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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926853

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#We described the trends and epidemiological characteristics of varicella outbreaks from 2016 to 2020 in the Republic of Korea. @*Methods@#We investigated variables such as the outbreak setting, age of patients, vaccination status, and lesion count. The collected data were analyzed with the Cochrane-Armitage trend test and Kruskal-Wallis test. These statistical tests were performed using R ver. 4.0.3. @*Results@#The number of varicella outbreaks increased from 2016 to 2018; however, after a slight decrease in the number of outbreaks in 2019, the number fell sharply in 2020. The median size of outbreaks decreased from 8 to 9 cases during 2016−2019 to 6 cases in 2020. The median duration of outbreaks was 18 days during 2016−2017, 28 days in 2018, 29 days in 2019, and 15 days in 2020. Varicella outbreaks occurred most frequently in elementary schools, and vaccination coverage of patients increased from 89.4% in 2016 to 97.2% in 2019. The median age of patients with outbreak-related varicella decreased from 8 years in 2016 to 6 years in 2020. @*Conclusion@#Significant changes were observed in the age of patients with outbreak-related varicella. Ongoing monitoring of varicella outbreaks should be conducted. Further research will be needed to measure the disease burden of varicella and enable evidence-based policy decisions.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902994

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study analyzed trends in foodborne and waterborne diseases in South Korea between 2015 and 2019. @*Methods@#The data consisted of information on outbreaks of waterborne and foodborne infectious diseases reported through the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) system. We analyzed the trends and epidemiological aspects of outbreaks by month, place of occurrence, and causative pathogens in this observational study. @*Results@#The number of outbreaks has steadily increased over the last 5 years, but the number of cases per outbreak has followed a decreasing trend. Incidence at daycare centers and preschools has been steadily increasing over consecutive years. @*Conclusion@#The steady number of patients and decreasing number of cases per outbreak,even as the number of outbreaks has been increasing, suggest that the KCDC’s professional management system is operating effectively. It is necessary to continue improving the objectivity and efficiency of the management system and to carefully examine the increasing number of outbreaks in smaller-scale group catering facilities, such as daycare centers and preschools. Outbreaks can be prevented by closely examining those caused by unidentified pathogens and group outbreaks caused by other diseases, identifying problems, and supplementing the management system.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895290

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study analyzed trends in foodborne and waterborne diseases in South Korea between 2015 and 2019. @*Methods@#The data consisted of information on outbreaks of waterborne and foodborne infectious diseases reported through the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(KCDC) system. We analyzed the trends and epidemiological aspects of outbreaks by month, place of occurrence, and causative pathogens in this observational study. @*Results@#The number of outbreaks has steadily increased over the last 5 years, but the number of cases per outbreak has followed a decreasing trend. Incidence at daycare centers and preschools has been steadily increasing over consecutive years. @*Conclusion@#The steady number of patients and decreasing number of cases per outbreak,even as the number of outbreaks has been increasing, suggest that the KCDC’s professional management system is operating effectively. It is necessary to continue improving the objectivity and efficiency of the management system and to carefully examine the increasing number of outbreaks in smaller-scale group catering facilities, such as daycare centers and preschools. Outbreaks can be prevented by closely examining those caused by unidentified pathogens and group outbreaks caused by other diseases, identifying problems, and supplementing the management system.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835499

ABSTRACT

The transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is well documented in the literature but is an exceptionally rare occurrence in metastatic foci outside the primary thyroid lesion. Even rarer is the simultaneous occurrence of PTC and ATC in the cervical lymph nodes. We report the case of an 85–year–old man who presented with a rapidly growing neck mass diagnosed as PTC. Following surgery, multiple ATC foci in the metastatic cervical lymph node were found coexisting with PTC, whereas in the thyroid, only PTC was found. This case is of high clinical significance because transformation of PTC to ATC outside the thyroid gland per se is very rare and because it suggests rapidly growing tumors in an elderly patient. The use of core needle biopsies in cases with suspected rapid tumor growth can aid in proper diagnosis, surgical decision making, and patient counselling.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831682

ABSTRACT

Background@#Hearing loss (HL) in children may adversely affect their development. HL is more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) than in the general population.This study evaluated the prevalence of HL and its underlying diseases in patients with childhood-onset in CKD. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study of a tertiary referral center, childhood-onset CKD patients (stage 2–5, age at onset of renal symptom < 18 years) were recruited. We referred to the “renal” syndromic HL as cases with genetic or syndromic diseases, or extra-renal anomalies in addition to HL and CKD. @*Results@#A total of 421 patients (male:female = 279:142) were reviewed according to the causes of CKD: congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; n = 184, 43.7%), glomerulopathies (GP; n = 105, 24.9%), cystic kidney diseases (CYST; n = 39, 9.3%), perinatal problems (PP; n = 29, 6.9%), and others (n = 64, 15.2%). HL was detected in 82 (19.5%) patients, including 51 (12.1%) patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), 30 (7.1%) with conductive hearing loss (CHL), and 1 patient with mixed HL. The prevalence of HL in each group was as follows: 16.8% in the CAKUT group, 28.6% in the GP group, 12.8% in the CYST group, 24.1% in the PP group, and 14.1% in the others group. HL was more common in higher CKD stages, especially CHL in end-stage renal disease. SNHL was more prevalent in CKD from GP. Of the 82 patients with HL, 50% had renal syndromic HL: 58.8% of SNHL and one-third of CHL were renal syndromic HL. @*Conclusion@#One-fifth of the childhood-onset CKD had HL. Collectively, renal syndromic HL comprised half of the HL in this study. To improve the quality of life in patients with childhood-onset CKD, we suggest that HL should be considered, requiring surveillance, and if necessary, early intervention.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in commercial vehicle operators (CMVOs). This study aimed to evaluate the poor sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and the prevalence of self-reported OSA in CMVOs. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients who visited a single institution with sleep problems from 2011 January to 2016 December. Among the patients, a total of 38 CMVOs was analyzed. Clinical information, questionnaires about sleep quality (Pittsburg sleep questionnaire, PSQI), excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale, ESS) and risk factors for OSA (STOP-Bang) were analyzed. The frequency of motor vehicle accidents and near accidents was assessed, and polysomnography (PSG) was used for OSA diagnosis purposes. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 45.3±11.8 years. The average score of PSQI, ESS, and STOP-Bang were 6.75±4.22, 10.79±7.12, and 4.62±3.34, respectively. A significant association between near accidents and high-risk group of OSA was observed [odds ratio (OR)=2.73, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08–4.48]. Subjects with poor sleep quality showed significantly increased risk of near accidents (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.01–3.56). Receiver operating characteristic curves of STOP-Bang questionnaire using apnea-hypopnea index (cut-off value=5) indicates that suspected OSA group predicted by STOP-Bang score was significantly correlated with OSA severity (area under curve=0.72, sensitivity 77.1%, specificity 59.4%). CONCLUSION: Administration of STOP-Bang questionnaire before a PSG can identify high-risk subjects, supporting its further use in OSA screening of CMVOs.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis , Humans , Korea , Mass Screening , Medical Records , Methods , Motor Vehicles , Polysomnography , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830011

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES@#Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in commercial vehicle operators (CMVOs). This study aimed to evaluate the poor sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and the prevalence of self-reported OSA in CMVOs.SUBJECTS AND METHOD: We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients who visited a single institution with sleep problems from 2011 January to 2016 December. Among the patients, a total of 38 CMVOs was analyzed. Clinical information, questionnaires about sleep quality (Pittsburg sleep questionnaire, PSQI), excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale, ESS) and risk factors for OSA (STOP-Bang) were analyzed. The frequency of motor vehicle accidents and near accidents was assessed, and polysomnography (PSG) was used for OSA diagnosis purposes.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of the study population was 45.3±11.8 years. The average score of PSQI, ESS, and STOP-Bang were 6.75±4.22, 10.79±7.12, and 4.62±3.34, respectively. A significant association between near accidents and high-risk group of OSA was observed [odds ratio (OR)=2.73, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08–4.48]. Subjects with poor sleep quality showed significantly increased risk of near accidents (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.01–3.56). Receiver operating characteristic curves of STOP-Bang questionnaire using apnea-hypopnea index (cut-off value=5) indicates that suspected OSA group predicted by STOP-Bang score was significantly correlated with OSA severity (area under curve=0.72, sensitivity 77.1%, specificity 59.4%).@*CONCLUSION@#Administration of STOP-Bang questionnaire before a PSG can identify high-risk subjects, supporting its further use in OSA screening of CMVOs.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Endotype in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been established in the last decade. However, the exact immunologic profile of CRS still has controversy because it has a considerable immunologic heterogeneity. Therefore, we investigated various inflammatory mediators according to different nasal tissues in chronic rhinosinusitis and compared them within the same subject. METHODS: We collected uncinate process mucosa (UP) and nasal polyp (NP) tissues from controls, CRS without NP (CRSsNP) and CRS with NP (CRSwNP). Expression levels of 28 inflammatory mediators including T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17, proinflammatory cytokines and remodeling markers were determined by multiplex immunoassay and were analyzed using paired tests as well as principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate endotype in each subtype of CRS. RESULTS: Signature inflammatory mediators are interleukin (IL)-5, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)-24, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in eosinophilic NP, whereas IL-17A, IL-1β, and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 were detected as signature inflammatory markers in non-eosinophilic NP. Despite differences in inflammatory cytokine profile between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic NP, the common upregulation of IL-5, CCL-11, IL-23, IL-2Rα, VCAM-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 were shown in NP compared to UP within the same subject. In the PCA, we observed that Th2 immune response was helpful in discriminating between nasal tissues in subtypes of CRS and that there was a partial overlap between non-eosinophilic NP and eosinophilic NP in terms of Th2 mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Commonly upregulated mediators in NP were Th2-associated, compared with UP regardless of CRS subtypes, whereas signature markers were distinct in each NP subtype. These findings imply that Th2 inflammatory responses may play a role in the development of NP regardless of CRSwNP subtypes.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Eosinophils , Immunoassay , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-23 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Monocytes , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Population Characteristics , Principal Component Analysis , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Up-Regulation , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to develop ‘Koreans Gut Quotient Measurement Scales (GQ)’, in which Koreans respond to questionnaires about the subjective feelings and symptoms of their intestinal health status.METHODS: Among 66 items pooled from previous studies and 4 items that were added following a focus group interview, 15 items were chosen using the Delphi survey. The content validity was evaluated using the content validity ratio. Data collected from 1,120 people from the general public in Korea were analyzed to verify the reliability and validity of GQ.RESULTS: The finalized GQ consisted of 17 items (including two exploratory measurement items) that were classified into three independent factors based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA): ‘perceived intestine discomfort’, ‘bowel movement discomfort’, and ‘bowel movement control discomfort’. The discriminant and convergent validity of GQ were identified using EFA, reliability test, and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the criterion-related validity of GQ was identified using correlation and multiple regression analysis.CONCLUSIONS: The GQ, which is a simplified intestinal health index developed based on an easy questionnaire for the public to understand, can be used as a tool for the public to evaluate their own intestinal health and determine when to visit clinics.


Subject(s)
Focus Groups , Intestines , Korea , Reproducibility of Results , Weights and Measures
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761514

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to develop ‘Koreans Gut Quotient Measurement Scales (GQ)’, in which Koreans respond to questionnaires about the subjective feelings and symptoms of their intestinal health status. METHODS: Among 66 items pooled from previous studies and 4 items that were added following a focus group interview, 15 items were chosen using the Delphi survey. The content validity was evaluated using the content validity ratio. Data collected from 1,120 people from the general public in Korea were analyzed to verify the reliability and validity of GQ. RESULTS: The finalized GQ consisted of 17 items (including two exploratory measurement items) that were classified into three independent factors based on exploratory factor analysis (EFA): ‘perceived intestine discomfort’, ‘bowel movement discomfort’, and ‘bowel movement control discomfort’. The discriminant and convergent validity of GQ were identified using EFA, reliability test, and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the criterion-related validity of GQ was identified using correlation and multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The GQ, which is a simplified intestinal health index developed based on an easy questionnaire for the public to understand, can be used as a tool for the public to evaluate their own intestinal health and determine when to visit clinics.


Subject(s)
Focus Groups , Intestines , Korea , Reproducibility of Results , Weights and Measures
11.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the clinical characteristics and vestibular function of patients with direction changing vibration induced nystagmus (DC VIN) and unilateral vestibular hypofunction and suggest clinical implication and a proposed mechanism of DC VIN. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: The records of 315 patients who underwent the VIN test were reviewed retrospectively. Among these, 18 patients (5.7%) showed DC VIN, and out of whom, 15 patients (4.8%) were diagnosed as unilateral vestibular hypofunction by caloric, rotation chair (RCT), and video head impulse test (vHIT). We analyzed the relationship between DC VIN and the dizziness characteristics, duration of disease, and the outcome of the vestibular function test. RESULTS: The mean age of 15 patients was 67.4±10.7 years and the mean duration of dizziness was 13.6±29.7 months. The caloric test revealed 25% of the patients to have significant canal paresis [Caloric vestibular neuritis (VN)], while 75% showed normal caloric response. However, unilateral vestibular hypofunction was observed by abnormal results in RCT or vHIT (Non-caloric VN). Seven patients showed ipsilateral DC VIN (nystagmus to vibrated side) and eight patients contralateral DC VIN (nystagmus to opposite side of vibration). Patients with ipsilateral DC VIN were shown to have a significant longer duration of dizziness than those with contralateral DC VIN. CONCLUSION: Although rare, DC VIN can also be found in patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction. Patients with DC VIN had a mild vestibular asymmetry with Non-caloric VN or Caloric VN in the process of compensation. The mechanism of ipsilateral DC VIN seems to be due to the small amount of vestibular asymmetry, which is smaller than the interaural attenuation of vibration.


Subject(s)
Caloric Tests , Compensation and Redress , Dizziness , Head Impulse Test , Humans , Methods , Paresis , Retrospective Studies , Vestibular Function Tests , Vestibular Neuronitis , Vibration
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prognostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG PET) with computed tomography (CT) before and during radiotherapy (RT) in patients with head and neck cancer. METHODS: Twenty patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were enrolled in this study, of whom 6 had oropharyngeal cancer, 10 had hypopharyngeal cancer, and 4 had laryngeal cancer. Fifteen patients received concurrent cisplatin and 2 received concurrent cetuximab chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT was performed before RT and in the 4th week of RT. The parameters of maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) of the primary tumor were measured, and the prognostic significance of each was analyzed with the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Higher TLG (>19.0) on FDG PET/CT during RT was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS) (p = 0.007). In the multivariate analysis, TLG during RT as a continuous variable was significantly associated with OS and PFS rate (p = 0.023 and p = 0.016, respectively). Tumor response worse than partial remission at 1 month after RT was another independent prognostic factor for PFS (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Higher TLG of the primary tumor on FDG PET/CT during RT was a poor prognostic factor for OS and PFS in patients with head and neck cancer.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Cetuximab , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Glycolysis , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Head , Humans , Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Multivariate Analysis , Neck , Oropharyngeal Neoplasms , Positron-Emission Tomography , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy , Tumor Burden
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9121

ABSTRACT

The incidence of vector-borne diseases has increased with climate change and developments of transportation. Malaria was eliminated in the early 1980s in Korea, but one domestic case was reported in 1993. The number of patients increased to 4,142 in 2002, and less than 700 cases of malaria are reported annually nowadays. Additionally, approximately 70 to 80 imported malaria cases were reported annually, and most of them are Plasmodium falciparum infections from Africa. Annually, 20 to 40 cases of Japanese encephalitis are reported, and the incidence is high in individuals between the ages of 40 and 59. Moreover, 313 cases of dengue fever were imported in 2016, and most of them were from Southeast Asia. In 2016, 11,000 cases of scrub typhus were reported, and most of the patients were older than 50. The number of reported cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome has been increasing since 2013, mostly in patients older than 60. It is important to avoid vectors for the prevention, and for the doctors to diagnose the apatients as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Africa , Asia, Southeastern , Climate Change , Dengue , Encephalitis, Japanese , Fever , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Malaria , Plasmodium falciparum , Scrub Typhus , Thrombocytopenia , Transportation
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-48337

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adverse transfusion reactions (ATRs) are clinically relevant to patients with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to review the cases of ATR reported in the recipient-triggered trace back system for a recent nine-year period in Korea. METHODS: Nine-year data obtained from 2006 to 2014 by the trace back system at the Division of Human Blood Safety Surveillance of the Korean Centers for Disease Control (KCDC) were reviewed. The suspected cases were assessed according to six categories: (i) related to, (ii) probably related to, (iii) probably not related to, (iv) not related to transfusion, (v) unable to investigate, and (vi) under investigation. RESULTS: Since 2006, 199 suspected serious ATRs were reported in hospitals and medical institutions in Korea, and these ATRs were reassessed by the division of Human Blood Safety Surveillance of the KCDC. Among the reported 193 cases as transfusion related infections, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (135, 67.8%) was reported most frequently, followed by hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (27, 13.6%), HIV infection (13, 6.5%), syphilis (9, 4.5%), malarial infection (4, 2.0%), other bacterial infections (3, 1.5%), HTLV infection (1, 0.5%), and scrub typhus infection (1, 0.5%), respectively. Of the 199 cases, 13 (6.5%) cases were confirmed as transfusion-related (3 HCV infections, 3 malarial infections, 1 HBV infection, 2 Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, 3 transfusion-related acute lung injuries, and 1 hemolytic transfusion reaction). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first nationwide data regarding serious ATRs in Korea and could contribute to the implementation of an effective hemovigilance system.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/epidemiology , Blood Transfusion/adverse effects , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Republic of Korea , Retrospective Studies , Transfusion Reaction/etiology
15.
Radiation Oncology Journal ; : 233-241, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73633

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare volumetric modulated arc therapy of RapidArc with robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of CyberKnife in the planning and delivery of SBRT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment by analyzing dosimetric parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two radiation treatment plans were generated for 29 HCC patients, one using Eclipse for the RapidArc plan and the other using Multiplan for the CyberKnife plan. The prescription dose was 60 Gy in 3 fractions. The dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) coverage and normal tissue sparing in the RapidArc and the CyberKnife plans were analyzed. RESULTS: The conformity index was 1.05 +/- 0.02 for the CyberKnife plan, and 1.13 +/- 0.10 for the RapidArc plan. The homogeneity index was 1.23 +/- 0.01 for the CyberKnife plan, and 1.10 +/- 0.03 for the RapidArc plan. For the normal liver, there were significant differences between the two plans in the low-dose regions of V1 and V3. The normalized volumes of V60 for the normal liver in the RapidArc plan were drastically increased when the mean dose of the PTVs in RapidArc plan is equivalent to the mean dose of the PTVs in the CyberKnife plan. CONCLUSION: CyberKnife plans show greater dose conformity, especially in small-sized tumors, while RapidArc plans show good dosimetric distribution of low dose sparing in the normal liver and body.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Humans , Liver , Prescriptions , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-114281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Korean Blood Safety Commission has implemented external proficiency testing (PT) for blood grouping test (BGT) to help improve the quality of blood centers since 2011. We analyzed the results of 2014 PT for BGT to help in planning the future PT for BGT and to improve the quality of blood centers. METHODS: Whole blood survey samples including three panels for ABO grouping and three panels for D typing were sent to 69 institutes. Evaluation criteria for BGT were as follows: 'Good' for answers matched with intended results, 'Acceptable' for correct answers other than that of 'Good', 'Unacceptable' for answers other than those of 'Good+acceptable' as correct answers; and 'Not graded' for answers in case of different answers in the two standard laboratories. RESULTS: All of the answer rates of 'Good' for D typing were 100%. However, the answer rates of 'Good' for cell typing, serum typing and interpretation for 14-ABO-2 samples with discrepant result between cell typing and serum typing were 39.1%, 29%, and 47.8%, respectively. Those of 'Unacceptable' for cell typing and interpretation for 14-ABO-2 samples were 2.8% and 1.4%. CONCLUSION: Because the answer rates of ABO grouping for samples with discrepant result between cell typing and serum typing were not high, education for this case is needed. Diversity of materials for PT would be necessary for more accurate evaluation of the performance of BGT in blood centers.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Blood Safety , Education
17.
Epidemiology and Health ; : e2015042-2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721198

ABSTRACT

Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity (multiple risks) often lead to serious health consequence and impaired health status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the trend in health-related behavioral factors over time among adults in South Korea (hereafter Korea). The data of 1,595,842 Koreans older than 19 years who participated in the 2008-2014 Korea Community Health Survey were analyzed to assess the trend in the prevalence of behavioral risk factors. Individual or clustering health-related behaviors were assessed according to sex, age, and region among 228,712 adults who participated in the 2014 survey. From 2008 to 2014, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity and high-risk alcohol use increased the prevalence of male current smoking and marginally decreased walking ability. Over 7 years, the percentage of adults who reported having all three healthy behaviors (i.e., currently not smoking, not consuming alcohol or having high-risk alcohol use, and engaging in walking) decreased from 35.2% in 2008 to 29.6% in 2014. Increased efforts to emphasize multiple health-related behavioral risk factors, including reducing alcohol use and smoking, and to encourage walking are needed in the thirties and forties age groups in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Health Surveys , Humans , Korea , Life Style , Male , Obesity , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , Walking
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-23734

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the incidence of hepatic toxicity after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) using 3 fractions to the liver, and identified the predictors for hepatic toxicity. We retrospectively reviewed 78 patients with primary and metastatic liver cancers, who underwent SABR using 3 fractions between 2003 and 2011. To examine the incidence of hepatic toxicity, we defined newly developed hepatic toxicity> or =grade 2 according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0 within 3 months after the end of SABR as a significant adverse event. To identify the predictors for hepatic toxicity, we analyzed several clinical and dosimetric parameters (rV(5Gy)-rV(35Gy): normal liver volume receiving or =grade 2 occurred in 10 patients (13%): grade 2 in 9 patients and grade 3 in 1 patient. On univariate analysis, baseline Child-Pugh (CP) score (5 vs. 6-8), normal liver volume, and planning target volume were the significant clinical predictors. All dosimetric parameters were significant: rV(20Gy) was the most significant predictor. On multivariate analysis, baseline CP score (hazard ratio, 0.026; P=0.001) was the only significant predictor. In conclusion, SABR using 3 fractions in primary and metastatic liver cancers produces low hepatic toxicity, especially in patients with a baseline CP score of 5. However, further studies are needed to minimize hepatic toxicity in patients with baseline CP scores> or =6.


Subject(s)
Aged , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Female , Hepatitis/etiology , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Metastasis , Radiation Injuries/etiology , Radiosurgery/adverse effects , Radiotherapy Dosage , Treatment Outcome
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-208469

ABSTRACT

Information on the blood safety management system in Japan was collected by visiting the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW), Japanese Red Cross Blood Service Headquarter, Kanto-Koshinetsu Block Blood Center, and Yurakucho Blood Room of Tokyo Metropolitan Blood Center, in July 2014, to improve the quality of the blood management system in Korea. In Japan, all blood products are supplied by the Japanese Red Cross Blood Service. In April 2012, the function of screening tests and blood product production of the provincial blood centers was transferred to the block blood centers. Donor suitability is assessed by medical doctors and EKG was tested for donors over 40 years old annually. To prevent bacterial contamination, the shelf life of platelets was shortened to 4 days after production, but routine bacterial screening test was not performed. Adverse reactions and infection following transfusions are reported to MHLW through the Red Cross Blood Service, and the case was reviewed by Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). Before transfusion, HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, anti-HCV, and HCVcAg of the recipient is tested, and testing for HIV antigen is performed if the recipient has risk factors for HIV infection. Even when hepatitis B NAT is positive, look back is not performed if anti-HBc is negative and there is no history of blood donation within 125 days before the current donation. Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for blood centers was introduced in the 1990s and PMDA performs the test every 5 years. In introduction of GMP in Korea, it is necessary to decide how to absorb the expense.


Subject(s)
Asians , Blood Donors , Blood Safety , Electrocardiography , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , HIV , HIV Infections , Humans , Japan , Korea , Mass Screening , Red Cross , Risk Factors , Tissue Donors
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-173061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It was reported that a continuous education program and external proficiency testing (PT) for blood grouping test (BGT) might be necessary because some blood centers of medical institutions could not correctly examine ABO subtype and D variant, according to the results of the first year project in 2011. Therefore, the results of PT for BGT in blood centers in 2012 and 2013 were compared to those in 2011 in order to assess the impact of projects during a period of three years and to help in planning the future PT for BGT. METHODS: Whole blood survey samples composed of three panels for ABO grouping and three panels for D typing were sent to 74 and 71 institutes in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Evaluation criteria for BGT were as follows: 'Good' for the answers matched with intended results, 'Acceptable' for the correct answers other than that of 'Good', and 'Unacceptable' for the answers other than those of 'Good+acceptable' as correct answers. RESULTS: The answer rates of 'Unacceptable' for ABO subtype were 1.4% in 2012 and 4.2% in 2013. However, the answer rate of 'Good' increased from 44.6% in 2012 to 83.1% in 2013. The answer rate of 'Unacceptable' for D variants showed a marked decrease, from 16.2% in 2012 to 1.4% in 2013. CONCLUSION: Projects for PT for BGT during a period of three years have improved laboratory quality in blood centers. However, the acquisition and change of the materials for PT would be necessary in order to continuously and practically provide help to blood centers.


Subject(s)
Academies and Institutes , Blood Grouping and Crossmatching , Education
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