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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937334

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Sepsis-3 criteria and quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) have been advocated to be used in defining sepsis in the general population. We aimed to compare the Sepsis-3 criteria and Chronic Liver Failure-SOFA (CLIF-SOFA) scores as predictors of in-hospital mortality in cirrhotic patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) for infections. @*Methods@#A total of 1,622 cirrhosis patients admitted at the ED for infections were assessed retrospectively. We analyzed their demographic, laboratory, and microbiological data upon diagnosis of the infection. The primary endpoint was inhospital mortality rate. The predictive performances of baseline CLIF-SOFA, Sepsis-3, and qSOFA scores for in-hospital mortality were evaluated. @*Results@#The CLIF-SOFA score proved to be significantly better in predicting in-hospital mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78–0.82) than the Sepsis-3 (AUROC, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.72–0.77, P10%; this is the cutoff point for the definition of sepsis. @*Conclusions@#Among cirrhosis patients presenting with infections at the ED, CLIF-SOFA scores showed a better predictive performance for mortality than both Sepsis-3 criteria and qSOFA scores, and can be a useful tool of risk stratification in cirrhotic patients requiring timely intervention for infection.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875263

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Clinical outcomes of patients who undergo transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for single small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not consistent, and may differ based on certain imaging findings. This retrospective study was aimed at determining the efficacy of pre-TACE CT or MR imaging findings in predicting survival outcomes in patients with small HCC upon being treated with TACE. Besides, the study proposed to build a risk prediction model for these patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Altogether, 750 patients with functionally good hepatic reserve who received TACE as the first-line treatment for single small HCC between 2004 and 2014 were included in the study. These patients were randomly assigned into training (n = 525) and validation (n = 225) sets. @*Results@#According to the results of a multivariable Cox analysis, three pre-TACE imaging findings (tumor margin, tumor location, enhancement pattern) and two clinical factors (age, serum albumin level) were selected and scored to create predictive models for overall, local tumor progression (LTP)-free, and progression-free survival in the training set. The median overall survival time in the validation set were 137.5 months, 76.1 months, and 44.0 months for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves of the predictive models for overall, LTP-free, and progression-free survival applied to the validation cohort showed acceptable areas under the curve values (0.734, 0.802, and 0.775 for overall survival; 0.738, 0.789, and 0.791 for LTP-free survival; and 0.671, 0.733, and 0.694 for progression-free survival at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Pre-TACE CT or MR imaging findings could predict survival outcomes in patients with small HCC upon treatment with TACE. Our predictive models including three imaging predictors could be helpful in prognostication, identification, and selection of suitable candidates for TACE in patients with single small HCC.

3.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 405-416, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903834

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the effect of intrathecal Sec-O-glucosylhamaudol (SOG) on the p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-related inflammatory responses, and autophagy in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain model. @*Methods@#The continuous administration of intrathecal SOG via an osmotic pump was performed on male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 50) with SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Rats were randomized into four groups after the 7th day following SNL and treated for 2 weeks as follows (each n = 10): Group S, sham-operated; Group D, 70% dimethylsulfoxide; Group SOG96, SOG at 96 μg/day; and Group SOG192, SOG at 192 μg/day. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) test was performed to assess neuropathic pain. Western blotting of the spinal cord (L5) was performed to measure changes in the expression of signaling pathway components, cytokines, and autophagy. Additional studies with naloxone challenge (n = 10) and cells were carried out to evaluate the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of SOG. @*Results@#Continuous intrathecal SOG administration increased the PWT with p38/JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition, which induced a reduction in proinflammatory cytokines with the concomitant downregulation of autophagy. @*Conclusions@#SOG alleviates mechanical allodynia, and its mechanism is thought to be related to the regulation of p38/JNK MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, associated with autophagy during neuroinflammatory processes after SNL.

4.
Journal of Stroke ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900644

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to develop a model predicting early recanalization after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment in large-vessel occlusion. @*Methods@#Using data from two different multicenter prospective cohorts, we determined the factors associated with early recanalization immediately after t-PA in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion, and developed and validated a prediction model for early recanalization. Clot volume was semiautomatically measured on thin-section computed tomography using software, and the degree of collaterals was determined using the Tan score. Follow-up angiographic studies were performed immediately after t-PA treatment to assess early recanalization. @*Results@#Early recanalization, assessed 61.0±44.7 minutes after t-PA bolus, was achieved in 15.5% (15/97) in the derivation cohort and in 10.5% (8/76) in the validation cohort. Clot volume (odds ratio [OR], 0.979; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961 to 0.997; P=0.020) and good collaterals (OR, 6.129; 95% CI, 1.592 to 23.594; P=0.008) were significant factors associated with early recanalization. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model including clot volume was 0.819 (95% CI, 0.720 to 0.917) and 0.842 (95% CI, 0.746 to 0.938) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The AUC improved when good collaterals were added (derivation cohort: AUC, 0.876; 95% CI, 0.802 to 0.950; P=0.164; validation cohort: AUC, 0.949; 95% CI, 0.886 to 1.000; P=0.036). The integrated discrimination improvement also showed significantly improved prediction (0.097; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.185; P=0.032). @*Conclusions@#The model using clot volume and collaterals predicted early recanalization after intravenous t-PA and had a high performance. This model may aid in determining the recanalization treatment strategy in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899844

ABSTRACT

Background@#Liver fibrosis is defined as the accumulation of the extracellular matrix and scar formation. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been demonstrated to participate in fibrogenesis. S100B is a ligand of RAGE and exerts extracellular functions by inducing a series of signal transduction cascades. However, the involvement of S100B and RAGE in cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated S100B and RAGE expression during liver fibrosis in mice that underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL). @*Methods@#BDL was performed in 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with sham control (n = 26) and BDL (n = 26) groups. Expression levels of S100B, RAGE and fibrotic markers in the livers from both groups at week 1 and 3 after BDL were examined by western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Liver fibrotic changes were examined by histological and ultrastructural analysis. @*Results@#Histological staining with Sirius Red and the evaluation of the messenger RNA expression of fibrotic markers showed noticeable periportal fibrosis and bile duct proliferation. S100B was mainly present in bile duct epithelial cells, and its expression was upregulated in proportion to the ductular reaction during fibrogenesis by BDL. RAGE expression was also increased, and interestingly, triple immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that both S100B and RAGE were expressed in proliferating bile duct epithelial cells and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the BDL livers. In addition, in rat HSCs (HSC-T6), treatment with recombinant S100B protein significantly increased fibrotic markers in a dose-dependent manner, and RAGE small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed S100B-stimulated upregulation of fibrotic markers compared with cells treated with scramble siRNA and S100B. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that the increased expression of S100B and RAGE and the interaction between S100B and RAGE may play an important role in ductular reaction and liver fibrosis induced by BDL.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897659

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV), an acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, shows potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus. Our previous 48-week trial revealed that BSV has comparable antiviral efficacy to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and better safety profiles in terms of improved renal and bone safety. This extension study evaluated the prolonged efficacy and safety of BSV in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. @*Methods@#Patients continued to participate in an open-label BSV study after an initial 48-week double-blind comparison of BSV and TDF treatment. The antiviral efficacy and drug safety was evaluated up to 192 weeks in two groups: patients continuing BSV treatment (BSV-BSV) and patients switching from TDF to BSV after 48 weeks (TDF-BSV). @*Results@#Among 197 patients receiving randomized treatments, 170 (86%) entered the open-label phase and 152 (77%) entered the 192-week extension study. Virological response rates over 192 weeks were 92.50% and 93.06% in the BSV-BSV and TDF-BSV groups, respectively (P=0.90). Hepatitis B envelop antigen seroconversion and alanine aminotransferase normalization rates were similar between the groups (P=0.75 and P=0.36, respectively). There were no drug-resistant mutations to BSV. Bone mineral density and renal function were well preserved in the BSV-BSV group, whereas these initially worsened then recovered after switching therapy in the TDF-BSV group. @*Conclusions@#BSV maintained potent antiviral efficacy after 192 weeks and showed no evidence of drug resistance. BSV was safe, well tolerated, and effective in patients who switched from TDF to BSV. Trial Registration Number: NCT01937806 (date: 10 Sep 2013).

7.
Journal of Stroke ; : 244-252, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892940

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose We aimed to develop a model predicting early recanalization after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) treatment in large-vessel occlusion. @*Methods@#Using data from two different multicenter prospective cohorts, we determined the factors associated with early recanalization immediately after t-PA in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion, and developed and validated a prediction model for early recanalization. Clot volume was semiautomatically measured on thin-section computed tomography using software, and the degree of collaterals was determined using the Tan score. Follow-up angiographic studies were performed immediately after t-PA treatment to assess early recanalization. @*Results@#Early recanalization, assessed 61.0±44.7 minutes after t-PA bolus, was achieved in 15.5% (15/97) in the derivation cohort and in 10.5% (8/76) in the validation cohort. Clot volume (odds ratio [OR], 0.979; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.961 to 0.997; P=0.020) and good collaterals (OR, 6.129; 95% CI, 1.592 to 23.594; P=0.008) were significant factors associated with early recanalization. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model including clot volume was 0.819 (95% CI, 0.720 to 0.917) and 0.842 (95% CI, 0.746 to 0.938) in the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. The AUC improved when good collaterals were added (derivation cohort: AUC, 0.876; 95% CI, 0.802 to 0.950; P=0.164; validation cohort: AUC, 0.949; 95% CI, 0.886 to 1.000; P=0.036). The integrated discrimination improvement also showed significantly improved prediction (0.097; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.185; P=0.032). @*Conclusions@#The model using clot volume and collaterals predicted early recanalization after intravenous t-PA and had a high performance. This model may aid in determining the recanalization treatment strategy in stroke patients with large-vessel occlusion.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892140

ABSTRACT

Background@#Liver fibrosis is defined as the accumulation of the extracellular matrix and scar formation. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been demonstrated to participate in fibrogenesis. S100B is a ligand of RAGE and exerts extracellular functions by inducing a series of signal transduction cascades. However, the involvement of S100B and RAGE in cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated S100B and RAGE expression during liver fibrosis in mice that underwent common bile duct ligation (BDL). @*Methods@#BDL was performed in 10-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with sham control (n = 26) and BDL (n = 26) groups. Expression levels of S100B, RAGE and fibrotic markers in the livers from both groups at week 1 and 3 after BDL were examined by western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. Liver fibrotic changes were examined by histological and ultrastructural analysis. @*Results@#Histological staining with Sirius Red and the evaluation of the messenger RNA expression of fibrotic markers showed noticeable periportal fibrosis and bile duct proliferation. S100B was mainly present in bile duct epithelial cells, and its expression was upregulated in proportion to the ductular reaction during fibrogenesis by BDL. RAGE expression was also increased, and interestingly, triple immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy showed that both S100B and RAGE were expressed in proliferating bile duct epithelial cells and activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) of the BDL livers. In addition, in rat HSCs (HSC-T6), treatment with recombinant S100B protein significantly increased fibrotic markers in a dose-dependent manner, and RAGE small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed S100B-stimulated upregulation of fibrotic markers compared with cells treated with scramble siRNA and S100B. @*Conclusion@#These findings suggest that the increased expression of S100B and RAGE and the interaction between S100B and RAGE may play an important role in ductular reaction and liver fibrosis induced by BDL.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889955

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Besifovir dipivoxil maleate (BSV), an acyclic nucleotide phosphonate, shows potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus. Our previous 48-week trial revealed that BSV has comparable antiviral efficacy to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and better safety profiles in terms of improved renal and bone safety. This extension study evaluated the prolonged efficacy and safety of BSV in treatment-naive chronic hepatitis B patients. @*Methods@#Patients continued to participate in an open-label BSV study after an initial 48-week double-blind comparison of BSV and TDF treatment. The antiviral efficacy and drug safety was evaluated up to 192 weeks in two groups: patients continuing BSV treatment (BSV-BSV) and patients switching from TDF to BSV after 48 weeks (TDF-BSV). @*Results@#Among 197 patients receiving randomized treatments, 170 (86%) entered the open-label phase and 152 (77%) entered the 192-week extension study. Virological response rates over 192 weeks were 92.50% and 93.06% in the BSV-BSV and TDF-BSV groups, respectively (P=0.90). Hepatitis B envelop antigen seroconversion and alanine aminotransferase normalization rates were similar between the groups (P=0.75 and P=0.36, respectively). There were no drug-resistant mutations to BSV. Bone mineral density and renal function were well preserved in the BSV-BSV group, whereas these initially worsened then recovered after switching therapy in the TDF-BSV group. @*Conclusions@#BSV maintained potent antiviral efficacy after 192 weeks and showed no evidence of drug resistance. BSV was safe, well tolerated, and effective in patients who switched from TDF to BSV. Trial Registration Number: NCT01937806 (date: 10 Sep 2013).

10.
Neurointervention ; : 240-251, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918591

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To assess patient radiation doses during diagnostic and therapeutic neurointerventional procedures from multiple centers and propose dose reference level (RL). @*Materials and Methods@#Consecutive neurointerventional procedures, performed in 22 hospitals from December 2020 to June 2021, were retrospectively studied. We collected data from a sample of 429 diagnostic and 731 therapeutic procedures. Parameters including dose-area product (DAP), cumulative air kerma (CAK), fluoroscopic time (FT), and total number of image frames (NI) were obtained. RL were calculated as the 3rd quartiles of the distribution. @*Results@#Analysis of 1160 procedures from 22 hospitals confirmed the large variability in patient dose for similar procedures. RLs in terms of DAP, CAK, FT, and NI were 101.6 Gy·cm2, 711.3 mGy, 13.3 minutes, and 637 frames for cerebral angiography, 199.9 Gy·cm2, 3,458.7 mGy, 57.3 minutes, and 1,000 frames for aneurysm coiling, 225.1 Gy·cm2, 1,590 mGy, 44.7 minutes, and 800 frames for stroke thrombolysis, 412.3 Gy·cm2, 4,447.8 mGy, 99.3 minutes, and 1,621.3 frames for arteriovenous malformation (AVM) embolization, respectively. For all procedures, the results were comparable to most of those already published. Statistical analysis showed male and presence of procedural complications were significant factors in aneurysmal coiling. Male, number of passages, and procedural combined technique were significant factors in stroke thrombolysis. In AVM embolization, a significantly higher radiation dose was found in the definitive endovascular cure group. @*Conclusion@#Various RLs introduced in this study promote the optimization of patient doses in diagnostic and therapeutic interventional neuroradiology procedures. Proposed 3rd quartile DAP (Gy·cm2) values were 101.6 for diagnostic cerebral angiography, 199.9 for aneurysm coiling, 225.1 for stroke thrombolysis, and 412.3 for AVM embolization. Continual evolution of practices and technologies requires regular updates of RLs.

11.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 405-416, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896130

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study investigated the effect of intrathecal Sec-O-glucosylhamaudol (SOG) on the p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-related inflammatory responses, and autophagy in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain model. @*Methods@#The continuous administration of intrathecal SOG via an osmotic pump was performed on male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 50) with SNL-induced neuropathic pain. Rats were randomized into four groups after the 7th day following SNL and treated for 2 weeks as follows (each n = 10): Group S, sham-operated; Group D, 70% dimethylsulfoxide; Group SOG96, SOG at 96 μg/day; and Group SOG192, SOG at 192 μg/day. The paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) test was performed to assess neuropathic pain. Western blotting of the spinal cord (L5) was performed to measure changes in the expression of signaling pathway components, cytokines, and autophagy. Additional studies with naloxone challenge (n = 10) and cells were carried out to evaluate the potential mechanisms underlying the effects of SOG. @*Results@#Continuous intrathecal SOG administration increased the PWT with p38/JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway inhibition, which induced a reduction in proinflammatory cytokines with the concomitant downregulation of autophagy. @*Conclusions@#SOG alleviates mechanical allodynia, and its mechanism is thought to be related to the regulation of p38/JNK MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, associated with autophagy during neuroinflammatory processes after SNL.

12.
Journal of Stroke ; : 64-75, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834643

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in endovascular thrombectomy have enabled the histopathologic analysis of fresh thrombi in patients with acute stroke. Histologic analysis has shown that the thrombus composition is very heterogeneous between patients. However, the distribution pattern of each thrombus component often differs between patients with cardiac thrombi and those with arterial thrombi, and the efficacy of endovascular thrombectomy is different according to the thrombus composition. Furthermore, the thrombus age is related to the efficacy of reperfusion therapy. Recent studies have shown that neutrophils and neutrophil extracellular traps contribute to thrombus formation and resistance to reperfusion therapy. Histologic features of thrombi in patients with stroke may provide some clues to stroke etiology, which is helpful for determining the strategy of stroke prevention. Research on thrombus may also be helpful for improving reperfusion therapy, including the development of new thrombolytic agents.

13.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833514

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) fails in approximately 20% of anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (ACLVO).Nonetheless, the factors that affect clinical outcomes of non-recanalized AC-LVO despite EVT are less studied. Thepurpose of this study was to identify the factors affecting clinical outcomes in non-recanalized AC-LVO patients despite EVT. @*Materials and Methods@#This was a retrospective analysis of clinical and imaging data from 136 consecutive patients whodemonstrated recanalization failure (modified thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia [mTICI], 0–2a) despite EVT for AC-LVO. Datawere collected in prospectively maintained registries at 16 stroke centers. Collateral status was categorized into good or poorbased on the CT angiogram, and the mTICI was categorized as 0–1 or 2a on the final angiogram. Patients with good (modifiedRankin Scale [mRS], 0–2) and poor outcomes (mRS, 3–6) were compared in multivariate analysis to evaluate the factorsassociated with a good outcome. @*Results@#Thirty-five patients (25.7%) had good outcomes. The good outcome group was younger (odds ratio [OR], 0.962;95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932–0.992; p = 0.015), had a lower incidence of hypertension (OR, 0.380; 95% CI, 0.173–0.839; p = 0.017) and distal internal carotid artery involvement (OR, 0.149; 95% CI, 0.043–0.520; p = 0.003), lower initialNational Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (OR, 0.789; 95% CI, 0.713–0.873; p < 0.001) and good collateral status(OR, 13.818; 95% CI, 3.971–48.090; p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the initial NIHSS (OR, 0.760; 95% CI, 0.638–0.905; p = 0.002), good collateral status (OR, 14.130; 95% CI, 2.264–88.212; p = 0.005) and mTICI 2a recanalization (OR,5.636; 95% CI, 1.216–26.119; p = 0.027) remained as independent factors with good outcome in non-recanalized patients. @*Conclusion@#Baseline NIHSS score, good collateral status, and mTICI 2a recanalization remained independently associatedwith clinical outcome in non-recanalized patients. mTICI 2a recanalization would benefit patients with good collaterals innon-recanalized AC-LVO patients despite EVT.

14.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832284

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study examined the risk factors associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding, and evaluated the effects of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) on the prognosis of these patients. @*Methods@#This study was retrospectively conducted on patients registered in the Korean acute-on-chronic liver failure study cohort, and on 474 consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding from January 2013 to December 2013 at 21 university hospitals. ACLF was defined as described by the European Association for the Study of Liver-Chronic Liver Failure Consortium. @*Results@#Among a total of 474 patients, 61 patients were diagnosed with ACLF. The cumulative overall survival (OS) rate was lower in the patients with ACLF than in those without (P<0.001), and patients with higher ACLF grades had a lower OS rate (P<0.001). The chronic liver failure-sequential organ failure assessment (CLIF-SOFA) score was identified as a significant prognostic factor in patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30–1.50; P<0.001), even in ACLF patients with variceal bleeding (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19–1.46, P<0.001). Concerning the prediction of the mortality risk at 28- and 90-day using CLIF-SOFA scores, c-statistics were 0.895 (95% CI, 0.829–0.962) and 0.897 (95% CI, 0.842–0.951), respectively, and the optimal cut-off values were 6.5 and 6.5, respectively. @*Conclusions@#In cirrhotic patients hospitalized with variceal bleeding, the prognosis was poor when accompanied by ACLF, especially depending upon CLIF-SOFA score. CLIF-SOFA model well predicted the 28-day or 90-day mortality for cirrhotic patients who experienced variceal bleeding.

15.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832263

ABSTRACT

Alcohol is a well-known risk factor for premature morbidity and mortality. The per capita alcohol consumption of the world’s population rose from 5.5 L in 2005 to 6.4 L in 2010 and was still at the level of 6.4 L in 2016. Alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) declined from 2000 to 2016 by 17.9% and 14.5%, respectively. However, these gains observed in the alcohol-attributable burden have proportionally not kept pace with the total health gains during the same period. In 2016, 3.0 million deaths worldwide and 132 million DALYs were attributable to alcohol, responsible for 5.3% of all deaths and 5.0% of all DALYs. These burdens are the highest in the regions of Eastern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa. The alcohol-attributable burden is particularly heavy among young adults, accounting for 7.2% of all premature mortalities. Among the disease categories to which alcohol is related, injuries, digestive diseases, and cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of the alcohol-attributable burden. To reduce the harmful use of alcohol in a country, the ‘whole of government’ and ‘whole of society’ approaches are required with the implementation of evidence-based alcohol control policies, the pursuit of public health priorities, and the adoption of appropriate policies over a long period of time. In this review, we summarize previous efforts to investigate the alcohol-attributable disease burden and the best ways to protect against harmful use of alcohol and promote health.

16.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832253

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Suboptimal responses to lamivudine or telbivudine plus adefovir (LAM/LdT+ADV) rescue therapy are common in patients with LAM-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. We compared patients switched to entecavir plus tenofovir (ETV+TDF) to those maintained on LAM/LdT+ADV. @*Methods@#This prospective randomized controlled trial examined 91 patients whose serum HBV DNA levels were greater than 60 IU/mL after at least 24 weeks of treatment with LAM/LdT+ADV for LAM-resistant HBV. Patients were randomized to receive a new treatment (ETV+TDF, n=45) or maintained on the same treatment (LAM/LdT+ADV, n=46) for 48 weeks. Patients with baseline ADV resistance were excluded. @*Results@#Compared to LAM/LdT+ADV group, ETV+TDF group had more patients with a virologic response (42/45 [93.33%] vs. 3/46 [6.52%], P<0.001) and had a greater mean reduction in serum HBV DNA level from baseline (-4.16 vs. -0.37 log10 IU/mL, P<0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that high baseline HBV DNA level (P=0.005) and LAM/LdT+ADV maintenance therapy (P=0.001) were negatively associated with virologic response. At week 48, additional ADV- or ETV-associated mutations were cleared in ETV+TDF group, but such mutations were present in 4.3% of patients in LAM/LdT+ADV group (P=0.106). The two groups had similar rates of adverse events. @*Conclusions@#ETV+TDF combination treatment led to a significantly higher rate of virologic response compared to LAM/LdT+ADV combination treatment in patients with LAM-resistant HBV who had suboptimal responses to LAM/LdT+ADV regardless of HBV genotypic resistance profile (NCT01597934).

17.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832218

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Data on the trends in the prevalence of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Korea are scarce. This study aimed to evaluate whether the CLD prevalence changed between 1998–2001 and 2016–2017. @*Methods@#Data were extracted from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998–2001 to 2016– 2017; n=25,893). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was defined as a hepatic steatosis index >36 in the absence of any other evidence of CLD. The definition of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) was excessive alcohol consumption (≥210 g/week for men and ≥140 g/week for women) and an ALD/NAFLD index >0. @*Results@#The prevalence of NAFLD increased from 18.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.8–19.5%) in 1998–2001 to 21.5% (95% CI, 20.6–22.6%) in 2016–2017. During the same time period, increases were observed in the prevalence of obesity (27.0 vs. 35.1%), central obesity (29.4 vs. 36.0%), diabetes (7.5 vs. 10.6%), and excessive drinking (7.3 vs. 10.5%). ALD prevalence also increased from 3.8% (95% CI, 3.4–4.2%) to 7.0% (95% CI, 6.4–7.6%). In contrast, chronic hepatitis B decreased from 5.1% (95% CI, 4.6–5.5%) to 3.4% (95% CI, 3.0–3.8%). The prevalence of chronic hepatitis C was approximately 0.3% in 2016–2017. @*Conclusions@#The prevalence of NAFLD and ALD increase among Korean adults. Our results suggest potential targets for interventions to reduce the future burden of CLD.

18.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831837

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Enzymatic analysis of aspartate/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) does not exactly represent the progression of liver fibrosis or inflammation. Immunoassay for AST (cytoplasmic [c] AST/mitochondrial [m] AST) and ALT (ALT1/ALT2) has been suggested as one alternatives for enzymatic analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of immunoassay in predicting liver fibrosis and inflammation. @*Methods@#A total of 219 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who underwent hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and liver biopsy before antiviral therapy were recruited. Serum samples were prepared from blood during HVPG. Results of biochemical parameters including enzymatic AST/ALT and immunological assays of cAST, mAST, ALT1, and ALT2 through sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunoassay with fluorescence labeled monoclonal antibodies were compared with the results of METAVIR stage of live fibrosis and the Knodell grade of inflammation. @*Results@#METAVIR fibrosis stages were as follows: F0, six (3%); F1, 52 (24%); F2, 88 (40%); F3, 45 (20%); and F4, 28 patients (13%). Mean levels of AST and ALT were 121 ± 157 and 210 ± 279 IU/L, respectively. Mean HVPG score of all patients was 4.7 ± 2.5 mmHg. According to the stage of liver fibrosis, HVPG score (p < 0.001, r = 0.439) and ALT1 level (p < 0.001, r = 0.283) were significantly increased in all samples from patients with CHB. ALT (p < 0.001, r = 0.310), ALT1 (p < 0.001, r = 0.369), and AST (p < 0.001, r = 0.374) levels were positively correlated with Knodell grade of inflammation. @*Conclusions@#ALT1 measurement by utilizing sandwich ELISA immunoassay can be useful method for predicting inf lammation grade and fibrosis stage in patients with CHB.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830336

ABSTRACT

Background@#Recently, there have been some trials to use dexmedetomidine in the obstetric field but concerns regarding the drug include changes in uterine contractions after labor. We aimed to evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine on the myometrial contractions of pregnant rats. @*Methods@#In a pilot study, the contraction of the myometrial strips of pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats in an organ bath with oxytocin at 1 mU/ml was assessed by adding dexmedetomidine from 10-6 to 10-2 M accumulatively every 20 min, and active tension and the number of contractions were evaluated. Then, changes in myometrial contractions were evaluated from high doses of dexmedetomidine (1.0 × 10−4 to 1.2 × 10−3 M). The effective concentrations (EC) for changes in uterine contractions were calculated using a probit model. @*Results@#Active tension and the number of contractions were significantly decreased at 10-3 M and 10-4 M dexmedetomidine, respectively (P < 0.05). A complete loss of contractions was seen at 10-2 M. Dexmedetomidine (1.0 × 10−4 to 1.2 × 10−3 M) decreased active tension and the number of contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC95 of dexmedetomidine for inhibiting active tension and the number of contractions was 5.16 × 10-2 M and 2.55 × 10-5 M, respectively. @*Conclusions@#Active tension of the myometrium showed a significant decrease at concentrations of dexmedetomidine higher than 10-3 M. Thus, clinical concentrations of dexmedetomidine may inhibit uterine contractions. Further research is needed for the safe use of dexmedetomidine in the obstetrics field.

20.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830300

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postoperative vomiting (POV) is one of the most serious complications in pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery. This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that gastric decompression (GD) could prevent POV caused by gastric distension after mask ventilation. @*Methods@#A total of 60 pediatric patients (ASA PS I–II, aged one to 10 years) were randomly allocated to two groups; Group D (n = 30) and Group C (n = 30). Induction of anesthesia was performed with careful face mask ventilation with 100% O2 (3 L/min) and sevoflurane 3 vol% to limit airway pressure below 20 cmH2O. Endotracheal intubation was done after confirming adequate neuromuscular blockade. Then, the patients in Group D received GD, while patients in Group C did not. After the surgery, POV was assessed during the emergence from anesthesia in the operating room and postanesthetic care unit (30 min and 60 min). @*Results@#During the emergence, POV was significantly decreased in Group D compared to Group C (Group D 3.3% vs. Group C 30.0%, P = 0.006). The odds ratio analysis showed a lower incidence of POV in Group D (odds ratio = 0.080; 95% confidence limit: 0.009–0.685) during the emergence period. There was no significant difference in the incidence of POV in the postanesthetic care unit (Group D 6.7% vs. Group C 4.3% at 30 min, P = 1.000; 0% in both groups at 60 min). @*Conclusions@#GD reduced the incidence of POV in pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery during emergence.

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