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1.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833801

ABSTRACT

Human sparganosis is a zoonotic disease caused by infection and migration of the plerocercoid of Spirometra spp. Although sparganosis were reported from most parts of the body, the sparganum parasitizing inside cerebral artery is remarkably uncommon. We report a case of cerebral intravascular sparganosis in an elderly patient with acute ischemic stroke who was diagnosed by retrieving sparganum during mechanical thrombectomy. Finally, the parasites were identified as Spirometra erinaceieuropaei using multiplex PCR and cox1 gene sequencing.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761756

ABSTRACT

From October 2015 to August 2018, tapeworm proglottids were obtained from 10 patients who were residents of Daegu and Gyeongbuk provinces and had a history of raw beef consumption. Most of them had no overseas travel experience. The gravid proglottids obtained from the 10 cases had 15–20 lateral uterine branches. A part of internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) DNA of the 10 cases, amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and digested with AleI restriction enzyme, produced the same band pattern of Taenia saginata, which differentiated from T. asiatica and T. solium. Sequences of ITS1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) showed higher homology to T. saginata than to T. asiatica and T. solium. Collectively, these 10 cases were identified as T. saginata human infections. As taeniasis is one of the important parasitic diseases in humans, it is necessary to maintain hygienic conditions during livestock farming to avoid public health concerns.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Cestoda , DNA , DNA, Ribosomal , Electron Transport Complex IV , Humans , Livestock , Parasitic Diseases , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Public Health , Red Meat , Republic of Korea , Taenia saginata , Taenia , Taeniasis
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742283

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living protozoa that are opportunistic pathogens for humans. Cysteine proteases of Acanthamoeba have been partially characterized, but their biochemical and functional properties are not clearly understood yet. In this study, we isolated a gene encoding cysteine protease of A. castellanii (AcCP) and its biochemical and functional properties were analyzed. Sequence analysis of AcCP suggests that this enzyme is a typical cathepsin L family cysteine protease, which shares similar structural characteristics with other cathepsin L-like enzymes. The recombinant AcCP showed enzymatic activity in acidic conditions with an optimum at pH 4.0. The recombinant enzyme effectively hydrolyzed human proteins including hemoglobin, albumin, immunoglobuins A and G, and fibronectin at acidic pH. AcCP mainly localized in lysosomal compartment and its expression was observed in both trophozoites and cysts. AcCP was also identified in cultured medium of A. castellanii. Considering to lysosomal localization, secretion or release by trophozoites and continuous expression in trophozoites and cysts, the enzyme could be a multifunctional enzyme that plays important biological functions for nutrition, development and pathogenicity of A. castellanii. These results also imply that AcCP can be a promising target for development of chemotherapeutic drug for Acanthamoeba infections.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba , Cathepsin L , Cathepsins , Cysteine Proteases , Cysteine , Fibronectins , Genes, vif , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lysosomes , Sequence Analysis , Trophozoites , Virulence
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-50088

ABSTRACT

Variant surface antigens (VSAs) encoded by pir families are considered to be the key proteins used by many Plasmodium spp. to escape the host immune system by antigenic variation. This attribute of VSAs is a critical issue in the development of a novel vaccine. In this regard, a population genetic study of vir genes from Plasmodium vivax was performed in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Eighty-five venous blood samples and 4 of the vir genes, namely vir 27, vir 21, vir 12, and vir 4, were selected for study. The number of segregating sites (S), number of haplotypes (H), haplotype diversity (Hd), DNA diversity (π and Θw), and Tajima’s D test value were conducted. Phylogenetic trees of each gene were constructed. The vir 21 (S=143, H=22, Hd=0.827) was the most genetically diverse gene, and the vir 4 (S=6, H=4, Hd=0.556) was the opposite one. Tajima’s D values for vir 27 (1.08530, P>0.1), vir 12 (2.89007, P0.1) were positive, and that of vir 4 (−1.32162, P>0.1) was negative. All phylogenetic trees showed 2 clades with no particular branching according to the geographical differences and cluster. This study is the first survey on the vir genes in ROK, providing information on the genetic level. The sample sequences from vir 4 showed a clear difference to the Sal-1 reference gene sequence, whereas they were very similar to those from Indian isolates.


Subject(s)
Antigenic Variation , Antigens, Surface , DNA , Genetic Variation , Haplotypes , Humans , Immune System , Plasmodium vivax , Plasmodium , Republic of Korea , Trees , United Nations
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-168664

ABSTRACT

A fly larva was recovered from a boil-like lesion on the left leg of a 33-year-old male on 21 November 2016. He has worked in an endemic area of myiasis, Uganda, for 8 months and returned to Korea on 11 November 2016. The larva was identified as Cordylobia anthropophaga by morphological features, including the body shape, size, anterior end, posterior spiracles, and pattern of spines on the body. Subsequent 28S rRNA gene sequencing showed 99.9% similarity (916/917 bp) with the partial 28S rRNA gene of C. anthropophaga. This is the first imported case of furuncular myiasis caused by C. anthropophaga in a Korean overseas traveler.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diptera , Genes, rRNA , Humans , Korea , Larva , Leg , Male , Myiasis , Spine , Uganda
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-36479

ABSTRACT

This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Microscopy/standards , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Trichomonas Infections/epidemiology , Trichomonas vaginalis/physiology , Vaginal Smears/standards , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57439

ABSTRACT

Encystation is an essential process for Acanthamoeba survival under nutrient-limiting conditions and exposure to drugs. The expression of several genes has been observed to increase or decrease during encystation. Epigenetic processes involved in regulation of gene expression have been shown to play a role in several pathogenic parasites. In the present study, we identified the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a known epigenetic regulator, in Acanthamoeba castellanii. PRMT5 of A. castellanii (AcPRMT5) contained domains found in S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases and in PRMT5 arginine-N-methyltransferase. Expression levels of AcPRMT5 were increased during encystation of A. castellanii. The EGFP-PRMT5 fusion protein was mainly localized in the nucleus of trophozoites. A. castellanii transfected with siRNA designed against AcPRMT5 failed to form mature cysts. The findings of this study lead to a better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms behind the regulation of encystation in cyst-forming pathogenic protozoa.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii , Acanthamoeba , Epigenesis, Genetic , Epigenomics , Gene Expression Regulation , Methyltransferases , Parasites , Protein-Arginine N-Methyltransferases , RNA, Small Interfering , Trophozoites
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130558

ABSTRACT

Strongyloides stercoralis can cause systemic infection, termed strongyloidiasis, and gastrointestinal ulcer disease in immunocompromised patients. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of comorbid gastric adenocarcinoma and S. stercoralis infection. Here, we report a case of an 81-year-old Korean man who presented with S. stercoralis infection coexisting with early gastric adenocarcinoma (T1aN0M0). S. stercoralis eggs, rhabditiform larvae, and adult females were observed in normal gastric and duodenal crypts. They were also observed in atypical glands representative of adenocarcinoma and adenoma. Preliminary laboratory tests revealed mild neutrophilic and eosinophilic leukocytosis. A routine stool test failed to detect rhabditiform larvae in the patient's fecal sample; however, S. stercoralis was identified by PCR amplification and 18S rRNA sequencing using genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Postoperatively, the patient had a persistent fever and was treated with albendazole for 7 days, which alleviated the fever. The patient was followed-up by monitoring and laboratory testing for 4 months postoperatively, and no abnormalities were observed thus far. The fact that S. stercoralis infection may be fatal in immunocompromised patients should be kept in mind when assessing high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/complications , Aged, 80 and over , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , DNA, Helminth/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Female , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Korea , Male , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/complications , Treatment Outcome
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130551

ABSTRACT

Strongyloides stercoralis can cause systemic infection, termed strongyloidiasis, and gastrointestinal ulcer disease in immunocompromised patients. However, to our knowledge, there are no reported cases of comorbid gastric adenocarcinoma and S. stercoralis infection. Here, we report a case of an 81-year-old Korean man who presented with S. stercoralis infection coexisting with early gastric adenocarcinoma (T1aN0M0). S. stercoralis eggs, rhabditiform larvae, and adult females were observed in normal gastric and duodenal crypts. They were also observed in atypical glands representative of adenocarcinoma and adenoma. Preliminary laboratory tests revealed mild neutrophilic and eosinophilic leukocytosis. A routine stool test failed to detect rhabditiform larvae in the patient's fecal sample; however, S. stercoralis was identified by PCR amplification and 18S rRNA sequencing using genomic DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. Postoperatively, the patient had a persistent fever and was treated with albendazole for 7 days, which alleviated the fever. The patient was followed-up by monitoring and laboratory testing for 4 months postoperatively, and no abnormalities were observed thus far. The fact that S. stercoralis infection may be fatal in immunocompromised patients should be kept in mind when assessing high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/complications , Aged, 80 and over , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , DNA, Helminth/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Female , Histocytochemistry , Humans , Korea , Male , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Stomach Neoplasms/complications , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolation & purification , Strongyloidiasis/complications , Treatment Outcome
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-190462

ABSTRACT

Ascidian soft tunic syndrome (AsSTS) caused by Azumiobodo hoyamushi (A. hoyamushi) is a serious aquaculture problem that results in mass mortality of ascidians. Accordingly, the early and accurate detection of A. hoyamushi would contribute substantially to disease management and prevention of transmission. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was adopted for clinical diagnosis of a range of infectious diseases. Here, the authors describe a rapid and efficient LAMP-based method targeting the 18S rDNA gene for detection of A. hoyamushi using ascidian DNA for the diagnosis of AsSTS. A. hoyamushi LAMP assay amplified the DNA of 0.01 parasites per reaction and detected A. hoyamushi in 10 ng of ascidian DNA. To validate A. hoyamushi 18S rDNA LAMP assays, AsSTS-suspected and non-diseased ascidians were examined by microscopy, PCR, and by using the LAMP assay. When PCR was used as a gold standard, the LAMP assay showed good agreement in terms of sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). In the present study, a LAMP assay based on directly heat-treated samples was found to be as efficient as DNA extraction using a commercial kit for detecting A. hoyamushi. Taken together, this study shows the devised A. hoyamushi LAMP assay could be used to diagnose AsSTS in a straightforward, sensitive, and specific manner, that it could be used for forecasting, surveillance, and quarantine of AsSTS.


Subject(s)
Animals , Euglenozoa Infections/diagnosis , Kinetoplastida/classification , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Urochordata
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-7387

ABSTRACT

Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Chlamydia Infections/parasitology , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolation & purification , Coinfection , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoplasma Infections/parasitology , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prostatitis/epidemiology , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Trichomonas Infections/diagnosis , Trichomonas vaginalis/isolation & purification , Young Adult
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-20008

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba cysts are resistant to unfavorable physiological conditions and various disinfectants. Acanthamoeba cysts have 2 walls containing various sugar moieties, and in particular, one third of the inner wall is composed of cellulose. In this study, it has been shown that down-regulation of cellulose synthase by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly inhibits the formation of mature Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts. Calcofluor white staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that siRNA transfected amoeba failed to form an inner wall during encystation and thus are likely to be more vulnerable. In addition, the expression of xylose isomerase, which is involved in cyst wall formation, was not altered in cellulose synthase down-regulated amoeba, indicating that cellulose synthase is a crucial factor for inner wall formation by Acanthamoeba during encystation.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii/enzymology , Aldose-Ketose Isomerases/biosynthesis , Amebiasis/pathology , Benzenesulfonates , Cell Wall/chemistry , Cellulose/biosynthesis , Down-Regulation , Encephalitis/parasitology , Glucosyltransferases/biosynthesis , Keratitis/parasitology , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-121887

ABSTRACT

Diphyllobothrium latum and Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense are the 2 reported main causes of human diphyllobothriasis in the Republic of Korea. However, the differentiation of these 2 species based on morphologic features alone is difficult. The authors used nucleotide sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene to diagnose Diphyllobothrium spp. Two patients visited the emergency room at Kyungpook National University Hospital on 3 April and 12 April 2013, respectively, with fragments of parasites found while defecating. The parasites were identified as Diphyllobothrium spp. based on morphologic characteristics, and subsequent cox1 gene sequencing showed 99.9% similarity (1,478/1,480 bp) with D. nihonkaiense. Our findings support the hypothesis that D. nihonkaiense is a dominant species in Korea.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Base Sequence , DNA, Helminth/genetics , Diphyllobothriasis/diagnosis , Diphyllobothrium/genetics , Electron Transport Complex IV/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mitochondria/enzymology , Phylogeny , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Republic of Korea , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Young Adult
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-124055

ABSTRACT

Infection cases of diphyllobothriid tapeworms are not much in the below teen-age group. We report a case of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense infection in a 13-year-old boy. He presented with severe fatigue, occasional abdominal pain at night time. He also had several episodes of tapeworm segment discharge in his stools. By his past history, he had frequently eaten raw fish including salmon and trout with his families. Numerous eggs of diphyllobothriid tapeworm were detected in the fecal examination. We introduced amidotrizoic acid as a cathartic agent through nasogastroduodenal tube and let nearly whole length (4.75 m) of D. nihonkaiense be excreted through his anus. After a single dose of praziquantel, the child's stool showed no further eggs, and his symptoms disappeared. The evacuated worm was identified as D. nihonkaiense by mitochondrial cox1 gene analysis. Here we report a successful extracorporeal worm extraction from an infection case of D. nihonkaiense by the injection of amidotrizoic acid.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Animals , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , Cyclooxygenase 1/genetics , Diatrizoate Meglumine/therapeutic use , Diphyllobothriasis/drug therapy , Diphyllobothrium/classification , Feces/parasitology , Humans , Male , Praziquantel/therapeutic use , Sequence Analysis, DNA
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-189492

ABSTRACT

Autophagy-related protein 8 (Atg8) is an essential component of autophagy formation and encystment of cyst-forming parasites, and some protozoa, such as, Acanthamoeba, Entamoeba, and Dictyostelium, have been reported to possess a type of Atg8. In this study, an isoform of Atg8 was identified and characterized in Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcAtg8b). AcAtg8b protein was found to encode 132 amino acids and to be longer than AcAtg8 protein, which encoded 117 amino acids. Real-time PCR analysis showed high expression levels of AcAtg8b and AcAtg8 during encystation. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that AcAtg8b is involved in the formation of the autophagosomal membrane. Chemically synthesized siRNA against AcAtg8b reduced the encystation efficiency of Acanthamoeba, confirming that AcAtg8b, like AcAtg8, is an essential component of cyst formation in Acanthamoeba. Our findings suggest that Acanthamoeba has doubled the number of Atg8 gene copies to ensure the successful encystation for survival when 1 copy is lost. These 2 types of Atg8 identified in Acanthamoeba provide important information regarding autophagy formation, encystation mechanism, and survival of primitive, cyst-forming protozoan parasites.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii/cytology , Amebiasis/parasitology , Amino Acid Sequence , Autophagy , Cell Membrane/metabolism , DNA, Protozoan/chemistry , Gene Dosage , Gene Silencing , Genes, Reporter , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Phagosomes/metabolism , Protein Isoforms , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/chemical synthesis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , Sequence Alignment
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-79746

ABSTRACT

Amoebic keratitis (AK) caused by Acanthamoeba is one of the most serious corneal infections. AK is frequently misdiagnosed initially as viral, bacterial, or fungal keratitis, thus ensuring treatment delays. Accordingly, the early detection of Acanthamoeba would contribute significantly to disease management and selection of an appropriate anti-amoebic therapy. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method has been applied to the clinical diagnosis of a range of infectious diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient LAMP-based method targeting Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA gene for the detection of Acanthamoeba using clinical ocular specimens in the diagnosis of AK. Acanthamoeba LAMP assays detected 11 different strains including all AK-associated species. The copy number detection limit for a positive signal was 10 DNA copies of 18S rDNA per reaction. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of fungi or other protozoa was observed. The sensitivity of LAMP assay was higher than those of Nelson primer PCR and JDP primer PCR. In the present study, LAMP assay based on directly heat-treated samples was found to be as efficient at detecting Acanthamoeba as DNA extracted using a commercial kit, whereas PCR was only effective when commercial kit-extracted DNA was used. This study showed that the devised Acanthamoeba LAMP assay could be used to diagnose AK in a simple, sensitive, and specific manner.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/genetics , Animals , Base Sequence , Humans , Molecular Sequence Data , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-182112

ABSTRACT

Rodent malaria parasites, such as Plasmodium berghei, are practical and useful model organisms for human malaria research because of their analogies to the human malaria in terms of structure, physiology, and life cycle. Exploiting the available genetic sequence information, we constructed a cDNA library from the erythrocytic stages of P. berghei and analyzed the expressed sequence tag (EST). A total of 10,040 ESTs were generated and assembled into 2,462 clusters. These EST clusters were compared against public protein databases and 48 putative new transcripts, most of which were hypothetical proteins with unknown function, were identified. Genes encoding ribosomal or membrane proteins and purine nucleotide phosphorylases were highly abundant clusters in P. berghei. Protein domain analyses and the Gene Ontology functional categorization revealed translation/protein folding, metabolism, protein degradation, and multiple family of variant antigens to be mainly prevalent. The presently-collected ESTs and its bioinformatic analysis will be useful resources to identify for drug target and vaccine candidates and validate gene predictions of P. berghei.


Subject(s)
Animals , Computational Biology , Erythrocytes/parasitology , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Expression Profiling , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Plasmodium berghei/genetics
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78173

ABSTRACT

Acanthamoeba infection is difficult to treat because of the resistance property of Acanthamoeba cyst against the host immune system, diverse antibiotics, and therapeutic agents. To identify encystation mediating factors of Acanthamoeba, we compared the transcription profile between cysts and trophozoites using microarray analysis. The DNA chip was composed of 12,544 genes based on expressed sequence tag (EST) from an Acanthamoeba ESTs database (DB) constructed in our laboratory, genetic information of Acanthamoeba from TBest DB, and all of Acanthamoeba related genes registered in the NCBI. Microarray analysis indicated that 701 genes showed higher expression than 2 folds in cysts than in trophozoites, and 859 genes were less expressed in cysts than in trophozoites. The results of real-time PCR analysis of randomly selected 9 genes of which expression was increased during cyst formation were coincided well with the microarray results. Eukaryotic orthologous groups (KOG) analysis showed an increment in T article (signal transduction mechanisms) and O article (posttranslational modification, protein turnover, and chaperones) whereas significant decrement of C article (energy production and conversion) during cyst formation. Especially, cystein proteinases showed high expression changes (282 folds) with significant increases in real-time PCR, suggesting a pivotal role of this proteinase in the cyst formation of Acanthamoeba. The present study provides important clues for the identification and characterization of encystation mediating factors of Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii/genetics , Animals , Cluster Analysis , Databases, Genetic , Expressed Sequence Tags , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental/genetics , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Oocysts/physiology , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , RNA, Protozoan/genetics , Trophozoites/physiology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47953

ABSTRACT

Autophagy is a catabolic process involved in the degradation of a cell's own components for cell growth, development, homeostasis, and the recycling of cellular products. Autophagosome is an essential component in the protozoan parasite during differentiation and encystation. The present study identified and characterized autophagy-related protein (Atg) 3, a member of Atg8 conjugation system, in Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcAtg3). AcAtg3 encoding a 304 amino acid protein showed high similarity with the catalytic cysteine site of other E2 like enzymes of ubiquitin system. Predicted 3D structure of AcAtg3 revealed a hammer-like shape, which is the characteristic structure of E2-like enzymes. The expression level of AcAtg3 did not increase during encystation. However, the formation of mature cysts was significantly reduced in Atg3-siRNA transfected cells in which the production of Atg8-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate was inhibited. Fluorescent microscopic analysis revealed that dispersed AcAtg3-EGFP fusion protein gathered around autophagosomal membranes during encystation. These results provide important information for understanding autophagic machinery through the lipidation reaction mediated by Atg3 in Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba castellanii/growth & development , Animals , Gene Knockdown Techniques , Lipid Metabolism , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/metabolism , Rats , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Spores, Protozoan/growth & development , Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes/genetics
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-28146

ABSTRACT

In a previous study, we reported our discovery of Acanthamoeba contamination in domestic tap water; in that study, we determined that some Acanthamoeba strains harbor endosymbiotic bacteria, via our molecular characterization by mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (Mt DNA RFLP). Five (29.4%) among 17 Acanthamoeba isolates contained endosymbionts in their cytoplasm, as demonstrated via orcein staining. In order to estimate their pathogenicity, we conducted a genetic characterization of the endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba isolated from domestic tap water via 16S rDNA sequencing. The endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP3 and KA/WP4 evidenced the highest level of similarity, at 97% of the recently published 16S rDNA sequence of the bacterium, Candidatus Amoebophilus asiaticus. The endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP8 and KA/WP12 shared a 97% sequence similarity with each other, and were also highly similar to Candidatus Odyssella thessalonicensis, a member of the alpha-proteobacteria. The endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba sp. KA/WP9 exhibits a high degree of similarity (85-95%) with genus Methylophilus, which is not yet known to harbor any endosymbionts. This is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, to show that Methylophilus spp. can live in the cytoplasm of Acanthamoeba.


Subject(s)
Acanthamoeba/isolation & purification , Alphaproteobacteria/classification , Animals , Bacteroidetes/classification , Cluster Analysis , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry , Fresh Water/parasitology , Korea , Methylophilus/classification , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Symbiosis
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