Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 25
Filter
1.
Neuroscience Bulletin ; (6): 166-180, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929081

ABSTRACT

Neuroscientists have emphasized visceral influences on consciousness and attention, but the potential neurophysiological pathways remain under exploration. Here, we found two neurophysiological pathways of heart-brain interaction based on the relationship between oxygen-transport by red blood cells (RBCs) and consciousness/attention. To this end, we collected a dataset based on the routine physical examination, the breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm, and an attention network test (ANT) in 140 immigrants under the hypoxic Tibetan environment. We combined electroencephalography and multilevel mediation analysis to investigate the relationship between RBC properties and consciousness/attention. The results showed that RBC function, via two independent neurophysiological pathways, not only triggered interoceptive re-representations in the insula and awareness connected to orienting attention but also induced an immune response corresponding to consciousness and executive control. Importantly, consciousness played a fundamental role in executive function which might be associated with the level of perceived stress. These results indicated the important role of oxygen-transport in heart-brain interactions, in which the related stress response affected consciousness and executive control. The findings provide new insights into the neurophysiological schema of heart-brain interactions.


Subject(s)
Awareness , Brain , Consciousness , Humans , Oxygen , Visual Perception
2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928578

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the incidence of extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) and its risk factors in very preterm infants (VPIs) during hospitalization in China.@*METHODS@#A prospective multicenter study was performed on the medical data of 2 514 VPIs who were hospitalized in the department of neonatology in 28 hospitals from 7 areas of China between September 2019 and December 2020. According to the presence or absence of EUGR based on the evaluation of body weight at the corrected gestational age of 36 weeks or at discharge, the VPIs were classified to two groups: EUGR group (n=1 189) and non-EUGR (n=1 325). The clinical features were compared between the two groups, and the incidence of EUGR and risk factors for EUGR were examined.@*RESULTS@#The incidence of EUGR was 47.30% (1 189/2 514) evaluated by weight. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher weight growth velocity after regaining birth weight and higher cumulative calorie intake during the first week of hospitalization were protective factors against EUGR (P<0.05), while small-for-gestational-age birth, prolonged time to the initiation of total enteral feeding, prolonged cumulative fasting time, lower breast milk intake before starting human milk fortifiers, prolonged time to the initiation of full fortified feeding, and moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia were risk factors for EUGR (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#It is crucial to reduce the incidence of EUGR by achieving total enteral feeding as early as possible, strengthening breastfeeding, increasing calorie intake in the first week after birth, improving the velocity of weight gain, and preventing moderate-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in VPIs.


Subject(s)
Female , Fetal Growth Retardation , Gestational Age , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879865

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the association of early nutrition intake with the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).@*METHODS@#PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data, and Weipu Periodical Database were searched for the observational studies on the association between early nutrition intake and BPD. RevMan 5.3 software was used to perform a Meta analysis of eligible studies.@*RESULTS@#Eight observational studies were included, with 548 infants with BPD and 522 infants without BPD. The Meta analysis showed that the BPD group had a significantly lower caloric intake than the non-BPD group within the first week after birth and in the first 2 weeks after birth (@*CONCLUSIONS@#Early nutrition deficiency may be associated with the development of BPD, and more attention should be paid to enteral feeding of infants at a high risk of BPD to achieve total enteral feeding as soon as possible.


Subject(s)
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia/etiology , China , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Malnutrition , Parenteral Nutrition
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781699

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the clinical effect and complications of continuous blood purification (CBP) in the treatment of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in neonates.@*METHODS@#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 21 neonates with MODS who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit from November 2015 to April 2019 and were treated with CBP. Clinical indices were observed before treatment, at 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours of CBP treatment, and at the end of treatment to evaluate the clinical effect and safety of CBP treatment.@*RESULTS@#Among the 21 neonates with MODS undergoing CBP, 17 (81%) had response to treatment. The neonates with response to CBP treatment had a significant improvement in oxygenation index at 6 hours of treatment, a significant increase in urine volume at 24 hours of treatment, a stable blood pressure within the normal range at 24 hours of treatment, and significant reductions in the doses of the vasoactive agents epinephrine and dopamine at 6 hours of treatment (P<0.05), as well as a significant reduction in serum K+ level at 6 hours of treatment, a significant improvement in blood pH at 12 hours of treatment, and significant reductions in blood lactic acid, blood creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen at 12 hours of treatment (P<0.05). Among the 21 neonates during CBP treatment, 6 experienced thrombocytopenia, 1 had membrane occlusion, and 1 experienced bleeding, and no hypothermia, hypotension, or infection was observed.@*CONCLUSIONS@#CBP is a safe, feasible, and effective method for the treatment of MODS in neonates, with few complications.


Subject(s)
Blood Gas Analysis , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Hemofiltration , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Multiple Organ Failure , Retrospective Studies
5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1175-1181, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Patients carrying the HongKongαα (HKαα) allele and -α/ααα could be misdiagnosed as -α/αα by the current conventional thalassemia detection methods, leading to inaccurate genetic counseling and an incorrect prenatal diagnosis. This study was aimed to accurately analyze the genotypes of HKαα carriers and -α/ααα.@*METHODS@#Samples were collected in our hospital from July 2017 to October 2019. Twenty-four common types of Chinese thalassemia were screened by gap-polymerase chain reaction (Gap-PCR) and reverse dot blot (RDB). Anti-4.2 multiplex-PCR was used to confirm carriers of the ααα duplication with -α deletion. Two-round nested PCR and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were applied to accurately identify and confirm their genotypes. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistics and Fisher's exact tests.@*RESULTS@#Two thousand five hundred and forty-four cases were identified as thalassemia in 5488 peripheral blood samples. The results showed that α, β, and αβ compound thalassemia were identified in 1190 (46.78%), 1286 (50.55%), and 68 (2.67%) cases, respectively. A total of 227 samples from thalassemia patients were identified as -α/αα by Gap-PCR, and the genotypes of two samples were uncertain. There was a difference between Gap-PCR and combined groups (Gap-PCR combined with nested PCR and MLPA) in detecting HKαα (P < 0.05). Among the 229 patients, 20 patients were identified as HKαα carriers and one was identified as -α/ααα by two-round nested PCR and MLPA, including 15 patients with HKαα/αα, three with HKαα/αα and β-thalassemia coinheritance, one with HKαα/--, one with HKαα/-α and β-thalassemia coinheritance, and one with -α/ααα and β-thalassemia coinheritance.@*CONCLUSIONS@#ααα and HKαα genotypes of patients carrying -α need to be detected to reduce the misdiagnosis rate of patients carrying HKαα and -α3.7/ααα alleles. More accurate genetic counseling can be provided in the clinic using nested PCR combined with MLPA.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Kuntai capsule on the gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonist(GnRH-a)-induced perimenopaus symptoms and the sex hormone levels.METHODS: A total of 99 patients with uterine fibroids,adenomyosis or moderate to severe endometriosis who needed the treatment of GnRH-a at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from June 2015 to March 2016 were collected and randomly divided into research group(Kuntai capsule)and control group(Tibolone). GnRH-a was injected once every 28 days and first injection of GnRH-a was administered on the 2 nd to 4 th day of menstrual period or retraction bleeding after surgery.Kuntai capsule or Tibolone was orally taken beginning from the first GnRH-a injection,and the co-administration of Caltrate D-600 and alfacalcidol was given in both groups.The Kupperman scores,sex hormone levels including folliclestimulating hormone(FSH)and estrogen(E_2),and adverse events were recorded.RESULTS: Kuntai capsule kept the perimenopause symptoms at mild level with the slow increase of Kupperman scores,whose effect was significantly superior to Tibolone(P<0.05)after 8 weeks of treatment,especially in paresthesia,nervousness,and formication.The FSH and E_2 levels in both Kuntai and Tibolone groups were obviously decreased when compared with the pre-treatment(P<0.05),and these hormone levels in Kuntai group were comparable to those in Tibolone group.No adverse events occurred in either group. CONCLUSION: In the short-term treatment of GnRH-a,Kuntai capsule exhibits significant alleviating effects on perimenopause symptoms caused by GnRH-a with high safety and few adverse reactions.

7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2743-2750, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-315258

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019). BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed countries.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Male , Morbidity , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-289518

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of caffeine citrate and aminophylline in the treatment of primary apnea in premature infants.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The clinical data of 125 premature infants with primary apnea from March 2013 to March 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the therapeutic strategy, the patients were divided into caffeine citrate group (n=65) and aminophylline group (n=60). The overall response rates and adverse reaction rates in the two groups were compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The overall response rate in the caffeine citrate group was 86% (56 cases), which was significantly higher than that in the aminophylline group (72%, 43 cases) (P<0.05). The adverse reactions in the caffeine citrate group included tachycardia (1 case), restlessness (5 cases), feeding intolerance (7 cases), electrolyte disturbance (2 cases), and high blood glucose (5 cases), the incidence of which was significantly lower than that in the aminophylline group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Caffeine citrate is more effective and causes fewer adverse reactions than aminophylline in the treatment of primary apnea in premature infants.</p>


Subject(s)
Aminophylline , Therapeutic Uses , Apnea , Drug Therapy , Caffeine , Therapeutic Uses , Citrates , Therapeutic Uses , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Male , Retrospective Studies
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1156-1163, 2011.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-239875

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF) is one of the most common causes for neonatal infants requiring aggressive respiratory support. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been established routinely as an adjunct to conventional respiratory support in developed countries. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of iNO in neonates with HRF in resource limited condition with no or limited use of surfactant, high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A non-randomized, open, controlled study of efficacy of iNO was conducted over 18 months. Eligible term and near-term neonates from 28 hospitals with HRF (oxygenation index > 15) were enrolled prospectively into two groups as either iNO or control. Oxygenation improvement and mortality as primary endpoint were determined in relation with dosing and timing of iNO, severity of underlying diseases, complications and burden. Intention-to-treat principle was adopted for outcome assessment. Response to iNO at 10 or 20 parts per million (ppm) was determined by oxygenation in reference to the control (between-group) and the baseline (within-group).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Compared to 93 controls, initial dose of iNO at 10 ppm in 107 treated infants significantly improved oxygenation from first hour (P = 0.046), with more partial- and non-responders improved oxygenation with subsequent 20 ppm NO (P = 0.018). This effect persisted on days 1 and 3, and resulted in relatively lower mortalities (11.2% vs. 15%) whereas fewer were treated with surfactant (10% vs. 27%), HFOV (< 5%) or postnatal corticosteroids (< 10%) in both groups. The overall outcomes at 28 days of postnatal life in the iNO-treated was not related to perinatal asphyxia, underlying diseases, severity of hypoxemia, or complications, but to the early use of iNO. The cost of hospital stay was not significantly different in both groups.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>With relatively limited use of surfactant and/or HFOV in neonatal HRF, significantly more responders were found in the iNO-treated patients as reflected by improved oxygenation in the first three days over the baseline level. It warrants a randomized, controlled trial for assessment of appropriate timing and long-term outcome of iNO.</p>


Subject(s)
Administration, Inhalation , Female , Humans , Hypoxia , Drug Therapy , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nitric Oxide , Therapeutic Uses , Pregnancy , Respiratory Insufficiency , Drug Therapy
10.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 565-570, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-354790

ABSTRACT

P[8]b is a newly discovered sub-genotype for VP4 gene of group A human rotaviruses (HRV) worldwide. This study was to develop an effective method to identify P[8]a, P[8]b, P[4] and P[6] (sub) genotypes of VP4 genes of HRV and to investigate the prevalence of P[8]b sub-genotype and its G/P combinations of HRV in outpatient and inpatient children with diarrhea in Children's Hospital affiliated to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from 2009 to 2010. By analyzing the collected nucleotide sequences of VP4 gene for all known P genotypes of HRV including P[8]b subtype from GenBank and using softwares of DNAS-tar and MegAlign to align and analyze multiple sequences, probes for P[8]a, P[8]b, P[4] and P[6] (sub) genotypes in the corresponding regions which are highly divergent among genes from different genotypes and conserved within genes of VP4s in same genotypes were designed. Then four sets of primers for PCR amplified DIG labeled probes were designed and corresponding DIG-labeled specific P genotype probes were synthesized with PCR by using VP8* genes of Beijing field HRV strains representing P-genotypes P[8]a, P[8]b, P[4] and P[6], respectively, as templates. Dot-blot hybridization was developed based on cDNA of VP4 genes. The dot-blot hybridization assay for P genotyping was reliable which was confirmed by sequencing of RT-PCR products of VP4 genes amplified from corresponding clinical samples. P genotyping for VP4 genes from 88 HRV positive specimens from the Outpatient Department (55%, 88/160) and 79 HRV positive specimens from the hospitalized (70.5%, 79/112) children with diarrhea indicated that P[8] a subtype was still the most prevalent sub-genotype, which was 96.6% (85/88) and 62.0% (49/79) respectively. The positive rate for P[8]b subtypes in hospitalized children with HRV diarrhea was higher (27.9%, 22/79) than that of in outpatient (2.3%, 2/88) HRV infected children. HRV with P[4] genotype was only found in one of the hospitalized children (1.3%, 1/79), and HRV with P[6] genotype was not detected from specimens either from outpatient or inpatient. G9P[8]b was the predominant combination among the P[8]b subtype of HRV positive specimens in this study. The results in this study indicated that G9P[8]b HRV circulated in children with diarrhea in Beijing.


Subject(s)
Base Sequence , Capsid Proteins , Genetics , Child , China , Epidemiology , Diarrhea , Epidemiology , Virology , Genotype , Humans , Rotavirus , Genetics , Rotavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Virology
11.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 367-370, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-277046

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study was conducted to compare serum cytosolic β-glucosidase (CBG) levels of age-matched control patients with those of infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) thereby to determine the eventual association between serum CBG levels with extensive disease in infants with NEC.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>A total of 96 premature infants were divided into the early NEC group (n = 25), confirmed NEC group (n = 23) and the control group (n = 48). Serum CBG concentration, C-reactive protein (CRP) and peripheral blood white blood cells (WBC) were measured at the onset of the disease in patients in early NEC or confirmed NEC groups and at weeks 2-3 in control infants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, non-parametric tests, Student's t-test, linear correlation, Spearman correlation analysis, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for statistical analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The median birth weights (mean ± SE) in the three groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Serum CBG concentration in the 3 groups were (112.369 ± 108.539) nmol/L, (693.013 ± 211.614) nmol/L and (36.478 ± 28.31) nmol/L, respectively. The infants in the confirmed NEC group had highest CBG levels, compared with the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). When the levels of CBG ≥ 65 ng/ml, CRP ≥ 2 mg/L and WBC < 5 × 10(9)/L within 3 days after birth or > 20 × 10(9)/L 3 days after birth were considered as positive parameters, the sensitivity of CBG and CRP was higher than that of WBC (P < 0.05). Among these indices, CBG had the highest specificity (87.4%), positive predictive (95.6%) and Youden's index (81.3%). CBG is correlated with CRP (the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.379, P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Serum CBG concentration increases early in NEC. Serum CBG level was associated with extensive disease in infants with NEC. Therefore CBG can be used as a marker in the early diagnosis of NEC.</p>


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing , Blood , Diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Leukocyte Count , Serum , Metabolism , beta-Glucosidase , Blood
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2706-2709, 2010.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285761

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>During recent years, the incidence of serious infections caused by opportunistic fungi has increased dramatically due to alterations of the immune status of patients with hematological diseases, malignant tumors, transplantations and so forth. Unfortunately, the wide use of triazole antifungal agents to treat these infections has lead to the emergence of Aspergillus spp. resistant to triazoles. The present study was to assess the in vitro activities of five antifungal agents (voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin) against different kinds of Aspergillus spp. that are commonly encountered in the clinical setting.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The agar-based Etest MIC method was employed. One hundred and seven strains of Aspergillus spp. (5 species) were collected and prepared according to Etest Technique Manuel. Etest MICs were determined with RPMI agar containing 2% glucose and were read after incubation for 48 hours at 35°C. MIC(50), MIC(90) and MIC range were acquired by Whonet 5.4 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The MIC(90) of caspofungin against A. fumigatus, A. flavus and A. nidulans was 0.094 µg/ml whereas the MIC(90) against A. niger was 0.19 µg/ml. For these four species, the MIC(90) of caspofungin was the lowest among the five antifungal agents. For A. terrus, the MIC(90) of posaconazole was the lowest. For A. fumigatus and A. flavus, the MIC(90) in order of increasing was caspofungin, posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B. The MIC of amphotericin B against A. terrus was higher than 32 µg/ml in all 7 strains tested.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The in vitro antifungal susceptibility test shows the new drug caspofungin, which is a kind of echinocandins, has good activity against the five species of Aspergillus spp. and all the triazoles tested have better in vitro activity than traditional amphotericin B.</p>


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B , Pharmacology , Antifungal Agents , Pharmacology , Aspergillus , Echinocandins , Pharmacology , Itraconazole , Pharmacology , Lipopeptides , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pyrimidines , Pharmacology , Triazoles , Pharmacology , Voriconazole
13.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 1179-1183, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-321019

ABSTRACT

Objective To characterize the outer capsid protein VP7 and VP4 encoding genes of human rotavirus G9 strains detected in Beijing, from 2007 to 2008. Methods Full length of VP7 genes of G9 rotaviruses from 12 fecal specimens previously detected by dot-blot hybridization assay were amplified by RT-PCR and sequenced after being cloned into T vector. The sequences of these VP7s were compared to VP7 genes of rotaviras G9 prototype strains and recently circulating strains around the world. VP4 genes of these 12 G9 strains were amplified by nested-PCR for P genotyping. Results Sequence analysis for the full length of VP7 genes from these 12 specimens confirmed that they were G9 rotaviruses. P genotyping for VP4 genes revealed that both P[8]G9 and P [6] G9 were circulating in Beijing in the last 2 years. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that VP7 genes of G9 strains from Beijing in this study were clustered in the lineage Ⅲ which resembled the G9 strains circulating in other places around the world, indicated by high identities of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences and were distant with the first reported G9 strain T203 identified in China in 1994. It was found that there were some consistent amino acid substitutes at the corresponding positions among VP7s from these 12 specimens and from Xinjiang and Wuhan, both in G9P [8] and G9P [6] strains. Conclusion The rotavirus G9 strains both in combination of G9P [8]and G9P [6] were circulating in Beijing in the past years. It seemed that rotavirus G9 should be included in the list of surveillance for rotavirus in China.

14.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 398-401, 2009.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266519

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the clinical manifestations of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus and rotavirus in infants and young children in Beijing. Methods Stool specimens were collected from infants and young children with acute diarrhea who visited the Affiliated Children's Hospital to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2002 to December 2006. Registration form was designed for clinical data collection for each patient from whom specimen was collected. Poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were used to detect rotavirus and Human norovirus, respectively. Results Among 779 stool specimens tested for rotavirus, 263 were positive (33.8 %), and norovirus positive specimens were 79 out of 318 (24.8%) specimens tested. Most of the clinical manifestations of gastroenteritis caused by these two viruses were quite similar with no significant difference, except for fever. The seasonal distribution of these two viruses were different with the peak of rotavirus infection was in cold weather between October and January, as indicated by the peak of the positive rates of the virus detection. The infection of norovirus seemed no obvious peak in the year.Conclusion Rotavirus is the most important pathogen for acute diarrhea among infants and young children while. Norovirus is also an important pathogen for acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. No significant difference was found out for clinical manifestations for the gastroenteritis caused by these two viruses.

15.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 503-506, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294304

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The purpose of this study was to observe the bacterial infections of respiratory tract in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>130 patients with AECOPD in outpatient department, emergency room or in wards were studied prospectively. Patients were divided into different groups according to both Anthonisen's classification and their lung function status. Sputum were cultured together with bacteria positive rate and types of AECOPD as well as the damage degree of lung function were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of 130 sputum samples, 50 showed positive through culture (38.5%) and 60 strains of pathogens were isolated. Predominant pathogens isolated would include Haemophilus parainfluenzae (20/60), Streptococcus pneumoniae (5/60) and Haemophilus influenzae (10/60). Positive rate of bacterial culture in type 1 AECOPD was 55.0%, higher than those of type 2 (38.3%) and type 3 (18.5%)(P = 0.01) and was increasing with the decrease of lung function of patients with AECOPD (P < 0.02).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Positive rate of bacterial culture in patients of type 1 AECOPD was the highest one. Haemophilus parainfluenzae was one of the most important pathogens in AECOPD. There seemed a correlation between positive result of bacterial culture and the severity of COPD.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Female , Haemophilus influenzae , Virulence , Haemophilus parainfluenzae , Virulence , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Epidemiology , Microbiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Virulence
16.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 676-678, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294260

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the clinical manifestations for norovirus gastroenteritis in infants and young children.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Stool specimens were collected from infants and children with acute diarrhea who visited the affiliated Children's Hospital to Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2002 to December 2006. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect human norovirus antigen in stool specimens and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) was performed to detect rotavirus genome.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Out of the 318 specimens under testing, 79 showed positive for norovirus antigen, with a positive rate of 24.8% (79/318). Among those positive specimens, 48(48/79, 60.8%) were detected in October to December, suggesting the seasonal preference of the virus. Most of the positive specimens (91.2%) were from those under 2 years of age. Rotavirus genome were detected from 16 out of 79 norovirus positive specimens (16/79, 20.3%), indicating those patients were co-infected by these two viruses. There was significant difference found in the severity of fever but not in the frequencies of diarrhea between rotavirus and norovirus co-infection group and noroviral infection group. Fourteen out of 79 norovirus positive patients were admitted to hospitals under the diagnosis other than gastroenteritis but started to develop symptoms of diarrhea between 1 to 11 days after hospitalization.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Norovirus seemed one of the most important pathogens for acute diarrhea among infants and young children and could cause nosocomial infectious gastroenteritis.</p>


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections , Diagnosis , Virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Gastroenteritis , Diagnosis , Virology , Genome, Viral , Genetics , Humans , Infant , Male , Norovirus , Classification , Genetics , Virulence
17.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 213-217, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-232368

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To identify the etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred in 6 hospitals in Beijing from November to the end of 2006 and to characterize the virus on molecular biology.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Rota-strip was used to detect rotavirus antigen and PAGE for rotavirus RNA in stool specimens collected from patients with gastroenteritis at the first stage. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was performed to detect Norovirus in stool specimens. Full length of Norovirus VP1 genes were amplified from Norovirus positive samples by RT-PCR and sequenced after the gene was cloned into vector pUCm-T. The sequences of partial VP1 gene at the 5' end of full-length gene were obtained from 2 of the Norovirus positive samples to analyze the relationship of these viruses at molecular level.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Norovirus was detected in 17 of the 30 stool specimens with an overall positive rate of 56.7%. Positive rates were all above 42.9% in specimens collected from each of the hospital. Sequence analysis on one of the full-length of VP1 amplified by RT-PCR from one of the positive specimens NV8-Beijing indicated that it belonged to G II-4 genotype. This strain shared 94.8% and 95.2% identities over the complete major capsid gene to Lanzhou strain form Lanzhou China and Farmington Hill strain from USA which belonged to G II-4 genotype, but only 91.1% identity to the CR2905 from Beijing China identified from specimen collected in late 2004. The sequences of 5' end of VP1 genes amplified from other two samples collected from different hospitals showed only one nucleotide mutation compared to NV8-Beijing in the correspondence part, indicating that these two strains also belonged to G II-4 genotype.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Norovirus was the etiological agent causing outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in hospitals in Beijing and the strain with G II-4 genotype which was closer to the Lanzhou and Farmington strains than Beijing strains identified in 2004.</p>


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Antigens, Viral , Caliciviridae Infections , Epidemiology , Virology , China , Epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Feces , Virology , Gastroenteritis , Epidemiology , Virology , Hospitals , Humans , Norovirus , Genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
18.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 218-221, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-232367

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>In order to find out a more convenient, rapid and efficient way in detecting human Norovirus infections in specimens collected from hospitalized patients with acute non-bacterial diarrhea in Beijing.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Two kits for enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were used to detect human Noroviruses in stool specimens collected from 69 infants and young children as well as 15 adults who were all diagnosed as acute non-bacterial diarrhea in 4 different hospitals. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) was performed to evaluate the data from two kits in this study. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software. chi2 test was used to test categorical variables.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Out of 84 stool specimens collected from infants and young children or adults with acute non-bacterial diarrhea, 17 (20.2%) were Norovirus positive determined by EIA kit A and 31 (36.9%) were Norovirus positive determined by EIA kit B. chi2 test used to test categorical variables showed significant differences (P < 0.01), suggesting that the EIA kit B was superior to the EIA kit A. Among these 84 stool specimens, 20 were tested by RT-PCR simultaneously. Out of those 20 specimens, 11 (55.0%) were Norovirus positive as determined by RT-PCR, which was higher than that from 2 EIA kits.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>from 10 (50.0%) samples detected by EIA kit A were consistent with those detected by RT-PCR. Through chi2 test, the categorical variables showed significant differences with P < 0.05, suggesting that RT-PCR was superior to the EIA kit A. Results from 14 (70.0%) samples detected by EIA kit B were consistent with those detected by RT-PCR while chi2 test showed that the differences were not significant (P > 0.05), among categorical variables suggesting that EIA kit B was as sensitive as RT-PCR in detecting Norovirus. The were hospital acquired diarrhea outbreaks in these three hospitals since at least 2 Norovirus positive specimens were detected in each of the hospitals.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>To detect human Noroviruses infection, EIA seemed to be more convenient and time saving than RT-PCR which had been used worldwide. The EIA kit B in this study was comparable to RT-PCR for detecting Norovirus in stool specimens. Norovirus was a pathogen causing hospital acquired diarrhea outbreaks in these three hospitals.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Caliciviridae Infections , Diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Cross Infection , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Virology , Feces , Virology , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Infant , Norovirus , Genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 1189-1192, 2006.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-288625

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria of nosocomial infections in the surgical intensive care unit.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria of nosocomial infections in the SICU in our hospital from January 2001 to December 2004 were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The average nosocomial infections rate was 11.3%. The major sites of nosocomial infections were respiratory tract (30.9%), abdominal cavity (29.0%), bloodstream (9.7%) and biliary ducts (7.2%). The most common pathogens were pseudomonas aeruginosa (11.6%), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (11.1%) and candida albicans (9.7%). ESBLs-producing strains accounted for 66.2% and 58.5% of escherichia coli and klebsiella spp. respectively. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus accounted for 94.7% and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci accounted for 88.2% in staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci. Carbapenems were the most powerful antibiotics against enterobacteriaceae. The non-fermenters were high resistant to antimicrobial agents. Vancomycin was the most potent antimicrobial against gram positive cocci. Amphotericin B was the most active antibiotic against fungi.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Most strains of pathogens were antibiotic resistant in SICU. The main pathogenic bacteria of each infection site were different. So it is essential to establish nosocomial infections surveillance system in order to prevent, control and treat nosocomial infections effectively.</p>


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , Microbiology , Cross Infection , Microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285115

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore whether the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms are associated with the outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Chinese Han population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect the polymorphisms of Fok I locus in exon 2 and Taq I locus in exon 9 of VDR gene. One hundred and eighty-four chronic hepatitis B patients and 205 asymptomatic HBV carriers were recruited to make the comparison of frequencies of genotype and haplotype of the VDR gene between the patients and the carriers.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The univariate analysis showed a significant difference in Fok I polymorphism between chronic hepatitis B patients group and asymptomatic HBV carriers group. The FF genotype frequency in chronic hepatitis B patients group was 44.6%,higher than 31.7% in asymptomatic HBV carriers group (P<0.05). After adjusting the confounders by multiple logistic regression analysis, the result still showed a significant difference in Fok I site polymorphism between chronic hepatitis B patients group and asymptomatic HBV carriers group (OR=1.95, P<0.05). The FT haplotype frequency in chronic hepatitis B patients group was higher than that in asymptomatic HBV carriers group (OR=1.45, P<0.05). The fT haplotype frequency in chronic hepatitis B patients group was lower than that in asymptomatic HBV carriers group (OR=0.72, P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>VDR gene polymorphism may be an influence factor of genetic susceptibility to HBV infection.</p>


Subject(s)
Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetics , Genotype , Haplotypes , Hepatitis B , Genetics , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Genetics , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Receptors, Calcitriol , Genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL