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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875439

ABSTRACT

Recently, the number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who have tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), via the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, after recovery has increased; this has caused a dilemma regarding the medical measures and policies. We evaluated the dynamics of viral load and anti-SARSCoV-2 antibodies in four patients with positive RT-PCR results after recovery. In all patients, the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies were reached after about a month of the onset of the initial symptoms. Then, the IgG titers plateaued, and the IgM titers decreased, regardless of RT-PCR results.The IgG and IgM levels did not increase after the post-negative positive RT-PCR results in any of the patients. Our results reinforced that the post-negative positive RT-PCR results may be due to the detection of RNA particles rather than reinfection in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831730

ABSTRACT

A culture of the Leptospira species and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) are considered as the reference standard for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, but both tests are imperfect for early diagnosis. We describe 4 patients diagnosed with leptospirosis using nested polymerase chain reaction (N-PCR) that targeted the 16S rRNA gene and the passive hemagglutination assay (PHA). In our 4 cases, Leptospira DNA in the urine, plasma, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), was detected by N-PCR in the early phase of leptospirosis, except in the sample from the buffy coat. Especially, case 3 showed that N-PCR with the urine and CSF was positive 8 days after symptom onset, but not for the plasma or buffy coat. We report 4 cases of leptospirosis that were diagnosed by N-PCR that targeted the 16S rRNA gene with urine, plasma, or CSF, but not the buffy coat. Three were cured by doxycycline but the case 4 was fatal. Detection of Leptospira DNA by PCR from the urine and CSF, in addition to plasma, may be helpful to confirm the diagnosis.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830929

ABSTRACT

Diabetes mellitus affects the colonic motility developing gastrointestinal symptoms, such as constipation. The aim of the study was to examine the role of intracellular signaling pathways contributing to colonic dysmotility in diabetes mellitus. To generate diabetes mellitus, the rats were injected by a single high dose of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The proximal colons from both normal and diabetic rats were contracted by applying an electrical field stimulation with pulse voltage of 40 V in amplitude and pulse duration of 1 ms at frequencies of 1, 2, 4, and 6 Hz. The muscle strips from both normal rats and rats with diabetes mellitus were pretreated with different antagonists and inhibitors. Rats with diabetes mellitus had lower motility than the control group. There were significant differences in the percentage of inhibition of contraction between normal rats and rats with diabetes mellitus after the incubation of tetrodotoxin (neuronal blocker), atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist), prazosin (α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist), DPCPX (adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), verapamil (L-type Ca2+ channel blocker), U73122 (PLC inhibitor), ML-9 (MLCK inhibitor), udenafil (PDE5 inhibitor), and methylene blue (guanylate cyclase inhibitor). The protein expression of p-MLC and PDE5 were decreased in the diabetic group compared to the normal group. These results showed that the reduced colonic contractility resulted from the impaired neuronal conduction and decreased muscarinic receptor sensitivity, which resulted in decreased phosphorylation of MLC via MLCK, and cGMP activity through PDE5.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830519

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To determine the patterns of tracheostomy cuff pressure changes with various air inflation amounts in different types of tracheostomy tubes to obtain basic data for appropriately managing longterm tracheostomy. @*Methods@#We performed tracheostomy on a 46-year-old male cadaver. Three types of tracheostomy tubes (single-cuffed, double-cuffed, and adjustable flange), divided into 8 different subtypes based on internal tube diameters and cuff diameters, were inserted into the cadaver. Air was inflated into the cuff, and starting with 1 mL air, the cuff pressure was subsequently measured using a manometer. @*Results@#For the 7.5 mm/14 mm tracheostomy tube, cuff inflation with 3 mL of air yielded a cuff pressure within the recommended range of 20–30 cmH2O. The 7.5 mm/24 mm tracheostomy tube showed adequate cuff pressure at 5 mL of air inflation. Similar values were observed for the 8.0 mm/16 mm and 8.0 mm/27 mm tubes. Double-cuffed tracheostomy cuff pressures (7.5 mm/20 mm and 8.0 mm/20 mm tubes) at 3 mL air inflation had cuff pressures of 18–20 cmH2O at both the proximal and distal sites. For the adjustable flange tracheostomy tube, cuff pressure at 6 mL of cuff air inflation was within the recommended range. Maximal cuff pressure was achieved at inflation with almost 14 mL of air, unlike other tube types. @*Conclusion@#Various types of tracheostomy tubes showed different cuff pressures after inflation. These values might aid in developing guidelines For patients who undergo tracheostomy and are discharged home without cuff pressure manometers, this standard might be helpful to develop guidelines.

5.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830497

ABSTRACT

We report two cases of postictal urinary retention in pediatric patients with cognitive impairment. Two girls with intellectual disabilities, concomitant cerebral palsy (case 1) and Rett syndrome (case 2), developed urinary retention following seizures. Their caregivers brought them to the hospital with complaints of abdominal distension. After excluding neurological progression, they were referred to the rehabilitation clinic for the evaluation and management of postictal urinary retention. We followed two different approaches in each case to restore normal urination. While serial manual cystometrograms were performed in case 1, clean intermittent catheterization with a voiding diary was performed in case 2 until restoration of normal urination. Based on these pediatric cases of successfully managed postictal urinary retention, we suggest that more attention may be needed for children with cognitive impairment to diagnose and manage postictal urinary retention.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii infection is a significant health problem worldwide due to increased drug resistance. The limited antimicrobial alternatives for the treatment of severe infections by multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRAB) make the search for other therapeutic options more urgent. Linalool, the major oil compound in Coriandrum sativum, was recently found to have high antibacterial activity against A. baumannii. The purpose of this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of linalool and colistin combinations against MDRAB and extensively drug-resistant A. baumannii (XDRAB).METHODS: A total of 51 strains of A. baumannii clinical isolates, consisting of 10 MDRAB and 41 XDRAB were tested. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of linalool for the test strains using the broth microdilution method and searched for interactions using the time-kill assay.RESULTS: The time-kill assay showed that the linalool and colistin combination displayed a high rate of synergy (92.1%) (by synergy criteria 2), low rate of indifference (7.8%), and a high rate of bactericidal activity (74.5%) in the 51 clinical isolates of A. baumannii. The synergy rates for the linalool and colistin combination against MDRAB and XDRAB were 96% and 92.1%, respectively. No antagonism was observed for the linalool and colistin combination.CONCLUSION: The combination of linalool and colistin showed a high synergy rate, which may be beneficial for controlling MDRAB infections. Therefore, this combination is a good candidate for in vivo studies to assess its efficacy in the treatment of MDRAB infections.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter , Colistin , Coriandrum , Drug Resistance , Methods , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719635

ABSTRACT

Most diabetic patients experience diabetic mellitus (DM) urinary bladder dysfunction. A number of studies evaluate bladder smooth muscle contraction in DM. In this study, we evaluated the change of bladder smooth muscle contraction between normal rats and DM rats. Furthermore, we used pharmacological inhibitors to determine the differences in the signaling pathways between normal and DM rats. Rats in the DM group received an intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin and measured blood glucose level after 14 days to confirm DM. Bladder smooth muscle contraction was induced using acetylcholine (ACh, 10⁻⁴ M). The materials such as, atropine (a muscarinic receptor antagonist), U73122 (a phospholipase C inhibitor), DPCPX (an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist), udenafil (a PDE5 inhibitor), prazosin (an α₁-receptor antagonist), papaverine (a smooth muscle relaxant), verapamil (a calcium channel blocker), and chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) were pre-treated in bladder smooth muscle. We found that the DM rats had lower bladder smooth muscle contractility than normal rats. When prazosin, udenafil, verapamil, and U73122 were pre-treated, there were significant differences between normal and DM rats. Taken together, it was concluded that the change of intracellular Ca²⁺ release mediated by PLC/IP3 and PDE5 activity were responsible for decreased bladder smooth muscle contractility in DM rats.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Animals , Atropine , Blood Glucose , Calcium Channels , Humans , Injections, Intraperitoneal , Muscle, Smooth , Papaverine , Prazosin , Protein Kinase C , Rats , Receptor, Adenosine A1 , Receptors, Muscarinic , Streptozocin , Type C Phospholipases , Urinary Bladder , Verapamil
8.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 158-162, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742523

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Trastuzumab is an effective treatment for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-amplified breast cancers. We sought to develop a simple protocol for HER2 image analysis of breast cancer specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a preliminary test, we found that at least 1000 tumor cells need to be examined in the most strongly stained areas. Next, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of this established protocol of image analysis in 555 breast cancer patients. Results of the HER2 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were compared between manual scoring and image analysis. RESULTS: The HER2 IHC results obtained by the image analysis method correlated well with those obtained by the manual scoring method (Cohen's kappa=0.830). Using the HER2 silver in situ hybridization (SISH) results as a gold standard, sensitivity values were 72.1% for manual scoring and 74.0% for image analysis; specificity values were 96.2% for manual scoring and 94.7% for image analysis; and accuracy values were 91.7% for manual scoring and 90.8% for image analysis. McNemar's test was applied to the results, and there were no statistically significant differences in sensitivity and specificity between the positive (p=0.688) and negative (p=0.118) SISH groups. CONCLUSION: HER2 image analysis results were similar to those obtained via the manual scoring method, indicating that the use of image analysis can reduce assessment time and effort. We suggest that image analysis-based evaluation of 1000 tumor cells in the most strongly IHC-stained area, regardless of stroma content, is sufficient for determining HER2 expression levels in breast cancer specimens.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Methods , ErbB Receptors , Research Design , Sensitivity and Specificity , Silver , Trastuzumab
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763130

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated to immunogenicity and prognosis of breast cancer. We analyzed baseline NLR, changes of NLR, TIL, and PD-L1 during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and their clinical implication in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2008 to December 2015, 358 TNBC patients were analyzed. Baseline NLR, 50 paired NLR (initial diagnosis, after completion of NAC) and 34 paired tissues (initial diagnosis, surgical specimen after completion of NAC) were collected. Changes of TIL, CD4, CD8, forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), and PD-L1 expression were assessed with immunohistochemical stain. RESULTS: Low NLR (≤ 3.16) was associated to superior survival (overall survival: 41.83 months vs. 36.5 months, p=0.002; disease-free survival [DFS]: 37.85 months vs. 32.14 months, p=0.032). Modest NLR change after NAC (–30% < NLR change < 100%) showed prolonged DFS (38.37 months vs. 22.37 months, p=0.015). During NAC, negative or negative conversion of tumor PD-L1 expression was associated to poor DFS (34.77 months vs. 16.03 months, p=0.037), and same or increased TIL showed trends for superior DFS, but without statistical significance. Positive tumor PD-L1 expression (H-score ≥ 5) in baseline or post-NAC tissue was associated to superior DFS (57.6 months vs. 12.5 months, p=0.001 and 53.3 months vs. 18.9 months, p=0.040). Positive stromal PD-L1 expression in baseline was also associated to superior DFS (50.2 months vs. 20.4 months, p=0.002). CONCLUSION: In locally advanced TNBC, baseline NLR, changes of NLR during NAC was associated to survival. Baseline PD-L1 expression and changes of PD-L1 expression in tumor tissue during NAC also showed association to prognosis.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Diagnosis , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Humans , Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating , Prognosis , Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718189

ABSTRACT

Vibrio vulnificus is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause serious, potentially fatal infections. V. vulnificus causes three distinct syndromes: an overwhelming primary septicemia caused by consuming contaminated seafood, wound infections acquired when an open wound is exposed to contaminated warm seawater, and gastrointestinal tract-limited infections. Case-fatality rates are higher than 50% for primary septicemia, and death typically occurs within 72 hours of hospitalization. Risk factors for V. vulnificus infection include chronic liver disease, alcoholism, and hematological disorders. When V. vulnificus infection is suspected, appropriate antibiotic treatment and surgical interventions should be performed immediately. Third-generation cephalosporin with doxycycline, or quinolone with or without third-generation cephalosporin, may be potential treatment options for patients with V. vulnificus infection.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Diagnosis , Doxycycline , Hospitalization , Humans , Liver Diseases , Prognosis , Public Health , Risk Factors , Seafood , Seawater , Sepsis , Vibrio vulnificus , Vibrio , Wound Infection , Wounds and Injuries
11.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 416-423, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717702

ABSTRACT

The incidence of mite- and tick-borne infectious disease is increasing with climate change and the development of diagnostic tools. Tick-borne infectious diseases include Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and Japanese spotted fever. Rickettsial pox and scrub typhus are mite-borne infectious diseases. Scrub typhus and SFTS are the most common mite- and tick-borne infectious diseases in Korea, respectively. They are often difficult to diagnose at an early stage of disease. To make a definite diagnosis of mite- and tick-borne infectious disease, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests or serologic testing for antibodies during the acute and convalescent periods are necessary. If patients with nonspecific symptoms, such as fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting, have a history of outdoor activity or a tick bite, it is reasonable to consider the possibility of mite- or tick-borne infectious diseases clinically. There are no vaccinations against mite- and tick-borne infectious diseases. Therefore, preventing mite or tick bites is the best way to prevent the diseases.


Subject(s)
Anaplasmosis , Animals , Antibodies , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Climate Change , Communicable Diseases , Diagnosis , Ehrlichiosis , Fever , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Korea , Lyme Disease , Mites , Nausea , Phlebovirus , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Scrub Typhus , Serologic Tests , Thrombocytopenia , Tick Bites , Tick-Borne Diseases , Vaccination , Vomiting
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758433

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with a suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the setting of a new or presumably new left bundle branch block (LBBB) present an important diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to clinicians. This study was conducted to identify the frequency of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)-equivalent in this population, determine the diagnostic value of electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features and propose a new diagnostic algorithm. METHODS: From 793 patients who underwent emergent coronary angiography between January 1, 2012 and July 31, 2015, we examined data pertaining to 21 patients with new or presumably new LBBB. These patients were classified into three groups: 1) STEMI-equivalent, defined as an acute coronary occlusion on coronary angiogram (six patients), 2) non-STEMI (NSTEMI) (six patients), and 3) diagnosis other than myocardial infarction (non-MI) (nine patients). RESULTS: Six patients who met the ST-segment concordance criteria (score≥3) were STEMI-equivalent. On the other hand, seven patients with a discordant ST-elevation of ≥5 mm (score=2) were NSTEMI or non-MI. Therefore ST-segment concordance was highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of STEMI-equivalent. Compared with NSTEMI patients, nine non-MI patients with a normal angiogram had a low ejection fraction (35.6±19.0 vs. 56.0±12.9, p=0.04) and increased left ventricle end-diastolic dimension (63.9±8.8 vs. 51.7±6.4, p=0.012). CONCLUSION: Only a minority of patients with LBBB and suspected AMI have a STEMI-equivalent. Low ejection fraction and increased end-diastolic dimension of left ventricle indicate normal coronary angiogram in patients without ST-segment concordance of Sgarbossa criteria. We propose a new modified diagnostic algorithm in this population.


Subject(s)
Bundle-Branch Block , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Occlusion , Diagnosis , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Hand , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Myocardial Infarction
13.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760479

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among the many Vibrio species that can cause infections in humans, several species can cause a fatal outcome. Therefore, accurate identification of Vibrio species is very important. Since some species show atypical phenotypic features, selecting an appropriate molecular method is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. METHODS: Vibrio clinical isolates (N=53) and reference strains (N=8) were used in this study. We analyzed the following sequences for identification: dnaJ gene, 16S rDNA, gyrase B (gyrB) V. vulnificus-specific sequence, gyrB V. navarrensis-specific sequence, and V. vulnificus hemolysin gene PCR (Vvh PCR). We performed phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA, dnaJ, and gyrB sequences. Final identification was based on the combined results of all tests described above. Concordance of the 16S rDNA and dnaJ sequence analysis was measured using the Chi-square test. RESULTS: The 61 Vibrio strains were identified as follows, in descending order: V. vulnificus (78.69%), V. parahaemolyticus (6.56%), V. navarrensis (4.92%), V. mimicus (1.64%), V. cholera (1.64%), V. furnissii (1.64%), V. alginolyticus (1.64%), and Grimontia hollisae (1.64%). The accuracy rates of the dnaJ gene and 16S rDNA sequence for identification were 91.80% and 86.89%, respectively. The 16S rDNA and dnaJ sequences showed a concordance rate of 0.45, which indicates moderate agreement. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that analysis of the dnaJ sequence may be a useful method for the identification of clinical isolates of Vibrio species, especially for distinguishing between closely related Vibrio species.


Subject(s)
Cholera , Diagnostic Errors , DNA, Ribosomal , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis , Vibrio
14.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 14-16, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71859

ABSTRACT

Spondylodiscitis is believed to be caused by an infection that affects vertebral bodies and the intervening intervertebral disc. Usually, typical spondylodiscitis involves a mobile vertebra-disc-vertebra unit, and in most cases, the condition is managed successfully by surgical intervention and intravenous antibiotic therapy. Here, the authors report an unusual case of a spondylodiscitis presenting as a skip lesion, which progressed from L4/L5 to L1/L2, despite open surgical biopsy and empirical intravenous antibiotics. Possible pathogenic mechanisms of this unique case are discussed and a review of the pertinent literature is included.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biopsy , Discitis , Intervertebral Disc
15.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 17-19, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71858

ABSTRACT

Gas-containing spinal epidural abscesses are uncommon. Moreover, acute spinal epidural abscesses rarely complicate bacterial meningitis in adults. Here, we report a rare case of a gas-containing cervical epidural abscess accompanying bacterial meningitis. In spite of aggressive fluid and continuous antibiotic therapy after the isolation of Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus constellatus in the cerebrospinal fluid cultures, the patient showed remaining motor dysfunction and bladder involvement. Our experience suggests that the effort to prevent neurologic deterioration by emergent surgical decompression and drainage of pus is mandatory to avoid additional spinal cord dysfunction in patients with spinal epidural abscesses accompanying bacterial meningitis.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Adult , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Decompression, Surgical , Drainage , Epidural Abscess , Humans , Meningitis , Meningitis, Bacterial , Spinal Cord , Streptococcus anginosus , Streptococcus constellatus , Suppuration , Urinary Bladder
16.
Korean Journal of Spine ; : 20-22, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-71857

ABSTRACT

Human actinomycosis with involvement of the spine is a rare condition, with only a limited number of case reports published. To the best of our knowledge, no cases have been reported of epidural abscess causing destruction of the C2 body, bringing about a direct connection between spinal epidural and retropharyngeal abscesses. Here, we present such a case that occurred after acupuncture, and we review the relevant literature.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Actinomycosis , Acupuncture , Epidural Abscess , Humans , Retropharyngeal Abscess , Spine
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-64576

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To establish the reliability and validity the Korean version of the Stroke Impact Scale (K-SIS) 3.0. METHODS: A total of 70 post-stroke patients were enrolled. All subjects were evaluated for general characteristics, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Modified Barthel Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The SF-36 and K-SIS 3.0 assessed their health-related quality of life. Statistical analysis after evaluation, determined the reliability and validity of the K-SIS 3.0. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients (mean age, 54.97 years) participated in this study. Internal consistency of the SIS 3.0 (Cronbach's alpha) was obtained, and all domains had good co-efficiency, with threshold above 0.70. Test-retest reliability of SIS 3.0 required correlation (Spearman's rho) of the same domain scores obtained on the first and second assessments. Results were above 0.5, with the exception of social participation and mobility. Concurrent validity of K-SIS 3.0 was assessed using the SF-36, and other scales with the same or similar domains. Each domain of K-SIS 3.0 had a positive correlation with corresponding similar domain of SF-36 and other scales (HADS, MMSE, and NIHSS). CONCLUSION: The newly developed K-SIS 3.0 showed high inter-intra reliability and test-retest reliabilities, together with high concurrent validity with the original and various other scales, for patients with stroke. K-SIS 3.0 can therefore be used for stroke patients, to assess their health-related quality of life and treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Depression , Humans , Quality of Life , Reproducibility of Results , Social Participation , Stroke , Treatment Outcome , Weights and Measures
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-47833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tigecycline resistance has emerged recently and has shown diverse mechanisms. The aim of this study was to assess the role of efflux activity in tigecycline resistance in 120 clinical isolates of A. baumannii using two methods: the H33342 accumulation assay and adeB real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between the expression level of adeB and H33342 accumulation level. METHODS: A. baumannii clinical isolates was divided into tigecycline-resistant (49 strains), intermediate (40 strains), and susceptible (31 strains) groups. The H33342 accumulation was measured in the absence or presence of the efflux pump inhibitor carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP). Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the relative expression of the adeB gene in A. baumannii clinical isolates. RESULTS: The level of H33342 accumulation in the resistant group was relatively lower than those in the other groups. The addition of CCCP caused a significantly increased fold change in H33342 accumulation in the tigecycline-resistant group. Significant difference in the fold change level in H33342 accumulation was found between tigecycline-susceptible and resistant isolates. Those findings support the role of efflux pumps of which substrates are H33342 in the resistance of tigecycline. Significant differences in the relative expression levels of adeB were shown between tigecycline-susceptible and resistant groups also. CONCLUSION: The results showed that several efflux pumps of which substrates were H33342 can contribute to tigecycline resistance. The adeB overexpression can also contribute to tigecycline resistance. It is possible that efflux pumps other than adeB efflux pumps contribute to tigecycline resistance because there was no correlation between fold change level in H33342 accumulation and adeB expression level.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Acinetobacter , Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-9118

ABSTRACT

The incidence of vector-borne infectious diseases is increasing due to developments in diagnostic techniques, as well as due to economic, environmental, and ecological factors such as global warming, increased rainfall, globalization, and urbanization. Tick-borne infectious diseases occurring in Korea include severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and Japanese spotted fever. Various skin lesions, such as erythema migrans, tick bite sites, rash, and eschar, are associated with tick-borne infectious diseases. It is necessary to remove ticks immediately to prevent transmission of these tick-borne infectious diseases. Especially for conditions such as Lyme disease, at least 24 to 48 hours of tick attachment to the host is required for transmission of the causative pathogens to the host. Tick-borne diseases are acquired after outdoor activities and have nonspecific symptoms such as fever, headache, and chills, which make them difficult to identify without a diagnostic test. Rapid diagnosis and early treatment can reduce the otherwise significant morbidity and mortality associated with these conditions; therefore, therapy should not be delayed until laboratory confirmation is received.


Subject(s)
Anaplasmosis , Animals , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Chills , Communicable Diseases , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Erythema , Exanthema , Fever , Global Warming , Headache , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Korea , Lyme Disease , Mortality , Rickettsia Infections , Scrub Typhus , Skin , Thrombocytopenia , Tick Bites , Tick-Borne Diseases , Ticks , Urbanization
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166326

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance for zoonotic diseases in small mammals and detection of chiggers, the vector of Orientia tsutsugamushi, were conducted from September 2014 to August 2015 in Gwangju Metropolitan Area. Apodemus agrarius was the most commonly collected small mammals (158; 91.8%), followed by Myodes regulus (8; 4.6%), and Crocidura lasiura (6; 3.5%). The highest seroprevalence of small mammals for O. tsutsugamushi (41; 26.3%) was followed by hantaviruses (24; 15.4%), Rickettsia spp. (22; 14.1%), and Leptospira (2; 1.3%). A total of 3,194 chiggers were collected from small mammals, and 1,236 of 3,194 chiggers were identified with 7 species of 3 genera: Leptotrombidium scutellare was the most commonly collected species (585; 47.3%), followed by L. orientale (422; 34.1%), Euchoengastia koreaensis (99; 8.0%), L. palpale (58; 4.7%), L. pallidum (36; 2.9%), Neotrombicula gardellai (28; 2.3%), and L. zetum (8; 0.6%). L. scutellare was the predominant species. Three of 1,236 chigger mites were positive for O. tsutsugamushi by PCR. As a result of phylogenetic analysis, the O. tsutsugamushi strain of chigger mites had sequence homology of 90.1-98.2% with Boryong. This study provides baseline data on the distribution of zoonotic diseases and potential vectors for the development of prevention strategies of vector borne diseases in Gwangju metropolitan area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arvicolinae , Globus Pallidus , Hantavirus , Korea , Leptospira , Mammals , Mites , Murinae , Orientia tsutsugamushi , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rickettsia , Rodentia , Sequence Homology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Trombiculidae , Zoonoses
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