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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913335

ABSTRACT

An allergy skin test is used to diagnose certain allergies by identifying sensitized allergens. In other words, it is a test for patients who are already sensitized to certain allergens. Because of the prevailing perception that beta-lactam allergy can be dangerous and potentially lethal, the intradermal test has long been routinely performed before use to screen beta-lactam allergy in Korea. The prevalence of penicillin allergy is estimated to be 1% to 2%. However, only 14% of the subjects with perceived penicillin allergy is considered to have true penicillin allergy. Moreover, it is difficult to justify performing a skin test on subjects who are very unlikely to be sensitized to beta-lactam, such as those who never used beta-lactam or never experienced allergy after previous use of beta-lactam.Therefore, allergists recommend beta-lactam skin testing in those who have allergy after the use of beta-lactam. Nevertheless, many hospitals in Korea are conducting routine skin tests on patients regardless of a history of beta-lactam allergy, which are not clinically validated but consume considerable human and material resources. False-positive results can consequently result in inappropriate labeling of beta-lactam allergy, leading to the unnecessary restriction of medication prescriptions and the increase in medical expenses. Herein, the drug allergy working group affiliated with the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology announces an expert opinion on the preuse beta-lactam skin test for subjects without a history of beta-lactam allergy based on the objective evidence from the literature and clinical relevance.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913323

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sleep-disordered breathing is one of the complicating characteristics in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). No detailed description and risk factors are suggested on breathing problems during sleep in Korean children with PWS. @*Methods@#We reviewed clinical and sleep-study data in patients with PWS who underwent polysomnography before they took the growth hormone therapy. @*Results@#Of the 27 patients with PWS, 25 (92.6%) had sleep-disordered breathing, of whom 14 showed moderate to severe sleep apnea. Obstructive dominance was prevalent (64%), followed by central dominance (24%). The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) increased with increasing weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) (r = 0.50, P = 0.009), but did not differ by age. Apnea duration of over 12 months was longer in the patient group than in the infant group (15.1 ± 4.3 seconds vs. 9.4 ± 1.7 seconds, P = 0.001) and in the obese than nonobese groups (16.8 ± 4.3 seconds vs. 10.0 ± 2.0 seconds, P = 0.003). Desaturation below 70% was more common in the obese than nonobese subjects (3/9 vs. 0/18, P = 0.029). Age was not different between the central and obstructive apnea groups, but patients with central apnea tended to be younger than patients with obstructive apnea (median [range]: 8.0 months [6.0–12.0 months] vs.16.5 months [8.5–79.5 months], P = 0.092). In addition, patients with obstructive apnea showed higher AHI (12.8 [5.9–19.2] vs. 3.9 [3.4–4.5], P = 0.045). @*Conclusion@#Sleep-disordered breathing is common in PWS children with different intensity and patterns according to age and BMI. Close monitoring of breathing problems during sleep is required in PWS patients.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913311

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome (SJMS) is a rare disorder characterized by the hyperlucency of a unilateral lung due to ipsilaterally arrested lung growth. No sufficient information on progressive lung function changes during growth is available in SJMS. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed SJMS cases using a clinical database from January 2000 to August 2018. @*Results@#A total of 40 patients were enrolled in this study. The median age of the patients was 4.8 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2.7–9.0 years), boys (n = 21, 52.5%) were more affected, and left lungs (n = 27, 67.5%) were more involved. The interval between infection and diagnosis was 1.8 years (IQR, 0.7–6.4 years). Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 14) and adenovirus (n = 5) were most prevalent among the 21 subjects with presumably identifiable causes. Most of the 16 patients with available pulmonary function data presented moderate obstructive lung function (z-score, median; FEV 1: -4.320 [IQR, -5.955 to -3.400] and FVC: -2.600 [IQR, -3.590 to -1.570], respectively) with the more decreased median in forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF 25%–75%) (z-score, -4.470; IQR, -5.330 to -3.170). Linear mixed effect models indicated that younger age at first infectious insult was significantly related to decreased FEV1 z-score (P = 0.041), and that the FEV 1/FVC and FEF 25%–75% z-scores were reduced by 0.082 (P = 0.005) and 0.069 (P ≤ 0.001) per year. @*Conclusion@#In children with SJMS, the initial infectious insult occurs in the early life with M. pneumoniae being the most common pathogen. Lung function may deteriorate with an obstructive pattern during growth. The impairment can progress slowly not in the FEV1, but in the FEV1/FVC or FEF25%–75%

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762182

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Data are lacking on the association between the allergic rhinitis (AR) phenotype and sensitization to specific allergens or bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in children. We here investigated risk factors and comorbidities, including sensitization to specific allergens and BHR, for the AR phenotype by AR and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) classification in a general population-based birth cohort study. METHODS: We enrolled 606 children aged 7 years from the Panel Study of Korean Children. The AR phenotype was assigned in accordance with the ARIA classification in children. Skin prick tests and Provocholine provocation test were performed. Risk factors and comorbidities for AR phenotypes were then analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild and moderate to severe AR in our study cohort was 37.2% and 8.8%, respectively. Recent use of analgesics or antipyretics and current cat ownership were associated with the risk of mild persistent AR. Sensitizations to Dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus (Der p), Japanese hop and cat were associated with moderate to severe persistent AR. Children with moderate to severe AR had a higher risk of current asthma and BHR compared to mild AR cases (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.77–15.62). Moderate to severe AR with allergic sensitization was associated with the highest risk of BHR (aOR, 11.77; 95% CI, 3.40–40.74). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate to severe-persistent AR is more closely related to respiratory comorbidities and sensitizations than mild AR. Stratifying the AR phenotype by ARIA classification may assist in disease management.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Analgesics , Animals , Antipyretics , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Asthma , Bronchial Hyperreactivity , Cats , Child , Classification , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus , Disease Management , Humans , Methacholine Chloride , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Parturition , Phenotype , Prevalence , Rhinitis, Allergic , Risk Factors , Skin
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762181

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Childhood asthma has a considerable social impact and economic burden, especially in severe asthma. This study aimed to identify the proportion of childhood asthma severity and to evaluate associated factors for greater asthma severity. METHODS: This study was performed on 667 children aged 5–15 years with asthma from the nationwide 19 hospitals in the Korean childhood Asthma Study (KAS). Asthma was classified as mild intermittent, mild persistent, and moderate/severe persistent groups according to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program recommendations. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to identify the associated factors for greater asthma severity. RESULTS: Mild persistent asthma was most prevalent (39.0%), followed by mild intermittent (37.6%), moderate persistent (22.8%), and severe persistent asthma (0.6%). Onset later than 6 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.69 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 1.92 for moderate/severe persistent asthma) tended to increase asthma severity. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (aOR, 1.53 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 1.85 for moderate/severe persistent asthma), and current dog ownership with sensitization to dog dander (aOR, 5.86 for mild persistent asthma; aOR, 6.90 for moderate/severe persistent asthma) showed increasing trends with greater asthma severity. Lower maternal education levels (aOR, 2.32) and no usage of an air purifier in exposure to high levels of outdoor air pollution (aOR, 1.76) were associated with moderate/severe persistent asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Modification of identified environmental factors associated with greater asthma severity might help better control childhood asthma, thereby reducing the disease burden due to childhood asthma.


Subject(s)
Air Filters , Air Pollution , Animals , Asthma , Child , Dander , Dogs , Education , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Risk Factors , Smoke , Social Change , Tobacco
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785338

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The roles of gut microbiota on the natural course of atopic dermatitis (AD) are not yet fully understood. We investigated whether the composition and function of gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) at 6 months of age could affect the natural course of AD up to 24 months in early childhood.METHODS: Fecal samples from 132 infants were analyzed using pyrosequencing, including 84 healthy controls, 22 transient AD and 26 persistent AD subjects from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic Diseases (COCOA) birth cohort. The functional profile of the gut microbiome was analyzed by whole-metagenome sequencing. SCFAs were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.RESULTS: Low levels of Streptococcus and high amounts of Akkermansia were evident in transient AD cases, and low Clostridium, Akkermansia and high Streptococcus were found in children with persistent AD. The relative abundance of Streptococcus positively correlated with scoring of AD (SCORAD) score, whereas that of Clostridium negatively correlated with SCORAD score. The persistent AD group showed decreased gut microbial functional genes related to oxidative phosphorylation compared with healthy controls. Butyrate and valerate levels were lower in transient AD infants compared with healthy and persistent AD infants.CONCLUSIONS: Compositions, functions and metabolites of the early gut microbiome are related to natural courses of AD in infants.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Butyrates , Child , Clostridium , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fatty Acids, Volatile , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Infant , Metabolomics , Metagenome , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Parturition , Streptococcus
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913291

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Pulmonary underdevelopment is one of the pulmonary causes of neonatal mortality, which is categorized into pulmonary agenesis, pulmonary aplasia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a well-known cause of pulmonary hypoplasia; however, further studies are needed for other etiologies. Patients with pulmonary underdevelopment show varying degrees of clinical severity. Most patients with pulmonary underdevelopment have respiratory distress at birth, while a few have only mild symptoms. Our study investigated the natural course and prognosis of pulmonary underdevelopment by analyzing multiple cases from a single tertiary medical center. @*Methods@#A retrospective review was conducted on patients diagnosed with pulmonary hypoplasia and agenesis from January 2000 to August 2019. Cases were extracted from the clinical database of Seoul National University Children’s Hospital by searching for keywords related to pulmonary underdevelopment. @*Results@#A total of 28 patients were identified. Four patients had pulmonary agenesis, and all were idiopathic. Twenty-four patients had evidence of pulmonary hypoplasia with diverse causes. The median age at diagnosis was 11.5 days (range, 1–240 days) and the mean gestational age was 35 weeks 2 days± 3 weeks 6 days. Twenty patients received ventilator care and 11 had various degrees of pulmonary hypertension. The long-term survival rate was 50%. The median age of death among pulmonary hypoplasia patients were 11 days (range, 1–730 days). All patients without ventilator care survived. The incidence of ventilator care, pneumothorax, and pulmonary hypertension were significantly higher among patients who died. @*Conclusion@#The prognosis of pulmonary underdevelopment depends on the severity of respiratory distress and pulmonary hypertension in earlier life. Patients with severe distress appear to have severe degree of pulmonary hypoplasia. Patients without ventilator support in the neonatal period survived without significant morbidities.

8.
Childhood Kidney Diseases ; : 120-125, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831208

ABSTRACT

Gorham-Stout syndrome is a rare bone disorder characterized by progressive massive osteolysis and proliferation of vascular and lymphatic vessels. A 15-year-old boy was initially diagnosed with Gorham-Stout at the age of 8 years based on clinical and radiological findings. Following diagnosis, he was treated with pamidronate, interferon alfa, propranolol, oral corticosteroids, and sirolimus. He developed proteinuria at the age of 15 and progressed into the nephrotic range 2 years later. A renal biopsy revealed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, not otherwise specified variant. The sequential increase in proteinuria associated with medications suggested that the focal segmental glomerulosclerosis may be caused by pamidronate and sirolimus, but cannot completely rule out the possibility of kidney involvement of GSS itself.

9.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739512

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is controversial whether indoor pet exposure is either a risk or protective factor developing sensitization to pet allergens or asthma. Therefore, we investigated whether indoor pet ownership entails a risk for the development of asthma and sensitization in childhood. METHODS: The Panel Study of Korean Children (PSKC) is a general-population-based birth cohort study that recruited 2,078 mother-baby dyads in Korea between April and July of 2008. Among 1,577 children who were followed up in 2015, 559 underwent skin prick tests, spirometry and bronchial provocation tests using Provocholine. Having a cat or a dog and the prevalence of asthma were evaluated by using self-reported questionnaires and physicians’ medical records. RESULTS: During infancy, the rate of dog ownership was 4.5% (71 of 1,574) and that of cat ownership was 0.5% (8 of 1,574). Of the subjects, 7.9% (n=109) currently had at least 1 dog and 2.5% (n=34) had at least 1 cat. Pet ownership during infancy was associated with sensitization to cats or dogs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29–13.98), wheezing within 12 months (aOR, 5.56; 95% CI, 1.65–18.75) and current asthma (wheezing episode in the last 12 months+diagnosed asthma by physicians) (aOR, 6.36; 95% CI, 1.54–26.28). In contrast, pet ownership during the last 12 months was not associated with sensitization to cats or dogs or current asthma. CONCLUSION: Indoor pet exposure during infancy can be critical for developing sensitization to cats or dogs and asthma in childhood. Avoidance of pet exposure in early life may reduce sensitization to cats or dogs and development of asthma.


Subject(s)
Allergens , Animals , Asthma , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Cats , Child , Cohort Studies , Dogs , Humans , Infant , Korea , Medical Records , Methacholine Chloride , Odds Ratio , Ownership , Parturition , Pets , Prevalence , Protective Factors , Respiratory Sounds , Risk Factors , Skin , Spirometry
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739411

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Prenatal maternal stress affects offspring's atopic dermatitis (AD) development, which is thought to be mediated by the oxidative stress. We aimed to evaluate the difference in leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker for exposure to oxidative stress, according to the prenatal stress exposure and the later AD development. METHODS: From a birth cohort (the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases) that had displayed a good epidemiologic association between the exposure to prenatal stress and AD development in the offspring, we selected 68 pairs of samples from 4 subject groups based on the level of prenatal maternal stress and later AD development. The LTL was measured from both cord blood and 1-year peripheral blood, and their LTLs were compared between subject groups. Finally, the proportion of AD development was examined in the subject groups that are reclassified based on subjects' exposure to prenatal stress and there LTL. RESULTS: Cord-blood LTL was shorter in prenatally stressed infants than in unstressed ones (P = 0.026), which difference was still significant when subjects became 1 year old (P = 0.008). LTL of cord blood, as well as one of the 1-year peripheral blood, was not different according to later AD development at 1 year (P = 0.915 and 0.174, respectively). Shorter LTL made no increase in the proportion of later AD development in either prenatally high-stressed or low-stressed groups (P = 1.000 and 0.473, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Cord-blood LTL may reflect subjects' exposure to maternal prenatal stress. However, the LTL shortening is not a risk factor of increasing AD development until the age of 1, and a longer investigation may be necessary for validation. Currently, the results doubt the role of LTL shortening as a marker for risk assessment tool for the prenatal stress associated with AD development in the offspring.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Child , Cohort Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic , Fetal Blood , Humans , Infant , Leukocytes , Oxidative Stress , Parturition , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological , Telomere Shortening , Telomere
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739397

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) are rare, they are associated with high morbidity and mortality, and thus early diagnosis and treatment are critical for improving prognoses. However, few studies have reported the characteristics of SCARs in children. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics, current management and prognosis of pediatric SCARs. METHODS: We analyzed pediatric data in the Korean SCARs registry, which was built retrospectively in 2016 with SCAR cases treated in 34 tertiary referral university hospitals during 2010–2015. Using these cases, we descriptively analyzed detailed data regarding etiology, clinical and laboratory features, treatment strategies, and prognosis. RESULTS: Forty-seven pediatric SCAR cases from 15 tertiary referral hospitals were included. The median patient age was 10 (interquartile range, 3-15.5) years and 68.1% (n = 32) were males. The culprit drug was identified in 95.7% (n = 45) of the patients; antibiotics (44.7%) and antiepileptic drugs (19.1%) were the most common and second most common culprits, respectively. Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) cases presented with the largest area of skin involvement without permanent sequelae. Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) cases involved relatively small areas of skin but serious sequelae in two children. Of 4 patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), 1 died. Of all patients assessed, 36 (76.6%) received systemic steroids and 21 (44.7%) received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Thirteen (27.7%) received both systemic steroids and IVIG. Cyclosporine was administered to only 1 patient along with a systemic steroid. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with pediatric SCARs, including those with DRESS, SJS and TEN, clinical presentations were variable. Thus, there was no clear continuous disease spectrum. Although the mortality rate was low (2.1%), clinical suspicion may be the best tool for proactive SCAR management.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anticonvulsants , Child , Cicatrix , Cyclosporine , Drug Eruptions , Drug Hypersensitivity Syndrome , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Early Diagnosis , Hospitals, University , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Korea , Male , Mortality , Prognosis , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Steroids , Stevens-Johnson Syndrome , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762200

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical characteristics of pediatric nontraumaitc chylothorax and to suggest appropriate therapeutic managements. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 22 patients with nontraumatic chylothorax from January 2005 to December 2018 in the Children's Hospital of Seoul National University. We analyze their etiology, treatment, complications and outcome. RESULTS: Of the 22 patients, 16 were diagnosed before 1 year old and 6 after 1 year old. The causes of chylothorax under 1-year-old children were related to congenital factors (n=9), unknown causes (n=5), and high central venous pressure (n=2). The causes of chylothorax over 1-year-old children were related to congenital factors (n=3), unknown causes (n=1), high venous pressure (n=1), and lymphoma (n=1). All patients had dietary modification. Eight of them were cured by dietary modification, but there was no improvement in over 1-year-old children. Medication was added to patients refractory to dietary modification. Four patients with medication were improved and 5 were improved by surgical management. Nutritional, immunological and other complications occurred in many patients. Five death cases were reported. Four patients were under 1 year old and 1 was over 1 year old. The causes of nontraumatic chylothorax in dead patients were high central venous pressure (n=3), congenital (n=1), and unknown (n=1). CONCLUSION: Nontraumatic chylothorax more frequently occurs in under 1-year-old children. The most common cause is congenital factors. Stepwise management is effective in many patients, but specific treatment is needed in some cases. The prognosis is related to the onset of age and underlying diseases.


Subject(s)
Central Venous Pressure , Child , Chylothorax , Diet , Feeding Behavior , Humans , Lymphoma , Medical Records , Pediatrics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Seoul , Venous Pressure
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762199

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA, also known as the Churg-Strauss syndrome) is a disorder characterized by asthma, peripheral eosinophilia and systemic vasculitis. It rarely occurs in children, so that physicians may frequently mistake it for a simple uncontrolled asthma. Since a subsequent cardiac involvement is critical for the prognosis, it is important to suspect EGPA in children with severe, uncontrolled asthma. The cardiac manifestations in EGPA are variable from asymptomatic electrocardiogram abnormalities to pericarditis with pericardial effusion, myocarditis with cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Although delayed treatment may lead to fatal cardiac complications in EGPA, adequate immune suppression can reverse cardiac impairment. We report a 14-year-old girl with persistent asthma refractory to steroids who was eventually diagnosed with an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-negative EGPA.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asthma , Cardiomyopathies , Child , Churg-Strauss Syndrome , Cytoplasm , Death, Sudden, Cardiac , Electrocardiography , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Female , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Heart Failure , Heart , Humans , Myocarditis , Pericardial Effusion , Pericarditis , Prognosis , Steroids , Systemic Vasculitis
14.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e33-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762876

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with offspring allergic-disease development, and oxidative stress may mediate this relationship. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate whether leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening, a marker for exposure to oxidative stress, in early life is associated with increased risk of asthma development during the preschool period. METHODS: We assessed the follow-up clinical data of a subgroup from a birth cohort whose LTLs had been measured from cord-blood and 1-year peripheral-blood samples. We examined whether the LTLs would be associated with asthma development at the age of 2–4 years. RESULTS: The data of 84 subjects were analyzed. LTLs were measured from the cord-blood and 1-year peripheral blood of 75 and 79 subjects, respectively. Among them, 14 subjects (16.7%) developed bronchial asthma between 2–4 years old. Prenatally stressed subjects had marginally increased odds of developing asthma (p = 0.097). There was no significant difference in the odds of preschool-asthma development between the groups with shorter and longer cord-blood LTLs (odds ratio [OR], 0.651; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.184–2.306) or in the odds between the groups with shorter and longer 1-year peripheral-blood LTLs (OR, 0.448; 95% CI, 0.135–1.483). Finally, subjects with both higher prenatal stress and shorter LTLs did not have significantly higher odds of preschool-asthma development (for cord-blood: OR, 1.242; 95% CI, 0.353–4.368; for 1-year peripheral-blood: OR, 1.451; 95% CI, 0.428–4.919). CONCLUSION: There was no significant association between early life LTLs and higher risk of bronchial-asthma development during the preschool years.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchial Diseases , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Leukocytes , Oxidative Stress , Parturition , Telomere
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Test for Respiratory and Asthma Control in Kids (TRACK) questionnaires were developed and validated in various languages to monitor respiratory control in preschool-aged children. We aimed to assess the reliability and validity of the Korean version of the TRACK questionnaire. METHODS: We administered the linguistically validated TRACK questionnaires to caregivers of asthmatic preschool children on two separate visits 4–6 weeks apart. Each physician graded the level of the guideline-based asthma control, assessed the timing of symptoms, and adjusted the therapeutic level at each visit. RESULTS: A total of 137 children were enrolled in the study. Cronbach's alpha was 0.65 for a questionnaire as a whole. The test-retest reliability was 0.72. The median TRACK scores were significantly different between asthma control status categories, with the lowest scores in children classified as poorly controlled and the highest in the well-controlled group (P < 0.001). They were different among groups classified according to the physician adjusted therapeutic levels, with the lowest values in children prescribed step-up therapy (P < 0.001), and according to the recency of respiratory symptoms (P < 0.001). Finally, the changes in TRACK scores between visits were highest in subjects showing improved control, followed by unchanged, and worsened control. When we applied the traditional cut-off of 80 for a well-controlled condition, a sensitivity of 75.6% and a specificity of 70.9% were calculated. CONCLUSION: The Korean translated version of the TRACK questionnaire is valid and reliable to assess respiratory and asthma control in Korean preschool children with asthma symptoms.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Caregivers , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fentanyl for sedation therapy in mechanically ventilated children. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial of mechanically ventilated patients between 2 months and 18 years of age. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the control group with midazolam alone, and the combination group with both fentanyl and midazolam. The sedation level was evaluated using the Comfort Behavior Scale (CBS), and the infusion rates were adjusted according to the difference between the measured and the target CBS score. RESULTS: Forty-four patients were recruited and randomly allocated, with 22 patients in both groups. The time ratio of cumulative hours with a difference in CBS score (measured CBS–target CBS) of ≥ 4 points (i.e., under-sedation) was lower in the combination group (median, 0.06; interquartile range [IQR], 0–0.2) than in the control group (median, 0.15; IQR, 0.04–0.29) (P < 0.001). The time ratio of cumulative hours with a difference in CBS score of ≥ 8 points (serious under-sedation) was also lower in the combination group (P < 0.001). The cumulative amount of midazolam used in the control group (0.11 mg/kg/hr; 0.07–0.14 mg/kg/hr) was greater than in the combination group (0.07 mg/kg/hr; 0.06–0.11 mg/kg/hr) (P < 0.001). Two cases of hypotension in each group were detected but coma and ileus, the major known adverse reactions to fentanyl, did not occur. CONCLUSION: Fentanyl combined with midazolam is safe and more effective than midazolam alone for sedation therapy in mechanically ventilated children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02172014


Subject(s)
Child , Coma , Fentanyl , Humans , Hypotension , Ileus , Midazolam , Respiration, Artificial
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719520

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is one of the ventilation-supporting methods by providing adequate exogenous pressure without intubation or tracheostomy. We aimed to assess the frequency and clinical factors for pneumothorax occurring during NIPPV application in a tertiary children's hospital. METHODS: We selected cases of pneumothorax related to NIPPV by keyword searching in our institution's clinical data warehouse, and their medical records were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: During a period of 17 years, 15 cases undergoing NIPPV developed pneumothorax, which was an incidence of 0.64% (15 of 2,343). There were 9 neonates and 6 adolescents. In 9 neonates, pneumothorax was caused by the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) ventilator, and occurred on 2 days after birth (median, range 1–3 days). In neonates, pneumothorax developed within 36 hours after CPAP application. One neonate underwent tracheal intubation and 3 neonates underwent chest tube insertion. In the postteenager group, pneumothorax developed 23 months (median, range 5 days to 47 months) after NIPPV application with a mask. All of the 6 patients had underlying neuromuscular disorders and one had superimposed interstitial lung disease. One of the 7 cases underwent surgical treatment and 4 cases were intubated. One case died from the deterioration of underlying interstitial lung disease. CONCLUSION: Although it rarely happens, the NIPPV can result in pneumothorax. In most cases, it can be resolved by supportive cares with oxygen or chest tube with or without tracheostomy. The prognosis is related to the type of underlying disease and its progression.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Chest Tubes , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Humans , Incidence , Infant, Newborn , Intubation , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Masks , Medical Records , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen , Parturition , Pneumothorax , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency , Retrospective Studies , Tracheostomy , Ventilators, Mechanical
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739508

ABSTRACT

Bronchial provocation tests are of value in the evaluation of airway hyperresponsiveness. Nonspecific bronchial challenge (methacholine, mannitol, exercise, etc.) is used when the symptoms, physical examination, and measurements of pulmonary function are unremarkable in the diagnosis of asthma, when a patient is suspected of having occupational asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and when a screening test for asthma or EIB is required for some occupational groups in whom bronchospasm would pose an unacceptable hazard. Methacholine inhalation challenge is most widely used pharmacologic challenge and highly sensitive. For appropriate interpretation of the results of methacholine provocation, it is important to perform the test with the standardized protocol and to recognize that inhalation methods significantly influence the sensitivity of the procedure. Indirect challenges (e.g., mannitol and exercise) correlate with airway inflammation and are more specific but less sensitive for asthma. Indirect provocation tests are used to confirm asthma, to differentiate asthma from other airway diseases, and to evaluate EIB.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Asthma, Occupational , Bronchial Provocation Tests , Bronchial Spasm , Bronchoconstriction , Diagnosis , Exercise Test , Humans , Inflammation , Inhalation , Mannitol , Mass Screening , Methacholine Chloride , Occupational Groups , Physical Examination
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741854

ABSTRACT

A 6-year-old boy with underlying hemolytic anemia of unknown etiology, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent urticaria visited our hospital because of acute respiratory failure induced by influenza A. Despite mechanical ventilation after endotracheal intubation along with inhalation of nitric oxide, respiratory acidosis and hypoxemia persisted. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) insertion was performed to provide respiratory support. After performing flexible bronchoscopy, we found that thick mucus plugs were obstructing the right bronchus intermedius and the upper lobe orifice. After bronchial washing and removal of the plugs, we were able to wean the patient off VV ECMO and transfer him to the general ward. He was discharged without any neurologic or pulmonary sequelae.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Respiratory , Anemia, Hemolytic , Hypoxia , Bronchi , Bronchitis , Bronchoscopy , Child , Dermatitis, Atopic , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Inhalation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Mucus , Nitric Oxide , Patients' Rooms , Plastics , Pneumonia , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency , Urticaria
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714578

ABSTRACT

Mutations of the surfactant protein (SP)-C gene (SFTPC) have been associated with neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and childhood interstitial lung disease (ILD). If accurate diagnosis and proper management are delayed, irreversible respiratory failure demanding lung transplantation may ensue. A girl was born at term but was intubated and given exogenous surfactant due to RDS. Cough and tachypnea persisted, and symptoms rapidly progressed at 16 months of age despite treatment with antibiotics, oral prednisolone, methylprednisolone pulse therapy, and intravenous immunoglobulin. At 20 months, she visited our hospital for a second opinion. A computed tomography scan showed a diffuse mosaic pattern with ground-glass opacity and subpleural cysts compatible with ILD. A video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy revealed ILD with eosinophilic proteinaceous material and macrophages in the alveolar space. Bilateral lung transplant from a 30-month-old child was done, and she was discharged in room air without acute complications. Genetic analysis revealed a novel c.203T>A, p.Val68Asp mutation of SP-C, based on the same exon as a known pathogenic mutation, p.Glu66Lys.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biopsy , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough , Diagnosis , Eosinophils , Exons , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung Transplantation , Lung , Macrophages , Methylprednisolone , Prednisolone , Referral and Consultation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Respiratory Insufficiency , Tachypnea
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