietal areas. She fully recovered 2 days later. The brain MRI taken after 7 days revealed remarkable improvement. This case suggests that bee venom might cause posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Bee Venoms , Brain , Cerebellum , Edema , Female , Headache , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome , Pupil , Reflex
5.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30011

ABSTRACT

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The aim of dental research is to advance scientific knowledge and leads to improvement in the treatment and prevention of dental disease. Utilizing an effective research design and adequate statistical methods are essential procedures ensuring that the results of researches are based on evidences. A research should utilize proper statistical methods without statistical errors; Otherwise, it could adversely affect clinical practice and future research. PURPOSE: This study was made to investigate the statistical methods used in the Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics (JKAP) and then to assess them for the statistical errors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Among the total of 399 articles in the JKAP published from 2000 to 2006, 292 articles using statistics were reviewed. The validity of the statistical methods used in them were assessed using a checklist based on the guideline for statistical reporting in the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals by International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The checklist consisted of three categories of statistical errors: 1) Unspecified computer statistical packages, 2) Inadequate description of statistical methods, 3) Misuse of statistical terms. Then, the results were compared between the Korean version and the English version in the JKAP. RESULTS: Among the 212 articles using statistics in the Korean version, 115 articles (54%) and among the 80 articles using statistics in the English version, 47 articles (59%) were shown to have unspecified computer statistical packages without statistically significant difference (P = .66). Likewise, 101 articles (48%) in the Korean version and 25 articles (31%) in the English version were shown to have the inadequate description of statistical methods without statistically significant difference (P = .09). However, 114 articles (54%) in the Korean version and 19 articles (24%) in the English version were shown to have the misuse of statistical terms with statistically significant difference (P = .01). CONCLUSION: Some of the articles in the JKAP had inadequate statistical validity, given the statistical errors identified in this assessment. Hence, dental researchers should be more careful when it comes to describing and applying statistical methods.


Subject(s)
Checklist , Dental Research , Prosthodontics , Research Design , Stomatognathic Diseases
6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-24916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cases of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been increasing with the progress of diagnostic methods . In this study the screening methods for early diagnosis of HCC were re-evaluated, and comparative therapeutic analyses were perfomed. METHODS: A total of 110 patients with small HCC (< 5 cm and < 4 nodules ) were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into four treatment groups ; unt reated group (No T x, n=12), transarterial-oily-chemoembolization group (TOCE, n=43), combined treatment group of percutaneous ethanol injection and TOCE (CEI, n=22), OP group ( OP, n=33). RESULTS: Small HCC occupied 22.6% of total HCC cases. Only one third of small HCC cases were detected during the regular screening. In this group, Alpha-fet oprotein as say provided a diagnostic clue in 50% of cases, ultras onography in 71%, and the combination of both in 88%. Five year survival rate and 5-year non-recurrence rate in small HCC was 29% and 37% respectively. Comparative therapeutic analys es showed t hat CEI and OP gave a better survival than TOCE in Child grade A. CEI prolonged survival in Child grade B wher eas TOCE did not. Only TOCE was tried and did not improve the survival in Child grade C. CONCLUSION: 1) A more strict screening is needed in high risk group of HCC. 2) As a first line of treatment in small HCC, OP or CEI can be selected in Child grade A, and CEI in Child grade B. In Child grade C, a less invasive treatment (PEIT , microwave coagulat ion therapy) should be investigated.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Child , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Ethanol , Humans , Mass Screening , Microwaves , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
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