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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719721

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aim to examine nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) characteristics and survival outcomes in patients aged 70 years and older in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2006 to 2013, 126 non-metastatic NPC patients aged ≥ 70 years who were treated with IMRT +/‒ chemotherapy were included. Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 (ACE-27) was used to measure patient comorbidities. The overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS)were calculatedwith the Kaplan-Meier method, and differenceswere compared using the log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to carry out multivariate analyses. RESULTS: For the entire group, only two patients (1.6%) presented stage I disease, and up to 84.1% patients had stage III-IVB disease. All patients had a comorbidity score of 0 in 24 (19.0%), 1 in 45 (35.7%), 2 in 42 (33.3%), and 3 in 15 (11.9%) patients. The main acute grade during radiotherapy was 3-4 adverse events consisting of mucositis (25.4%), bone marrow suppression (16.7%), and dermatitis (8.7%). After treatment, four patients (3.2%) developed temporal lobe injury. Five-year CSS and OS rates were 67.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58.6% to 77.4%) and 54.0% (95% CI, 45.6% to 63.9%), respectively. Five-year OS was significantly higher for ACE-27 score 0-1 than ACE-27 score 2-3 (72.9% and 39.9%, respectively; p 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest IMRT +/– chemotherapy has a manageable toxicity and provides an acceptable survival in patients aged ≥ 70 years with NPC. ACE-27 score was significantly associated with survival outcomes in this group population.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bone Marrow , Comorbidity , Dermatitis , Drug Therapy , Humans , Methods , Mucositis , Multivariate Analysis , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Temporal Lobe
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715971

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Little is known about combination of the circulating Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) DNA and tumor volume in prognosis of stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients in the intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. We conducted this cohort study to evaluate the prognostic values of combining these two factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By Kaplan-Meier, we compare the differences of survival curves between 385 patients with different EBV DNA or tumor volume levels, or with the combination of two biomarkers mentioned above. RESULTS: Gross tumor volume of cervical lymph nodes (GTVnd, p 0 copy/mL, GTVtotal 0 copy/mL, GTVtotal ≥ 30 cm³). When patients in the low-risk group were compared with those in the high-risk group, 3-year PFS (p=0.003), LRFS (p=0.010), and DMFS (p=0.031) rates were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment plasma EBV DNA and tumor volume were both closely correlated with prognosis of stage II NPC patients in the IMRT era. Combination of EBV DNA and tumor volume can refine prognosis and indicate for clinical therapy.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Cohort Studies , DNA , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Lymph Nodes , Nasopharynx , Plasma , Prognosis , Radiotherapy , Tumor Burden
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715835

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The measuring Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is an important predictor of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study evaluated the predictive value of pretreatment serum amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) comparing with EBV DNA in patients with NPC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an observational study of 419 non-metastatic NPC patients, we prospectively evaluated the prognostic effects of pretreatment SAA, CRP, and EBV DNA on survival. The primary end-point was progress-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: The median level of SAA and CRP was 4.28 mg/L and 1.88 mg/L, respectively. For the high-SAA group (> 4.28 mg/L) versus the low-SAA (≤ 4.28 mg/L) group and the high-CRP group (> 1.88 mg/L) versus the low-CRP (≤ 1.88 mg/L) group, the 5-year PFS was 64.5% versus 73.1% (p=0.013) and 65.2% versus 73.3% (p=0.064), respectively. EBV DNA detection showed a superior predictive result, the 5-year PFS in the EBV DNA ≥ 1,500 copies/mL group was obviously different than the EBV DNA < 1,500 copies/mL group (62.2% versus 77.8%, p < 0.001). Multifactorial Cox regression analysis confirmed that in the PFS, the independent prognostic factors were including EBV DNA (hazard ratio [HR], 1.788; p=0.009), tumour stage (HR, 1.903; p=0.021), and node stage (HR, 1.498; p=0.049), but the SAA and CRP were not included in the independent prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: The results of SAA and CRP had a certain relationship with the prognosis of NPC, and the prognosis of patients with high level of SAA and CRP were poor. However, the predictive ability of SAA and CRP was lower than that of EBV DNA.


Subject(s)
C-Reactive Protein , DNA , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , Observational Study , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Serum Amyloid A Protein , Survival Analysis
4.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 237-246, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-349594

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) have variable survival outcomes. We have previously shown that an elevated peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) is associated with an increased metastatic risk in patients with primary NPC. The present study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment LMR in a large cohort of metastatic NPC patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Clinical data of 672 patients with metastatic NPC diagnosed between January 2003 and December 2009 were analyzed. The peripheral lymphocyte and monocyte counts were retrieved, and LMR was calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazards analyses were performed to evaluate the association of LMR with overall survival (OS).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Univariate analysis revealed that an elevated absolute lymphocyte count (≥1.390×10(9)/L) and LMR (≥2.475) as well as a decreased monocyte count (<0.665×10(9)/L) were significantly associated with prolonged OS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that LMR (hazard ratio [HR]=0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.41-0.60, P<0.001), absolute lymphocyte count (HR=0.77, 95% CI=0.64-0.93, P=0.007), and monocyte count (HR=1.98, 95% CI=1.63-2.41, P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors. By stratification analyses, only LMR remained a significant predictor of prognosis.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>We identified pretreatment LMR as an independent prognostic factor for patients with metastatic NPC. Independent validation of our findings is needed.</p>


Subject(s)
Carcinoma , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphocytes , Monocytes , Multivariate Analysis , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Prognosis , ROC Curve
5.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 502-511, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320570

ABSTRACT

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy is the most common treatment regimen for advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Whether chronomodulated infusion of chemotherapy can reduce its toxicity is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the toxic and therapeutic effects of sinusoidal chronomodulated infusion versus flat intermittent infusion of cisplatin (DDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) followed by radiotherapy in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC. Patients with biopsy-diagnosed untreated stages III and IV NPC (according to the 2002 UICC staging system) were randomized to undergo 2 cycles of sinusoidal chronomodulated infusion (Arm A) or flat intermittent constant rate infusion (Arm B) of DDP and 5-FU followed by radical radiotherapy. Using a "MELODIE" multi-channel programmed pump, the patients were given 12-hour continuous infusions of DDP (20 mg/m2) and 5-FU (750 mg/m2) for 5 days, repeated every 3 weeks for 2 cycles. DDP was administered from 10:00 am to 10:00 pm, and 5-FU was administered from 10:00 pm to 10:00 am each day. Chronomodulated infusion was performed in Arm A, with the peak deliveries of 5-FU at 4:00 am and DDP at 4:00 pm. The patients in Arm B underwent a constant rate of infusion. Radiotherapy was initiated in the fifth week, and both arms were treated with the same radiotherapy techniques and dose fractions. Between June 2004 and June 2006, 125 patients were registered, and 124 were eligible for analysis of response and toxicity. The major toxicity observed during neoadjuvant chemotherapy was neutropenia. The incidence of acute toxicity was similar in both arms. During radiotherapy, the incidence of stomatitis was significantly lower in Arm A than in Arm B (38.1% vs. 59.0%, P = 0.020). No significant differences were observed for other toxicities. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 88.9%, 82.4%, and 74.8% for Arm A and 91.8%, 90.2%, and 82.1% for Arm B. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year progression-free survival rates were 91.7%, 88.1%, and 85.2% for Arm A and 100%, 94.5%, and 86.9% for Arm B. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year distant metastasis-free survival rates were 82.5%, 79.1%, and 79.1% for Arm A and 90.2%, 85.2%, and 81.7% for Arm B. Chronochemotherapy significantly reduced stomatitis but was not superior to standard chemotherapy in terms of hematologic toxicities and therapeutic response.


Subject(s)
Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Carcinoma , Cisplatin , Disease-Free Survival , Dose Fractionation, Radiation , Drug Chronotherapy , Female , Fluorouracil , Humans , Induction Chemotherapy , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Radiotherapy , Neoplasm Staging , Neutropenia , Radiotherapy, High-Energy , Stomatitis , Survival Rate , Young Adult
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 50-52, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-303369

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To compare the efficacy and side effects of nedaplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) and cisplatin plus 5-Fu for treatment of stage III-IVa nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 100 patients with NPC proved by histopathology were divided into nedaplatin plus 5-Fu group (NF group) and cisplatin plus 5-Fu group (PF group), 50 cases in each group. NF group: nedaplatin 30 mg/m(2), d1-d3, 5-Fu 500 mg/m(2) d1-d5, repeated every 3 weeks for 2 cycles. PF group: cisplatin 30 mg/m(2) d1-d3, 5-Fu 500 mg/m(2) d1-d5, repeated every 3 weeks for 2 cycles. χ(2) test was used to compare the efficacy and side-effects of the two groups.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All the 100 cases were evaluable and their clinical data in the two groups were comparable. Six patients with complete response were observed, 3 cases in NF group and 3 in PF group. The overall response rates were 86.0% in NF group and 84.0% in PF group, with no significant difference (χ(2) = 0.078, P = 0.779). The rates of leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, impairment of hepatic and renal function were similar whereas more patients in the PF group than in the NF group suffered from nausea and vomiting (88.0% vs. 56.0%, P = 0.000).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Nedaplatin plus 5-Fu is an effective treatment regimen for NPC. When compared with PF regimen, the response rate is similar. However, NF regimen shows a significant superiority in reducing nausea and vomiting.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Therapeutic Uses , Cisplatin , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Fluorouracil , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Nausea , Neoplasm Staging , Organoplatinum Compounds , Remission Induction , Vomiting
7.
Chinese Journal of Cancer ; (12): 131-135, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-292623

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE</b>We previously reported that C-KIT overexpression and mutation exist in biopsy samples of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Yet whether Imatinib had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of NPC in vitro was still unknown. So, this study examined whether sensitivities to Imatinib of other cell lines are different and whether C-KIT expression and mutations exist, to analyze the correlations between them.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The expression of C-KIT in NPC cell lines, including CNE-1, CNE-2, Hone-1, C-666, SUNE-1, 5-8F, and nasopharyngeal epithelial (NPE) cell line NP-69, were detected by Western blot. Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products was performed to analyze the sequences of C-KIT from the above-mentioned cell lines. Inhibitory effects on proliferation by Imatinib on these cell lines were determined by CCK-8 assay. Pearson product moment correlation and t test were used to analyze the correlation betweeen C-KIT overexpression, C-KIT gene mutation, and the inhibitory effect of Imatinib.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared with NPE cell line NP-69, NPC cell lines CNE-1, CNE-2, Hone-1, C-666, SUNE-1, and 5-8F had significantly higher levels of C-KIT expression. Heterozygous IVS17+78T>C were found in CNE-1, CNE-2, Hone-1, and NP-69 cell lines, homozygous IVS17+78T>C was found in C-666, and no mutation was found in SUNE-1 or 5-8F. Imatinib had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on proliferation for CNE-1, CNE-2, Hone-1, C-666, SUNE-1, and 5-8F. No significant correlation between the inhibitory effects of Imatinib, C-KIT overexpression, or C-KIT mutation was found.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>C-KIT overexpression and intron mutation were found in NPC cell lines and Imatinib had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on proliferation for NPC cell lines, yet no significant correlation between C-KIT overexpression, C-KIT mutation, or the inhibitory effect of Imatinib was found.</p>


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Benzamides , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Virology , Cell Line , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Epithelial Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Heterozygote , Homozygote , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate , Introns , Mutation , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Virology , Nasopharynx , Cell Biology , Piperazines , Pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Genetics , Metabolism , Pyrimidines , Pharmacology
8.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 250-253, 2004.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-254329

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To evaluate the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), efficacy and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of capecitabine with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with node-positive stage II nasopharyngeal cancer.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>From August 2002 to June 2003, 30 patients with node-positive stage II T(2)N(1)M(0) nasopharyngeal cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Median age 43 years (range 32 - 63 years), ECOG performance status <or= 2. Radiotherapy of 68 - 72 Gy/34 - 36 fractions was delivered to the nasopharynx and 64 - 70 Gy/32 - 35 fractions to the node-positive area. Capecitabine was administered orally on day 1 of radiotherapy by an intermittent schedule (14 days treatment; 7-day rest) at 3 weekly intervals for two cycles. Patients were alloted into one of four escalating dose cohorts (500, 750, 1000 and 1250 mg/m(2), bid). Dose escalation was done after six patients had completed 2 cycles of chemotherapy at the previous dose level with DLT assessed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Twenty-eight patients were evaluable for toxicity and efficacy: CR 12 (42.9%), PR 13 (46.4%), SD 3 (10.7%), the overall response rate (CR + PR) was 89.3%. The CR response rate of the node-positive area and of the nasopharynx were 50.0% (14/28) and 46.4% (13/28). No DLT was observed at the dosage group of 500 mg/m(2) and 750 mg/m(2). Three of 9 patients experienced DLT at 1000 mg/m(2) with grade III stomatitis; 4 of 6 at 1250 mg/m(2) with grade III stomatitis (4/6), grade III diarrhea with grade IV febrile neutropenia (1/6) and grade III thrombocytopenia (1/6). The toxicity of grade I and II was hand-foot syndrome (4/28), fatigue (14/28), nausea and vomiting (19/28), diarrhea (5/27), and weight loss (21/28).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>A dose of 750 mg/m(2) of capecitabine might be recommended for combination with radiotherapy. This regimen is tolerable and valid for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A randomised phase III comparison with 5-Fu is justified.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic , Therapeutic Uses , Capecitabine , Combined Modality Therapy , Deoxycytidine , Therapeutic Uses , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Fluorouracil , Humans , Lymphatic Metastasis , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Radiotherapy , Neoplasm Staging , Stomatitis , Thrombocytopenia
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