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1.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1120-1125, 2023.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001784

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We report a case of retinopathy related to bilateral hyperviscosity syndrome in a patient with Waldenström macroglobulinemia.Case summary: A 77-year-old male presented with reduced visual acuities of both eyes 2 months in duration. Fundus examination revealed extensive flame-shaped retinal hemorrhages and venous congestion. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) evidenced macular edema and OCT angiography (OCTA) indicated damage to the superficial and deep capillary plexi of retina and choriocapillaris and dilated large choroidal vessels. We diagnosed central retinal vein occlusion with macular edema and prescribed intravitreal bevacizumab and posterior subtenon triamcinolone injections, however, the edema did not improve. As retinopathy associated with hematological disease was thus suspected, we referred the patient to our department of hematology and oncology for further assessment. He was diagnosed with Waldenström macroglobulinemia. After initiation of chemotherapy, the retinal hemorrhage in and macular edema of both eyes decreased. After six chemotherapy cycles, the retinal hemorrhages resolved and the macular edema improved in both eyes. OCTA revealed that the choroidal vessel dilation also improved. @*Conclusions@#In elderly patients presenting with central retinal vein occlusions and macular edema of both eyes, it is important to assess whether the retinopathy is associated with a hyperviscosity syndrome linked to a hematological disease.

2.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 103-111, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937747

ABSTRACT

Background@#Aging leads to significant bone loss and elevated osteoporosis risk. Exercise slows age-related bone loss; however, the effects of various moderate-intensity exercise training volumes on bone metabolism remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the degree to which different volumes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training influence bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), femoral trabecular bone microarchitecture, and cortical bone in middle-aged mice. @*Methods@#Twenty middle-aged male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned 8 weeks of either (1) non-exercise (CON); (2) moderate-intensity with high-volume exercise (EX_MHV); or (3) moderate-intensity with low-volume exercise (EX_MLV) (N=6-7, respectively). Femoral BMD and BMC were evaluated using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and trabecular and cortical bone were measured using micro-computed tomography. @*Results@#Femoral BMD in EX_MHV but not EX_MLV was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in CON. The distal femoral fractional trabecular bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV, %) was significantly higher (P<0.05) in both EX_MHV and EX_MLV than in CON mice. Increased BV/TV was induced by significantly increased trabecular thickness (mm) and tended to be higher (P<0.10) in BV (mm3) and lower in trabecular separation (mm) in EX_MHV and EX_MLV than in CON. The femoral mid-diaphysis cortical bone was stronger in EX_MLV than EX_MHV. @*Conclusions@#Long-term moderate-intensity aerobic exercise with low to high volumes can be thought to have a positive effect on hindlimb BMD and attenuate age-associated trabecular bone loss in the femur. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise may be an effective and applicable exercise regimen to prevent age-related loss of BMD and BV.

3.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 191-198, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937112

ABSTRACT

With increasing use, the incidence of adverse events associated with sugammadex, a neuromuscular blockade reverser, is increasing. This study aimed to identify and analyze cases of adverse events caused by sugammadex reported in Korean population. Methods: Out of a total of 12 cases detected using various keywords in the Korean Journal of Anesthesia, Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (Seoul), KoreaMed, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library-CENTRAL from 2013 to December 2020, 10 cases directly associated with sugammadex were selected. Results: Adverse events included five cases of anaphylaxis, one case of cardiac arrest, one case of profound bradycardia, one case of negative pressure pulmonary edema, and two cases of incomplete recovery. Three patients had American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status ≥ 3, two had emergency surgery, and two had a history of allergic reaction. Neuromuscular monitoring was applied in nine cases. The average dose of sugammadex was 2.87 mg/kg, and there were six cases in which one full vial was used, regardless of the state of neuromuscular recovery. Sugammadex was administered immediately after surgery in two cases, at train of four (TOF) 0 in four cases, at TOF 3 in one case, and after evaluation of the clinical signs only with no neuromuscular monitoring in one case. Conclusions: Even with neuromuscular monitoring, an excessive dose of sugammadex was observed. Given that adverse events tend to occur within 10 min of administration, continuous monitoring is important even after administration.

4.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 145-156, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937111

ABSTRACT

Counselling and medication are often thought of as the only interventions for psychiatric disorders, but electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has also been applied in clinical practice for over 80 years. ECT refers to the application of an electric stimulus through the patient’s scalp to treat psychiatric disorders such as treatment-resistant depression, catatonia, and schizophrenia. It is a safe, effective, and evidence-based therapy performed under general anesthesia with muscle relaxation. An appropriate level of anesthesia is essential for safe and successful ECT; however, little is known about this because of the limited interest from anesthesiologists. As the incidence of ECT increases, more anesthesiologists will be required to better understand the physiological changes, complications, and pharmacological actions of anesthetics and adjuvant drugs. Therefore, this review focuses on the fundamental physiological changes, management, and pharmacological actions associated with various drugs, such as anesthetics and neuromuscular blocking agents, as well as the comorbidities, indications, contraindications, and complications of using these agents as part of an ECT procedure through a literature review and our own experiences.

5.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1428-1434, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916414

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We report two cases of tacrolimus-related transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) retinopathy in leukemia patients who had undergone allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT).Case summary: (Case 1) A 58-year-old woman with a history of PBSCT due to acute myelocytic leukemia and taking tacrolimus was referred to the ophthalmology clinic with visual disturbance. Her visual acuity (VA) was 0.4 in the right eye and 0.5 in the left eye. Multiple cotton wool spots and retinal hemorrhages were found in both eyes on fundus examination. Multiple capillary non-perfusions were seen on fluorescein angiography (FA). Tacrolimus-related TA-TMA retinopathy was suspected. Tacrolimus was discontinued and plasmapheresis was performed. After 3 months, neovascular glaucoma developed and her VA became “counting fingers” at 20 cm in both eyes. (Case 2) A 20-year-old man with a history of PBSCT due to acute lymphocytic leukemia and taking tacrolimus was referred to our clinic because of decreased VA in both eyes. His VA was 0.05 in the right eye and 0.025 in the left eye. Fundus and FA findings were the same as in Case 1, and the patient was suspected to have tacrolimus-related TA-TMA retinopathy. Tacrolimus was discontinued and plasmapheresis was performed. His VA was 0.2 in the right eye and 0.4 in the left eye at 1 month after treatment. @*Conclusions@#It is necessary to consider TA-TMA retinopathy in leukemia patients taking calcineurin inhibitors, such as tacrolimus, who have decreased VA. Early diagnosis and treatment are important.

6.
International Neurourology Journal ; : S47-54, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914712

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The effects of aerobic exercise training on soleus muscle morphology, mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling, and atrophy/hypertrophy signaling in ovariectomized rat skeletal muscle were investigated. @*Methods@#Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (CON), ovariectomy (OVX), and ovariectomy plus exercise (OVX+EX) groups. After ovarian excision, exercise training was performed using a rat treadmill at 20 m/min, 50 min/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. Protein levels of mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling and atrophy/hypertrophy signaling in the skeletal muscle (soleus) were examined through western immunoblot analysis. @*Results@#The number of myocytes and myocyte cross-sectional area (CSA) were increased and the extramyocyte space was decreased in the OVX group compared to those in the CON group. However, aerobic exercise training significantly increased myocyte CSA and decreased extramyocyte space in the OVX+EX group compared to those in the OVX group. The protein levels of proapoptotic signaling and muscle atrophy signaling were significantly increased, whereas the protein levels of muscle hypertrophy signaling were significantly decreased in the OVX group compared to that in the CON group. Aerobic exercise training significantly decreased the protein levels of proapoptotic signaling and increased the protein level of antiapoptotic protein in the OVX+EX group compared to that in the OVX group. Aerobic exercise training significantly increased the protein levels of hypertrophy signaling and decreased protein levels of atrophy signaling in the OVX+EX group compared to those in the OVX group. @*Conclusions@#Treadmill exercise improved estrogen deficiency-induced impairment in skeletal muscle remodeling, mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling, and atrophy/hypertrophy signaling in skeletal muscle.

7.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1252-1258, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-893422

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and iridocorneal angle (ICA) configuration during smartphone use under room light. @*Methods@#We included healthy adults aged 19-35 years with no ophthalmological abnormalities. All read text on a smartphone for 6 minutes under room light. IOP was measured via rebound tonometry at baseline and at 2, 4, and 6 minutes. ICA images were obtained via anterior segment optical coherence tomography after each IOP measurement. After 6 minutes, participants stopped reading text and rested for 2 minutes. IOP was then measured again. @*Results@#The IOP significantly increased at 2, 4, and 6 minutes of reading compared to baseline (p < 0.001) but recovered to baseline after 2 minutes of rest (p = 1.000). The anterior chamber depth decreased significantly, and the anterior chamber angle width increased after 6 minutes of smartphone reading (both p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#IOP increased when reading smartphone text under room light but the ICA did not change. Prolonged smartphone reading is inappropriate for a patient at risk of glaucoma or glaucoma progression. Such patients should be cautioned.

8.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1252-1258, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-901126

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To investigate changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and iridocorneal angle (ICA) configuration during smartphone use under room light. @*Methods@#We included healthy adults aged 19-35 years with no ophthalmological abnormalities. All read text on a smartphone for 6 minutes under room light. IOP was measured via rebound tonometry at baseline and at 2, 4, and 6 minutes. ICA images were obtained via anterior segment optical coherence tomography after each IOP measurement. After 6 minutes, participants stopped reading text and rested for 2 minutes. IOP was then measured again. @*Results@#The IOP significantly increased at 2, 4, and 6 minutes of reading compared to baseline (p < 0.001) but recovered to baseline after 2 minutes of rest (p = 1.000). The anterior chamber depth decreased significantly, and the anterior chamber angle width increased after 6 minutes of smartphone reading (both p < 0.05). @*Conclusions@#IOP increased when reading smartphone text under room light but the ICA did not change. Prolonged smartphone reading is inappropriate for a patient at risk of glaucoma or glaucoma progression. Such patients should be cautioned.

9.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 216-221, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875056

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate changes in ocular surface pH after 23-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery. @*Methods@#This retrospective study included 42 patients who underwent 23-gauge microincision vitrectomy. Best-corrected visual acuity and intraocular pressure were measured. Fundus examination, color fundus photography, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed. Chemosis was evaluated once a day after surgery, and the ocular surface pH was measured using a microelectrode on the day before surgery and every day up to day 5 after surgery. @*Results@#A total of 42 eyes in 42 patients were examined. The average age was 63.7 years. The indications for surgery included epiretinal membrane in 14 eyes (33.3%), vitreous hemorrhage in 11 eyes (26.2%), macular hole in 11 eyes (26.2%), and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in six eyes (14.3%). Although the mean ocular surface pH increased from 7.12 ± 0.04 to 7.55 ± 0.04 on the first day after surgery (p < 0.001), it gradually decreased to 7.41 ± 0.03 from the second day postoperatively (p < 0.001). It was subsequently measured as 7.33 ± 0.04 on the third day (p < 0.001) and 7.23 ± 0.03 on the fourth day (p < 0.001) postoperatively. On the fifth postoperative day, the ocular surface pH further decreased to 7.15 ± 0.03 (p = 0.152) and recovered to the preoperative state. A statistically significant correlation was found between the change in ocular surface pH and the chemosis grade (p = 0.001). @*Conclusions@#After 23-gauge microincision vitrectomy surgery, the ocular surface pH shifted temporarily in the alkaline direction within a physiological range correlated with chemosis and intravitreal tamponade usage.

10.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 19-22, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875042

ABSTRACT

A 30-year-old female patient presented with a progressive gait disturbance, who had been previously diagnosed for cataract and ovarian failure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a high signal intensity of white matter in fluid attenuated inversion recovery and low signal intensity in brain volume imaging, suggesting demyelinating leukodystrophy. Genetic analysis confirmed the pathogenic homozygous mutations c.245T>A in the EIF2B2 gene, which is associated with vanishing white matter disease.

11.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 232-247, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913353

ABSTRACT

Nasotracheal intubation is used as a basic method for airway management, along with orotracheal intubation under anesthesia and intensive care. It has become an effective alternative method to orotracheal intubation with increased benefits of offering better mobility and surgical field in oral and maxillofacial surgery and possibly in trauma and critically ill patients. Nasotracheal intubation is performed through a relatively narrow nasal cavity; therefore, additional precautions are needed. Accordingly, nasotracheal intubation methods have evolved over the years with accumulated clinical experience and improved instruments to facilitate safe intubation with reduced complications. Therefore, in this review article, we summarize the basic anatomy of the nasal airways to clarify the precautions, delineate the history and development of various methods and instruments, and describe the indications, contraindications, complications, and preventive methods of nasotracheal intubation.

12.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 406-418, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836079

ABSTRACT

Dyslipidemia refers to an abnormal amount of lipid in the blood, and the total cholesterol level is defined as the sum of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and very-LDL cholesterol concentrations. In Korea, the westernization of lifestyle habits in recent years has caused an increase in the incidence of dyslipidemia, which is an important risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several studies have been conducted on how dyslipidemia affects not only CVD, but also chorioretinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Recently, a pathological model of AMD was proposed under the assumption that AMD proceeds through a mechanism similar to that of atherosclerotic CVD. However, controversy remains regarding the relationship between chorioretinal diseases and lipid levels in the blood, and the effects of lipid-lowering agents. Herein, we summarize the role of lipids in chorioretinal diseases.In addition, the effects of lipid-lowering agents on the prevention and progression of chorioretinal diseases are presented.

13.
International Neurourology Journal ; : S22-S31, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914672

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#This study aimed to investigate the effects of single-bout exercise on mitochondrial function, dynamics (fusion, fission), and mitophagy in cardiac and skeletal muscles.@*METHODS@#Fischer 344 rats (4 months old) were randomly divided into the control (CON) or acute exercise (EX) group (n=10 each). The rats performed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 60 minutes. Mitochondrial function (e.g., O₂ respiration, H₂O₂ emission, Ca²⁺ retention capacity), mitochondrial fusion (e.g., Mfn1, Mfn2, Opa1), mitochondrial fission (e.g., Drp1, Fis1), and mitophagy (e.g., Parkin, Pink1, LC3II, Bnip3) were measured in permeabilized cardiac (e.g., left ventricle) and skeletal (e.g., soleus, white gastrocnemius) muscles.@*RESULTS@#Mitochondrial O₂ respiration and Ca²⁺ retention capacity were significantly increased in all tissues of the EX group compared with the CON group. Mitochondrial H₂O₂ emissions showed tissue-specific results; the emissions showed no significant differences in the left ventricle or soleus (type I fibers) but was significantly increased in the white gastrocnemius (type II fibers) after acute exercise. Mitochondrial fusion and fission were not altered in any tissues of the EX group. Mitophagy showed tissue-specific differences: It was not changed in the left ventricle or white gastrocnemius, whereas Parkin and LC3II were significantly elevated in the soleus muscle.@*CONCLUSIONS@#A single bout of aerobic exercise may improve mitochondrial function (e.g., O₂ respiration and Ca²⁺ retention capacity) in the heart and skeletal muscles without changes in mitochondrial dynamics or mitophagy.

14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e118-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on real-world treatment patterns for diabetic macular edema (DME) in Korea. In this study, we investigated DME treatment patterns from 2009 to 2014 and the impact of baseline treatment on healthcare resource utilization and visual acuity (VA) outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective cohort chart review of DME patients treated at 11 hospital ophthalmology clinics between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 was conducted. We collected data on demographics, healthcare resource utilization (clinic visits, treatment visits, and visits for ocular investigations), distribution of DME treatments, and VA. RESULTS: Overall, 522 DME patients (men, 55.2%; mean age, 59 years; mean HbA1c [n = 209], 8.4%) with 842 DME eyes were evaluated. For all treatments, healthcare resource utilization was significantly higher during the first 6 months versus months 7–12, year 2, or year 3 (P ≤ 0.001), but was highest for patients whose first treatment was an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment (visits/quarter; anti-VEGF, 1.9; corticosteroids, 1.7; laser, 1.4). Use of macular laser therapy decreased (44% to 8%), whereas use of anti-VEGF injections increased (44% to 69%) during the study period. However, VA improvement was not commensurate with healthcare resource utilization of anti-VEGF treatment (mean VA gain, 2.7 letters). CONCLUSION: A trend toward increasing use of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections for DME treatment was observed in Korea. However, the frequency of dosing and monitoring was lower in clinical practice versus major clinical trials, which may have led to the less-than-favorable improvements in visual outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Demography , Endothelial Growth Factors , Intravitreal Injections , Korea , Laser Therapy , Macular Edema , Ophthalmology , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Retrospective Studies , Visual Acuity
15.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 808-815, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766889

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of choroidal neovascularization in a Best disease patient treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injection and followed up with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). CASE SUMMARY: A 20-year-old female visited our clinic with decreased visual acuity of the left eye for 6 months. On optical coherence tomography (OCT), subretinal fluid and hyperreflective subretinal clumps were observed in the macula of the right eye. Subretinal hemorrhage and subretinal fluid were observed in the left eye. Choroidal neovascularization in the left eye was observed using OCTA, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. A full-field electroretinogram was normal in both eyes, but an electrooculogram revealed that the Arden ratio was 1.564 in the right eye and 1.081 in the left eye. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection was performed in the left eye. At 6 months after the intravitreal injection, the best-corrected visual acuity of the left eye had recovered to 20/20. OCT revealed that subretinal fluid reduced and choroidal neovascularization was stable. After 12 months, visual acuity of the left eye was maintained at 20/20, but OCTA revealed that choroidal neovascularization had increased. CONCLUSIONS: Choroidal neovascularization associated with Best disease can improve by intravitreal bevacizumab injection, and the changes in choroidal neovascularization can be followed using OCTA.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Young Adult , Angiography , Bevacizumab , Choroid , Choroidal Neovascularization , Electrooculography , Fluorescein Angiography , Hemorrhage , Indocyanine Green , Intravitreal Injections , Subretinal Fluid , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Visual Acuity , Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy
16.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 1006-1009, 2019.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766829

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of anterior uveitis secondary to Listeria monocytogenes infection. CASE SUMMARY: A 57-year-old male presented to our clinic with ocular pain and decreased vision in the right eye for 2 days. The patient had a history of liver transplantation 2 years prior and used immunosuppressive agents. Listeria monocytogenes was identified in blood cultures 1 month before his visit. At presentation, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of the right eye was counting fingers at 20 cm and the intraocular pressure (IOP) was 50 mmHg. Conjunctival hyperemia, corneal edema, keratic precipitates, and cells in the anterior chamber were observed in the right eye. The patient was diagnosed as anterior uveitis in the right eye. Conventional uveitis treatment was initiated but clinical features did not improve and black hypopyon appeared. The possibility of anterior uveitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes infection was considered. An anterior chamber tap and culture were conducted to identify pathogens. Anterior chamber antibiotic injections and systemic antibiotic injections were performed. One week after injection, the BCVA of the right eye improved to 0.4 and the IOP decreased to 14 mmHg. One month after injection, the BCVA of the right eye improved to 1.0 and the IOP decreased to 16 mmHg. No inflammation of the anterior chamber was observed. CONCLUSIONS: When nonspecific uveitis occurs in immunosuppressed patients, cultures and appropriate antibiotics should be considered because of the possibility of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Anterior Chamber , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Corneal Edema , Endophthalmitis , Fingers , Hyperemia , Immunosuppressive Agents , Inflammation , Intraocular Pressure , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeria , Liver Transplantation , Uveitis , Uveitis, Anterior , Visual Acuity
17.
Journal of Bone Metabolism ; : 225-239, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increase in bone mineral density during adolescence increases resistance to fractures in older age. The Korean Society for Bone and Mineral Research and the Korean Society of Exercise Physiology developed exercise guidelines to increase the peak bone mass (PBM) in adolescents based on evidence through a systematic review of previous research.METHODS: Articles were selected using the systematic method, and the exercise guidelines were established by selecting key questions (KQs) and defining the effects of exercises based on evidence through a literature review for selecting the final exercise method. There were 9 KQs. An online search was conducted on articles published since 2000, and 93 articles were identified.RESULTS: An increase in PBM in adolescence was effective for preventing osteoporosis and fractures in older age. Exercise programs as part of vigorous physical activity (VPA) including resistance and impact exercise at least 5 to 6 months were effective for improving PBM in adolescents. It is recommended that resistance exercise is performed 10 to 12 rep·set⁻¹ 1-2 set·region⁻¹ and 3 days·week⁻¹ using the large muscles. For impact exercises such as jumping, it is recommended that the exercise is performed at least 50 jumps·min⁻¹, 10 min·day⁻¹ and 2 days·week⁻¹.CONCLUSIONS: Exercise guidelines were successfully developed, and they recommend at least 5 to 6 months of VPA, which includes both resistance and impact exercises. With the development of exercise guidelines, the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures in the aging society can be reduced in the future, thus contributing to improved public health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , Aging , Bone Density , Exercise , Incidence , Methods , Miners , Motor Activity , Muscles , Osteoporosis , Physiology , Public Health
18.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 29-34, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719407

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist, can be used for sedation and as an adjuvant to anesthetics. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of preanesthetic administration of dexmedetomidine on the propofol and remifentanil requirement during general anesthesia and postoperative pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly assigned to group D or S (n = 30 each). Dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg/kg) and a comparable volume of saline were administered in groups D and S, respectively, over a 10 minutes period before induction. General anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil; the bispectral index was maintained at 40–60. The intraoperative remifentanil and propofol dosages were recorded, and postoperative pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). RESULTS: In groups S and D, propofol dosage was 8.52 ± 1.64 and 6.83 ± 1.55 mg/kg/h, respectively (P < 0.001), while remifentanil dosage was 7.18 ± 2.42 and 4.84 ± 1.44 µg/ kg/h, respectively (P < 0.001). VAS scores for postoperative pain were 6.50 (6–7) and 6.0 (6–7), respectively, at 30 minutes (P = 0.569), 5 (4–5) and 4 (3–5), respectively, at 12 hours (P = 0.039), and 2 (2–3) and 2 (1.25–2), respectively, at 24 hours (P = 0.044). The Friedman test revealed that VAS scores changed over time in both groups (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Preanesthetic single administration of a low dose of dexmedetomidine (0.5 µg/kg) can significantly decrease the remifentanil and propofol requirement during short surgeries and alleviate postoperative pain.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Dexmedetomidine , Pain, Postoperative , Propofol , Visual Analog Scale
19.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 938-945, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738483

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate longitudinal changes in the thicknesses of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (mGCIPL) in patients with diabetic retinopathy 3 years after panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 60 eyes of 35 patients who were diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy and treated with PRP. The pRNFL and mGCIPL thicknesses were measured by optical coherence tomography at baseline, and then at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 months after PRP. RESULTS: The pRNFL and mGCIPL thicknesses (average and all sections) at 1 year after PRP increased significantly from baseline (p < 0.05, respectively). The average pRNFL and mGCIPL thicknesses showed a tendency to decrease continuously from 2 years after PRP (p < 0.05, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in the average thicknesses of the pRNFL and the mGCIPL between pre-PRP (92.27 ± 7.76 µm, and 85.00 ± 4.80 µm, respectively) and 3 years after PRP (93.93 ± 7.49 µm, and 81.87 ± 14.00 µm, respectively) (p = 0.121, and p = 0.622, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although the pRNFL and the mGCIPL thicknesses increased at 1 year after PRP, there was no statistical difference in the average thicknesses of the pRNFL and the mGCIPL between pre-PRP and 3 years after PRP. These results should be considered with respect to the diagnosis and progression of glaucoma in patients with diabetic retinopathy who undergo PRP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Retinopathy , Diagnosis , Ganglion Cysts , Glaucoma , Light Coagulation , Medical Records , Nerve Fibers , Retinaldehyde , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence
20.
Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society ; : 680-686, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738557

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in the right eye which improved after intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, and serous retinal detachment (SRD) in the left eye which improved spontaneously in a patient with a bilateral dome-shaped macula (DSM) with a tilted optic disc and inferonasal posterior staphyloma. CASE SUMMARY: A 50-year-old female visited our clinic with visual disturbance of the right eye for 5 days. A tilted optic disc with inferonasal posterior staphyloma and DSM were observed in both eyes by fundus examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and there was no specific finding in the left eye, but pigment epithelial detachment (PED) with subretinal hemorrhage was observed in the right eye. Polyps and branching vascular networks were found using indocyanine green angiography. We performed intravitreal C3F8 gas and aflibercept injection. After 3 months, SD-OCT of the right eye showed no subretinal hemorrhage and diminished PED. SD-OCT of the left eye showed SRD but the SRD disappeared after 1 month. SD-OCT of the left eye showed no recurrence of the SRD. CONCLUSIONS: In a patient with a tilted optic disc and dome-shaped macula, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy and SRD may occur, so appropriate treatment will be necessary.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Angiography , Choroid , Endothelial Growth Factors , Hemorrhage , Indocyanine Green , Intravitreal Injections , Polyps , Recurrence , Retinal Detachment , Retinaldehyde , Tomography, Optical Coherence
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