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1.
Genomics & Informatics ; : e40-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000717

ABSTRACT

Microbial community profiling using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing allows for taxonomic characterization of diverse microorganisms. While amplicon sequence variant (ASV) methods are increasingly favored for their fine-grained resolution of sequence variants, they often discard substantial portions of sequencing reads during quality control, particularly in datasets with large number samples. We present a streamlined pipeline that integrates FastP for read trimming, HmmUFOtu for operational taxonomic units (OTU) clustering, Vsearch for chimera checking, and Kraken2 for taxonomic assignment. To assess the pipeline’s performance, we reprocessed two published stool datasets of normal Korean populations: one with 890 and the other with 1,462 independent samples. In the first dataset, HmmUFOtu retained 93.2% of over 104 million read pairs after quality trimming, discarding chimeric or unclassifiable reads, while DADA2, a commonly used ASV method, retained only 44.6% of the reads. Nonetheless, both methods yielded qualitatively similar β-diversity plots. For the second dataset, HmmUFOtu retained 89.2% of read pairs, while DADA2 retained a mere 18.4% of the reads. HmmUFOtu, being a closed-reference clustering method, facilitates merging separately processed datasets, with shared OTUs between the two datasets exhibiting a correlation coefficient of 0.92 in total abundance (log scale). While the first two dimensions of the β-diversity plot exhibited a cohesive mixture of the two datasets, the third dimension revealed the presence of a batch effect. Our comparative evaluation of ASV and OTU methods within this streamlined pipeline provides valuable insights into their performance when processing large-scale microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data. The strengths of HmmUFOtu and its potential for dataset merging are highlighted.

2.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 618-625, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976711

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) and associated mortality have been increasing. However, the potential benefits of CRC screening are largely unknown in young individuals. We aimed to evaluate the effect of CRC screening with colonoscopy on all-cause and CRC mortality among young (aged < 45 years) and older (aged ≥ 45 years) individuals. @*Materials and Methods@#This cohort study included 528,046 Korean adults free of cancer at baseline who underwent a comprehensive health examination. The colonoscopic screening group was defined as those who reported undergoing colonoscopy for CRC screening. Mortality follow-up until December 31, 2019 was ascertained based on nationwide death certificate data from the Korea National Statistical Office. @*Results@#Colonoscopic screening was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality in both young and older individuals. Multivariable-adjusted time-dependent hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for all-cause mortality comparing ever- to never-screening were 0.86 (0.75-0.99) for young individuals and 0.71 (0.65-0.78) for older individuals. Colonoscopic screenings were also associated with a reduced risk of CRC mortality without significant interaction by age, although this association was significant only among participants aged ≥ 45 years, with corresponding time-dependent hazard ratios of 0.47 (0.15-1.44) for young individuals and 0.52 (0.31-0.87) for those aged ≥ 45 years. @*Conclusion@#Colonoscopic CRC screening decreased all-cause mortality among both young and older individuals, while significantly decreased CRC mortality was observed only in those aged ≥ 45 years. Screening initiation at an earlier age warrants more rigorous confirmatory studies.

3.
Intestinal Research ; : 350-360, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937722

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study assessed the efficacy and safety of adalimumab (ADA) and explored predictors of response in Korean patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). @*Methods@#A prospective, observational, multicenter study was conducted over 56 weeks in adult patients with moderately to severely active UC who received ADA. Clinical response, remission, and mucosal healing were assessed using the Mayo score. @*Results@#A total of 146 patients were enrolled from 17 academic hospitals. Clinical response rates were 52.1% and 37.7% and clinical remission rates were 24.0% and 22.0% at weeks 8 and 56, respectively. Mucosal healing rates were 39.0% and 30.1% at weeks 8 and 56, respectively. Prior use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) did not affect clinical and endoscopic responses. The ADA drug level was significantly higher in patients with better outcomes at week 8 (P<0.05). In patients with lower endoscopic activity, higher body mass index, and higher serum albumin levels at baseline, the clinical response rate was higher at week 8. In patients with lower Mayo scores and C-reactive protein levels, clinical responses, and mucosal healing at week 8, the clinical response rate was higher at week 56. Serious adverse drug reactions were identified in 2.8% of patients. @*Conclusions@#ADA is effective and safe for induction and maintenance in Korean patients with UC, regardless of prior anti-TNF-α therapy. The ADA drug level is associated with the efficacy of induction therapy. Patients with better short-term outcomes were predictive of those with an improved long-term response.

4.
Intestinal Research ; : 192-202, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925123

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is prevalent in East Asia. However, information on CAM in East Asian patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is scarce. We aimed to profile the prevalence and pattern of CAM use among East Asian IBD patients and to identify factors associated with CAM use. We also compared physicians’ perspectives on CAM. @*Methods@#Patients with IBD from China, Japan, and South Korea were invited to complete questionnaires on CAM use. Patient demographic and clinical data were collected. Logistic regression analysis was applied for predictors of CAM use. Physicians from each country were asked about their opinion on CAM services or products. @*Results@#Overall, 905 patients with IBD participated in this study (China 232, Japan 255, and South Korea 418). Approximately 8.6% of patients with IBD used CAM services for their disease, while 29.7% of patients sought at least 1 kind of CAM product. Current active disease and Chinese or South Korean nationality over Japanese were independent predictors of CAM use. Chinese doctors were more likely to consider CAM helpful for patients with IBD than were Japanese and South Korean doctors. @*Conclusions@#In 8.6% and 29.7% of East Asian patients with IBD used CAM services and products, respectively, which does not differ from the prevalence in their Western counterparts. There is a significant gap regarding CAM usage among different Asian countries, not only from the patients’ perspective but also from the physicians’ point of view.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 384-395, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925033

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Improving quality of life has been gaining importance in ulcerative colitis (UC) management. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL) and related factors in patients with moderate-to-severe UC. @*Methods@#A multicenter, hospital-based, prospective study was performed using a Moderateto-Severe Ulcerative Colitis Cohort in Korea (the MOSAIK). Changes in HRQL, evaluated using the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ), were analyzed at the time of diagnosis and 1 year later. @*Results@#In a sample of 276 patients, the mean age was 38.4 years, and the majority of patients were male (59.8%). HRQL tended to increase in both the IBDQ and SF-12 1 year after diagnosis. A higher partial Mayo score was significantly related to poorer HRQL on the IBDQ and SF-12 in a linear mixed model (p<0.01). Inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP) or erythrocyte sedimentation rate also showed a negative correlation on HRQL (p<0.05). Patients whose IBDQ score improved by 16 or more (71.2%) in 1 year were younger, tended to be nonsmokers, and had a lower partial Mayo score and CRP than those whose IBDQ score did not. There was no significant association between HRQL and disease extent, treatments at diagnosis, or the highest treatment step during the 1-year period. @*Conclusions@#Optimally controlled disease status improves HRQL in patients with moderate-tosevere UC. The partial Mayo score and inflammatory markers may be potential indicators reflecting the influence of UC on patient`s daily lives.

6.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 557-567, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903710

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Metabolic syndrome has been reported to be a risk factor for metachronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN). However, the impact of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, on the development of metachronous CRN after polypectomy has been rarely examined. We evaluated the association between NAFLD and the development of metachronous CRN after polypectomy. @*Methods@#Asymptomatic subjects who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and endoscopic removal of ≥ 1 adenomas at the index colonoscopy between 2010 and 2014, and had a follow-up surveillance colonoscopy until 2017 were analyzed. @*Results@#Of 6,182 participants, 2,642 (42.7%) had NAFLD at the time of the index colonoscopy. Patients with NAFLD had significantly higher cumulative incidence rates of metachronous overall CRN than those without NAFLD in both men (19.4% vs. 18.2% at 3 years and 49.2% vs. 44.0% at 5 years; p = 0.001) and women (18.7% vs. 10.5% at 3 years and 56.1% vs. 29.8% at 5 years; p < 0.001). Even after adjusting for confounders, NAFLD remained independently associated with an increased risk of metachronous overall CRN in both men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.29) and women (adjusted HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.07). Additionally, NAFLD was an independent risk factor for metachronous advanced CRN (ACRN) in women (adjusted HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.27 to 5.37). @*Conclusions@#NAFLD is related to an increased risk of metachronous CRN after polypectomy. Especially, women with NAFLD are at an increased risk of developing metachronous ACRN. Our results indicate a possible effect of NAFLD on the pathogenesis of CRN.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 845-856, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903681

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to develop a deep learning model for the prediction of the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN) in asymptomatic adults, based on which colorectal cancer screening could be customized. @*Methods@#We collected data on 26 clinical and laboratory parameters, including age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, complete blood count, blood chemistry, and tumor marker, from 70,336 first-time colonoscopy screening recipients. For reference, we used a logistic regression (LR) model with nine variables manually selected from the 26 variables. A deep neural network (DNN) model was developed using all 26 variables. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the models were compared in a randomly split validation group. @*Results@#In comparison with the LR model (AUC, 0.724; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.684 to 0.765), the DNN model (AUC, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.724 to 0.795) demonstrated significantly improved performance with respect to the prediction of ACRN (p < 0.001). At a sensitivity of 90%, the specificity significantly increased with the application of the DNN model (41.0%) in comparison with the LR model (26.5%) (p < 0.001), indicating that the colonoscopy workload required to detect the same number of ACRNs could be reduced by 20%. @*Conclusions@#The application of DNN to big clinical data could significantly improve the prediction of ACRNs in comparison with the LR model, potentially realizing further customization by utilizing large quantities and various types of biomedical information.

8.
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases ; : 159-166, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875542

ABSTRACT

Background@#E-cigarettes are steadily gaining popularity in Korea. However, the characteristics of e-cigarette smokers, especially nicotine dependence and stress susceptibility, have not been evaluated in comparison to those of nonsmokers or combustible cigarette smokers in Korea. @*Methods@#In this study, 28,059 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2017) were classified into the following three groups: non-smokers, smokers (current smokers and ex-smokers of combustible cigarettes only), and e-smokers (current smokers and ex-smokers of e-cigarettes regardless of combustible cigarette use). @*Results@#Among the participants, 16,980 (60.5%), 9,247 (33.0%), and 1,832 (6.4%) subjects were non-smokers, smokers, and e-smokers, respectively. E-smokers were younger, more educated, and had a higher household income than nonsmokers or smokers. The number of e-smokers who smoked within 5 minutes of waking up (31.5% vs. 19.8%, p<0.001) and who planned to quit smoking within 6 months (39.1% vs. 35.7%, p<0.05) was greater than that of smokers. E-smokers perceived stress as “very much” (7.0% vs. 4.4%, p<0.001) and “a lot” (29.1% vs. 20.5%, p<0.001) compared to non-smokers. Suicidal ideation (6.5% vs. 4.7%, p<0.001), plans (2.4% vs. 1.3%, p<0.001), and attempts (1.1% vs. 0.5%, p<0.001) were higher in e-smokers than in non-smokers. Depressive episodes in 1 year (14.2% vs. 11.4%, p<0.05) and suicidal plans (2.4% vs. 1.8%, p<0.05) were more frequent among e-smokers than among smokers. @*Conclusion@#E-smokers were younger, more educated, and had a higher income, but they were more dependent on nicotine and susceptible to stress than non-smokers and smokers. Smoking cessation counseling should be tailored according to the characteristics of e-smokers.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S35-S43, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875511

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#High-quality colonoscopy is essential to reduce colorectal cancer-related deaths. Little is known about colonoscopy quality in non-academic practice settings. We aimed to evaluate the quality of colonoscopies performed in community hospitals and nonhospital facilities. @*Methods@#Colonoscopy data were collected from patients referred to six tertiary care centers after receiving colonoscopies at community hospitals and nonhospital facilities. Based on their photographs, we measured quality indicators including cecal intubation rate, withdrawal time, adequacy of bowel preparation, and number of polyps. @*Results@#Data from a total of 1,064 colonoscopies were analyzed. The overall cecal intubation rate was 93.1%. The median withdrawal time was 8.3 minutes, but 31.3% of colonoscopies were withdrawn within 6 minutes. Community hospitals had longer withdrawal time and more polyps than nonhospital facilities (median withdrawal time: 9.9 minutes vs. 7.5 minutes, p < 0.001; mean number of polyps: 3.1 vs. 2.3, p = 0.001). Board-certified endoscopists had a higher rate of cecal intubation than non-board-certified endoscopists (93.2% vs. 85.2%, p = 0.006). A total of 819 follow-up colonoscopies were performed at referral centers with a median interval of 28 days. In total, 2,546 polyps were detected at baseline, and 1,088 were newly identified (polyp miss rate, 29.9%). Multivariable analysis revealed that older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.032; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.020 to 1.044) and male sex (OR, 1.719; 95% CI, 1.281 to 2.308) were associated with increased risk of missed polyps. @*Conclusions@#The quality of colonoscopies performed in community hospitals and nonhospital facilities was suboptimal. Systematic reporting, auditing, and feedback are needed for quality improvement.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 85-91, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874566

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Risk prediction models using a deep neural network (DNN) have not been reported to predict the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN). The aim of this study was to compare DNN models with simple clinical score models to predict the risk of ACRN in colorectal cancer screening. @*Methods@#Databases of screening colonoscopy from Kangbuk Samsung Hospital (n=121,794) and Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong (n=3,728) were used to develop DNN-based prediction models. Two DNN models, the Asian-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) model and the Korean Colorectal Screening (KCS) model, were developed and compared with two simple score models using logistic regression methods to predict the risk of ACRN. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) of the models were compared in internal and external validation databases. @*Results@#In the internal validation set, the AUCs of DNN model 1 and the APCS score model were 0.713 and 0.662 (p0.1). @*Conclusions@#Simple score models for the risk prediction of ACRN are as useful as DNN-based models when input variables are limited. However, further studies on this issue are warranted to predict the risk of ACRN in colorectal cancer screening because DNN-based models are currently under improvement.

11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 557-567, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896006

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Metabolic syndrome has been reported to be a risk factor for metachronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN). However, the impact of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, on the development of metachronous CRN after polypectomy has been rarely examined. We evaluated the association between NAFLD and the development of metachronous CRN after polypectomy. @*Methods@#Asymptomatic subjects who underwent abdominal ultrasonography and endoscopic removal of ≥ 1 adenomas at the index colonoscopy between 2010 and 2014, and had a follow-up surveillance colonoscopy until 2017 were analyzed. @*Results@#Of 6,182 participants, 2,642 (42.7%) had NAFLD at the time of the index colonoscopy. Patients with NAFLD had significantly higher cumulative incidence rates of metachronous overall CRN than those without NAFLD in both men (19.4% vs. 18.2% at 3 years and 49.2% vs. 44.0% at 5 years; p = 0.001) and women (18.7% vs. 10.5% at 3 years and 56.1% vs. 29.8% at 5 years; p < 0.001). Even after adjusting for confounders, NAFLD remained independently associated with an increased risk of metachronous overall CRN in both men (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 1.29) and women (adjusted HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.07). Additionally, NAFLD was an independent risk factor for metachronous advanced CRN (ACRN) in women (adjusted HR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.27 to 5.37). @*Conclusions@#NAFLD is related to an increased risk of metachronous CRN after polypectomy. Especially, women with NAFLD are at an increased risk of developing metachronous ACRN. Our results indicate a possible effect of NAFLD on the pathogenesis of CRN.

12.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 845-856, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895977

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We aimed to develop a deep learning model for the prediction of the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN) in asymptomatic adults, based on which colorectal cancer screening could be customized. @*Methods@#We collected data on 26 clinical and laboratory parameters, including age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, complete blood count, blood chemistry, and tumor marker, from 70,336 first-time colonoscopy screening recipients. For reference, we used a logistic regression (LR) model with nine variables manually selected from the 26 variables. A deep neural network (DNN) model was developed using all 26 variables. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of the models were compared in a randomly split validation group. @*Results@#In comparison with the LR model (AUC, 0.724; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.684 to 0.765), the DNN model (AUC, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.724 to 0.795) demonstrated significantly improved performance with respect to the prediction of ACRN (p < 0.001). At a sensitivity of 90%, the specificity significantly increased with the application of the DNN model (41.0%) in comparison with the LR model (26.5%) (p < 0.001), indicating that the colonoscopy workload required to detect the same number of ACRNs could be reduced by 20%. @*Conclusions@#The application of DNN to big clinical data could significantly improve the prediction of ACRNs in comparison with the LR model, potentially realizing further customization by utilizing large quantities and various types of biomedical information.

13.
Intestinal Research ; : 323-331, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891121

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Infliximab (IFX) has proven effective as rescue therapy in steroid-refractory acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC), however, the long-term real-world data are scarce. Our study aimed to assess the long-term treatment outcomes of IFX in a real-life cohort. @*Methods@#We established a multicenter retrospective cohort of hospitalized patients with ASUC, who met Truelove and Witt’s criteria and received intravenous corticosteroid (IVCS) or IFX during index hospitalization between 2006 and 2016 in 5 university hospitals in Korea. The cohort was systematically followed up until colectomy, death or last follow-up visit. @*Results@#A total of 296 patients were followed up for a mean of 68.9 ± 44.0 months. During index hospitalization, 49 patients were treated with IFX; as rescue therapy for IVCS failure in 37 and as first-line medical therapy for ASUC in 12. All patients treated with IFX avoided colectomy during index hospitalization. The cumulative rates of rehospitalization and colectomy were 20.4% and 6.1% at 3 months and 39.6% and 18.8% at the end of follow-up, respectively. Patients treated with IFX presented with significantly shorter colectomy-free survival than IVCS responders (P= 0.04, log-rank test). Both cytomegalovirus colitis and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) were the significant predictors of colectomy in the overall study cohort (hazard ratios of 6.57 and 4.61, respectively). There were no fatalities. @*Conclusions@#Our real-world cohort study demonstrated that IFX is an effective therapeutic option in Korean patients with ASUC, irrespective of IFX indication. Aggressive vigilance for cytomegalovirus colitis and CDI is warranted for hospitalized patients with ASUC.

14.
Gut and Liver ; : 383-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890758

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The risk of recurrence of colorectal adenoma among obese individuals without metabolic abnormalities or in those with metabolically healthy obesity is largely unexplored.Therefore, we longitudinally investigated the risk of adenoma occurrence in individuals undergoing surveillance colonoscopy according to metabolic status and obesity. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included 16,872 Korean adults who underwent their first screening colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 and who then underwent follow-up colonoscopy until 2017. Participants were categorized into a metabolically healthy nonobese group (reference group), a metabolically healthy obese group, a metabolically abnormal nonobese group, and a metabolically abnormal obese group. Hazard ratios (HRs) for adenoma recurrence compared to the reference group were calculated in each group. @*Results@#During a median follow-up duration of 47.3 months (interquartile range, 35.6 to 58.9 months), 3,673 (21.8%) and 292 (1.73%) participants developed adenoma and advanced adenoma, respectively. When age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history of colorectal cancer, and baseline adenoma risk were adjusted, the risk of adenoma recurrence was increased in metabolically healthy obese individuals (HR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.57) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.30) but not in metabolically abnormal nonobese individuals (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.13). @*Conclusions@#In this study, metabolically healthy obese individuals and metabolically abnormal obese individuals exhibited increased risks of occurrence of colorectal adenoma diagnosed by surveillance colonoscopy. This finding implies that obesity itself, even without metabolic abnormalities, is associated with an increased risk of adenoma recurrence.

15.
Intestinal Research ; : 323-331, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898825

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Infliximab (IFX) has proven effective as rescue therapy in steroid-refractory acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC), however, the long-term real-world data are scarce. Our study aimed to assess the long-term treatment outcomes of IFX in a real-life cohort. @*Methods@#We established a multicenter retrospective cohort of hospitalized patients with ASUC, who met Truelove and Witt’s criteria and received intravenous corticosteroid (IVCS) or IFX during index hospitalization between 2006 and 2016 in 5 university hospitals in Korea. The cohort was systematically followed up until colectomy, death or last follow-up visit. @*Results@#A total of 296 patients were followed up for a mean of 68.9 ± 44.0 months. During index hospitalization, 49 patients were treated with IFX; as rescue therapy for IVCS failure in 37 and as first-line medical therapy for ASUC in 12. All patients treated with IFX avoided colectomy during index hospitalization. The cumulative rates of rehospitalization and colectomy were 20.4% and 6.1% at 3 months and 39.6% and 18.8% at the end of follow-up, respectively. Patients treated with IFX presented with significantly shorter colectomy-free survival than IVCS responders (P= 0.04, log-rank test). Both cytomegalovirus colitis and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) were the significant predictors of colectomy in the overall study cohort (hazard ratios of 6.57 and 4.61, respectively). There were no fatalities. @*Conclusions@#Our real-world cohort study demonstrated that IFX is an effective therapeutic option in Korean patients with ASUC, irrespective of IFX indication. Aggressive vigilance for cytomegalovirus colitis and CDI is warranted for hospitalized patients with ASUC.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 383-390, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898462

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The risk of recurrence of colorectal adenoma among obese individuals without metabolic abnormalities or in those with metabolically healthy obesity is largely unexplored.Therefore, we longitudinally investigated the risk of adenoma occurrence in individuals undergoing surveillance colonoscopy according to metabolic status and obesity. @*Methods@#This retrospective cohort study included 16,872 Korean adults who underwent their first screening colonoscopy between 2003 and 2012 and who then underwent follow-up colonoscopy until 2017. Participants were categorized into a metabolically healthy nonobese group (reference group), a metabolically healthy obese group, a metabolically abnormal nonobese group, and a metabolically abnormal obese group. Hazard ratios (HRs) for adenoma recurrence compared to the reference group were calculated in each group. @*Results@#During a median follow-up duration of 47.3 months (interquartile range, 35.6 to 58.9 months), 3,673 (21.8%) and 292 (1.73%) participants developed adenoma and advanced adenoma, respectively. When age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history of colorectal cancer, and baseline adenoma risk were adjusted, the risk of adenoma recurrence was increased in metabolically healthy obese individuals (HR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.57) and metabolically abnormal obese individuals (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.30) but not in metabolically abnormal nonobese individuals (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.13). @*Conclusions@#In this study, metabolically healthy obese individuals and metabolically abnormal obese individuals exhibited increased risks of occurrence of colorectal adenoma diagnosed by surveillance colonoscopy. This finding implies that obesity itself, even without metabolic abnormalities, is associated with an increased risk of adenoma recurrence.

17.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 13-20, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835634

ABSTRACT

Some studies have reported a decrease in the natural killer (NK) cell activity in smokers. However, large-scale data on the relationshipbetween NK cell activity and smoking are unavailable. A cross-sectional study was performed on 12,249 asymptomatic examineeswho underwent an NK cell activity test, between January 2016 and May 2017. The test quantitated the amount of interferon-γsecreted into the plasma by NK cells, using a patented stimulatory cytokine. The mean age of the study population was 39.1 years,and the proportions of “never”, “former”, and “current” smokers were 65.5%, 20.9%, and 13.6%, respectively. Current smokers (1,422pg/mL) had a lower median level of NK cell activity than never smokers (1,504 pg/mL, P = 0.039) and former smokers (1,791 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Among current smokers, NK cell activity decreased with increase in the number of cigarettes smoked among currentsmokers (median, 1,537, 1,429, and 1,175 pg/mL at <10, 10-19, and ≥ 20 pack-years, respectively; P < 0.001). Additionally, itdecreased linearly with increasing quartiles of cotinine levels (median, 1,707, 1,636, 1,348, and 1,292 pg/mL at cotinine levels < 292,292-879, 880-1,509, and ≥ 1,510 ng/mL, respectively; r = –0.122, P < 0.001). NK cell activity was lower in current smokers. It alsodecreased with an increase in the number of cigarettes smoked, and it was negatively correlated with cotinine levels among currentsmokers. Our findings indicate a clear relationship between smoking and decreased NK cell activity.

18.
Intestinal Research ; : 18-33, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834398

ABSTRACT

The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been revolutionized for the last 10 years by the increasing use of immunomodulators and biologics. With immunosuppression of this kind, opportunistic infection is an important safety concern for patients with IBD. In particular, viral hepatitis is determined by the interaction between the virus and the host’s immunity, and the risk of reactivation increases if immunity is compromised by immunosuppression therapy. Parts of Asia, including Korea, still show intermediate endemicity for the hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus compared with the United States and Western Europe. Thus, members of IBD research group of the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases have produced a guideline on the prevention and management of viral hepatitis in IBD.

19.
Intestinal Research ; : 45-55, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834396

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#PF-00547659 is a monoclonal antibody against human mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) that prevents the binding of α4β7+ lymphocytes to MAdCAM-expressing sites in the gastrointestinal tract with high affinity and selectivity, and is being developed for the treatment of Crohn’s disease (CD). @*Methods@#OPERA is a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to investigate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of PF-00547659 following subcutaneous administration in subjects with active CD, a history of failure or intolerance to anti-tumor necrosis factor and/or immunosuppressants, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein > 3.0 mg/L, and ulcers on colonoscopy. The primary endpoint was Crohn’s Disease Activity Index-70 response at week 8 or 12. Subpopulation analyses for Asian subjects were performed as some differences are observed in genetics and clinical phenotypes in Asian CD patients compared with Western patients. @*Results@#In this study, 265 CD subjects were randomized, with a subpopulation of 21 subjects (8 Japanese and 13 Korean) defined as the Asian population. In the overall and Asian populations; PF-00547659 was pharmacologically active as evidenced by soluble MAdCAM and circulating β7+ central memory CD4+ T-lymphocytes, although no clear evidence of efficacy was observed in any clinical endpoints; pharmacokinetics of PF-00547659 in the Asian subpopulation was generally comparable to the overall population; and the safety profile of PF-00547659 appeared acceptable up to 12 weeks of treatment. @*Conclusions@#In the overall and Asian populations, efficacy of PF-00547659 could not be demonstrated using any clinical endpoints compared with placebo. Pharmacokinetics and safety of PF-00547659 were generally comparable. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required to confirm our results. (Trial Registration Number: NCT01276509)

20.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 579-586, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833349

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The impact of changes in body mass index and waist circumference on the development of metachronous colorectal neoplasia (CRN) after polypectomy has rarely been examined. We evaluated the association between changes in overall/abdominal obesity and metachronous CRN risk. @*Materials and Methods@#We studied patients who underwent ≥1 adenoma removal and surveillance colonoscopy. Patients were classified into the following four groups based on the changes in overall obesity from index to follow-up colonoscopy: non-obesity persisted (group 1), obesity to non-obesity (group 2), non-obesity to obesity (group 3), and obesity persisted (group 4). Patients were also divided into another four groups based on similar changes in abdominal obesity (groups 5–8). @*Results@#The number of patients in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 was 5074, 457, 643, and 3538, respectively, and that in groups 5, 6, 7, and 8 was 4229, 538, 656, and 2189, respectively. Group 4 had a significantly higher risk of metachronous CRN compared to groups 1 and 2. However, metachronous advanced CRN (ACRN) risk was not different among groups 1, 2, 3, and 4. Metachronous CRN risk in group 8 (abdominal obesity persisted) was higher than that in groups 5 (non-abdominal obesity persisted) and 7 (non-abdominal obesity to abdominal obesity), and tended to be higher than that in group 6 (abdominal obesity to non-abdominal obesity). Additionally, group 8 had a significantly higher risk of metachronous ACRN compared to groups 5, 6, and 7. @*Conclusion@#Changes in obesity affected the metachronous CRN risk. In particular, changes in abdominal obesity affected the metachronous ACRN risk.

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