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1.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 159-166, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1003025

ABSTRACT

Gastric acid-related disorders are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Acetylcholine, gastrin, and histamine are physiological agonists that stimulate acid secretion from parietal cells. Histamine plays a decisive role in the transformation of parietal cells into acid-secreting forms. The H+, K+- ATPase proton pump, which represents the final step of acid secretion, translocates from cytoplasmic tubulovesicles to secretory canaliculi upon parietal cell stimulation and facilitates exchange of intracellular H+ with extracellular K+ in a 1:1 ratio. Histamine-2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in clinical practice, and potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs) have gained attention in recent times. P-CABs address the unmet needs of patients who receive conventional PPIs and have broadened the spectrum of drug choices; however, further research is warranted to confirm long-term safety of these drugs. Comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of actions, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and the adverse effect profile is essential for appropriate prescription of gastric acid-suppressive drugs. In this review, we provide a developing history and outline the pharmacological mechanisms underlying various gastric acid-suppressive drugs used in clinical settings.

2.
Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine ; : 58-66, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918169

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#:The purpose of this study is to compare the psychosocial characteristics of patients diagnosed with functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) by classifying them into irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia (FD), functional constipation (FC), functional heartburn (FH) groups, and overlap group (two or more functional diseases) and to examine the factors associated with the quality of life (QoL) of patients with FGID. @*Methods@#:A total of 144 patients who were diagnosed with FGID were selected as the subjects. The demographical factors were investigated; Korean-Beck Depression Inventory-II (K-BDI-II), Korean-Beck Anxiety Inventory (K-BAI), Korean version of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (K-CTQ), Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), Korean Version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (K-CD-RISC), and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment Instrument Brief Form (WHOQOL-BREF) were used to evaluate the psychosocial factors. @*Results@#:TThe overlap group had a significantly higher K-BDI-II score (F=11.09, p<0.001) and K-BAI score (F=8.93, p<0.001) compared to other groups. In childhood trauma, the IBS patients had a difference in emotional neglect (F=2.54, p=0.04) than the FD patients. The QoL of FGID patients had a negative correlation with depression (r=-0.196, p<0.01), anxiety (r=-0.235, p<0.01), and childhood trauma (r=-0.222, p<0.01), and a positive correlation with social support (r=0.512, p<0.01) and resilience (r=0.581, p<0.01). @*Conclusions@#:Overlap group had a higher level of depression and anxiety, and the IBS patient group had a higher level of emotional neglect than the FD patient group in terms of childhood trauma.

3.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 243-247, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837307

ABSTRACT

Achalasia is a rare primary esophageal motility disorder characterized by the loss of enteric neurons leading to an absence of peristalsis and impaired relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. The subsequent stasis of ingested food not only leads to symptoms of dysphagia, regurgitation, chest pain, and weight loss, but also results in an increased risk of esophageal carcinoma. Structural or functional pulmonary abnormalities occur in more than half of patients and may be due to recurrent aspiration or tracheal compression from a dilated esophagus. Delayed diagnosis or ineffective intervention may lead to progressive dilation of the esophagus and the development of a megaesophagus. Respiratory distress and cardiopulmonary arrest from tracheal or left atrial compression secondary to a megaesophagus are rare complications of achalasia. There is only limited evidence that pneumatic dilation may be used as a first-line therapy for a megaesophagus. The choice of definitive treatment will depend on many factors including achalasia type, patient wishes, performance status, and surgical expertise.

4.
The Korean Journal of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research ; : 68-72, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837295

ABSTRACT

Esophageal diverticula are uncommon lesions that are usually classified according to location, layers of the wall, and underlying pathogenesis. A true traction esophageal diverticulum, which is commonly seen in the middle one-third of the thoracic esophagus, occurs secondary to mediastinal inflammatory lesions, such as those caused by tuberculosis. Esophageal tuberculosis usually develops secondary to tuberculous lymphadenitis or lung lesion; it manifests with various endoscopic findings such as single or multiple ulcers, elevated lesions with ulcers at the center, extrinsic compressions, fistulas, and rarely, anthracosis. Its shape can vary greatly depending on disease progression and treatment. Herein, we report sequential endoscopic findings of a tuberculous esophageal ulcer that turned into a depressed lesion with black-pigmentation, finally developing into a typical traction esophageal diverticulum in a patient with mediastinal lymphadenitis.

5.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 168-169, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763286

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Esophagus , Sebaceous Glands
6.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 60-61, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719542

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Misoprostol
7.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 44-48, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30650

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic cecal ulcer is a rare disease entity of unknown cause diagnosed by ruling out other known causes of cecal ulceration. The most common complication of an idiopathic cecal ulcer is bleeding; perforation, peritonitis, abscess, and stricture formation have been noted. The authors treated a 53-year-old woman who presented with fever and intermittent right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Multiple pyogenic liver abscess and a solitary cecal ulcer were diagnosed by radiologic, endoscopic, and pathologic examination, followed by laparoscopic cecectomy. After extensive study, we concluded that this patient's liver abscesses were a complication of the idiopathic cecal ulcer. Herein, we report a case of multiple pyogenic liver abscess caused by microperforation of idiopathic cecal ulcer.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Cecal Diseases/complications , Colonoscopy , Laparoscopy , Liver/pathology , Liver Abscess, Pyogenic/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ulcer/complications
8.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 282-285, 2015.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191020

ABSTRACT

Aerophagia is a disorder caused by abnormal accumulation of air in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of repetitive and frequent inflow of air through the mouth. For the diagnosis of this condition, it is difficult to objectively measure the air swallowing. However, multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring facilitates the differential diagnosis between normal air swallowing and pathologic aerophagia, and can aid in the determination of the frequency and amount of air swallowed. In this report, in addition to a literature review, we describe a case of 36-year-old man with abdominal distension who was diagnosed with aerophagia using esophageal impedance monitoring and was treated with clonazepam.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Aerophagy/diagnosis , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Clonazepam/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Electric Impedance , Mental Disorders/complications , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Gut and Liver ; : 363-367, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-191439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute suppurative cholangitis (ASC), a severe form of acute cholangitis, is a life-threatening condition that must be treated with appropriate and timely management. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that predispose patients to ASC. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated 181 patients (100 men, 81 women; age, 70.66+/-7.38 years, mean+/-SD) who were admitted to Wonkwang University Hospital between January 2005 and June 2007 for acute cholangitis with common bile duct (CBD) stones. All patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram to remove the stones. Variables and factors that could be assessed upon admission were analyzed to identify the risk factors for the development of ASC. RESULTS: Of the 181 patients, 44 (24.3%) presented with ASC. On multivariate analysis, the followings were found to be independent risk factors for the development of ASC: impacted common bile duct stone (p=0.010), current smoker status (p=0.008), advanced age (>70 years; p=0.002), and gallstone (p=0.016). The most commonly isolated organisms in bile culture were Enterococcus species, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella species. CONCLUSIONS: Impacted bile-duct stones, current smoking, advanced age, and gallstones were identified as independent risk factors for the development of ASC in patients with CBD stones. These results suggest that emergency biliary drainage is beneficial in patients with these risk factors.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Bile , Cholangitis , Common Bile Duct , Drainage , Emergencies , Enterococcus , Escherichia coli , Gallstones , Klebsiella , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
10.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 467-470, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183151

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic cholecystitis is a rare, poorly understood inflammatory condition of the gall bladder. It is characterized by transmural inflammation of the gallbladder wall in which more than 90% of the white cells are eosinophils. The etiology of eosinophilic cholecystitis remains obscure, although suggested causes include allergies, parasites, eosinophilic enteritis, and local reaction to gall stones. We report the case of a 66-year-old man who had eosinophilic cholecystitis associated with gall stones.


Subject(s)
Aged , Humans , Cholecystitis , Enteritis , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Gallbladder , Gallstones , Gastritis , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Parasites , Urinary Bladder
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 499-501, 2009.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183144

ABSTRACT

Hypokalemic periodic paralysis may be precipitated by stress, rest after exercise, or events that lower serum potassium levels, such as carbohydrate ingestion or the use of insulin or diuretics. In healthy subjects, insulin activates Na+/K+ ATPase, which elicits potassium influx and transient hypokalemia; however, hypokalemia is compensated by K+ ATP channel activation. Recently, we encountered a 49-year-old male patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hyperinsulinemic hypokalemic periodic paralysis. The patient had no family history of muscle weakness or diabetes mellitus. At the time of the attack, plasma glucose was 142.4 mg/dL, plasma insulin was 116.86 micronIU/mL, serum potassium was 2.08 mEq/L, and thyroid hormone, renin, aldosterone, ACTH, and cortisol levels were normal. Symptoms improved rapidly upon potassium replacement. Oral glucose tolerance testing revealed high glucose and insulin levels at 2 h, and serum potassium and phosphate levels decreased from 5.1 to 4 mEq/L and 3.6 to 2.0 mg/dL, respectively.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adenosine Triphosphatases , Adenosine Triphosphate , Adrenocorticotropic Hormone , Aldosterone , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diuretics , Eating , Glucose , Glucose Tolerance Test , Hydrocortisone , Hyperinsulinism , Hypokalemia , Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis , Insulin , Muscle Weakness , Plasma , Potassium , Renin , Thyroid Gland
12.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 459-462, 2008.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-39356

ABSTRACT

Macroenzymes are high molecular weight complexes formed in the serum by self-polymerization or by association with other proteins. Macroenzymes are filtered with difficulty by normal renal glomeruli. Clinically, it is important to detect macroenzymes, because they frequently interfere with the interpretation of serum enzyme results, and as a result they can cause diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Macroamylasemia and macrolipasemia have been found to occur in apparently healthy humans, as well as in a variety of disease states, including liver disease, diabetes, cancer, malabsorption, and autoimmune disorders. We report a patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and macroamylasemia and macrolipasemia, the latter two of which were discovered using a screening test.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcoholics , Hyperamylasemia , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic , Liver Diseases , Mass Screening , Molecular Weight , Proteins
13.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 423-427, 2007.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-22163

ABSTRACT

Primary hepatic tuberculoma is a rare malady that is not accompanied by local symptoms, so the diagnosis can frequently be delayed or misconceived as other disease. We report here on an unusual case of primary hepatic tuberculoma that was misconceived as a cholangiocarcinoma on the imaging study. A 54-year-old man presented with dyspepsia and weight loss for 1 month. Abdominal computerized tomography demonstrated a solitary space-occupying lesion on the left lobe of the liver that suggested there was a cholangiocarcinoma accompanied with gastric outlet obstruction. The lesion was diagnosed by the ultrasonographic guided liver biopsy as a chronic granulomatous inflammation with necrosis, and the patient was treated via surgical resection with gastro-jejunostomy followed by antituberculosis chemotherapy. Twelve months later, no evidence of recurrence was noted when examining the patient's symptoms and the imaging studies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Biopsy , Cholangiocarcinoma , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Dyspepsia , Gastric Outlet Obstruction , Inflammation , Liver , Necrosis , Recurrence , Tuberculoma , Weight Loss
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