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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925517

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Pancreatic enzyme reflux into the biliary tract is associated with chronic inflammation and increased cellular proliferation in the biliary epithelium, leading to biliary carcinoma. We evaluated the relationship between high bile juice amylase levels and biliary microflora in patients with malignant gallbladder lesions. @*Methods@#In this retrospective study, 25 gallbladder specimens were obtained from patients with gallbladder cancer to evaluate amylase levels and perform bacterial culture. The samples were divided into high and low amylase groups and culture-positive and negative groups for analysis. Bile juice amylase 3 times higher than the normal serum amylase level (36–128 IU/L) was considered high. @*Results@#The number of positive cultures was higher in the high amylase group than in the low amylase group, but the difference was insignificant. There were no differences in other clinicopathological factors. Sixteen patients showed positive culture results; Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. were the most common gram-negative bacteria, whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were the most common gram-positive bacteria. Age and bile juice amylase levels were significantly higher in the culture-positive group than in the culture-negative group. The incidence of bacterial resistance to cephalosporins was 6.25%–35.29%, and this incidence was particularly high for lower-generation cephalosporins. @*Conclusion@#Bacteria in gallbladder were identified more frequently when the amylase level was high. High amylase levels in the gallbladder can be associated with caused chronic bacterial infections with occult pancreaticobiliary reflux, potentially triggering gallbladder cancer

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915590

ABSTRACT

Objective@#: People are living longer and the elderly population continues to increase. The incidence of degenerative spinal diseases (DSDs) in the elderly population is quite high. Therefore, we are facing more cases of DSD and offering more surgical solutions in geriatric patients. Understanding the significance and association of frailty and central sarcopenia as risk factors for spinal surgery in elderly patients will be helpful in improving surgical outcomes. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of prospectively collected data to assess the impact of preoperative central sarcopenia, frailty, and comorbidity on surgical outcome in elderly patients with DSD. @*Methods@#: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent elective spinal surgery performed from January 1, 2019 to September 30, 2020 at our hospital. We included patients aged 65 and over who underwent surgery on the thoracic or lumbar spine and were diagnosed as DSD. Central sarcopenia was measured by the 50th percentile of psoas : L4 vertebral index (PLVI) using the cross-sectional area of the psoas muscle. We used the Korean version of the fatigue, resistance, ambulation, illnesses, and loss of weight (K-FRAIL) scale to measure frailty. Comorbidity was confirmed and scored using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). As a tool for measuring surgical outcome, we used the Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification for postoperative complications and the length of stay (LOS). @*Results@#: This study included 85 patients (35 males and 50 females). The mean age was 74.05±6.47 years. Using the K-FRAIL scale, four patients were scored as robust, 44 patients were pre-frail and 37 patients were frail. The mean PLVI was 0.61±0.19. According to the CD classification, 50 patients were classified as grade 1, 19 as grade 2, and four as grade 4. The mean LOS was 12.35±8.17 days. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that postoperative complication was significantly associated with surgical invasiveness and K-FRAIL scale. LOS was significantly associated with surgical invasiveness and CCI. K-FRAIL scale showed a significant correlation with CCI and PLVI. @*Conclusion@#: The present study demonstrates that frailty, comorbidity, and surgical invasiveness are important risk factors for postoperative complications and LOS in elderly patients with DSD. Preoperative recognition of these factors may be useful for perioperative optimization, risk stratification, and patient counseling.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914329

ABSTRACT

Tamoxifen (TAM) is an anticancer drug used to treat estrogen receptor (ER)‒positive breast cancer. However, its ER-independent cytotoxic and antifungal activities have prompted debates on its mechanism of action. To achieve a better understanding of the ER-independent antifungal action mechanisms of TAM, we systematically identified TAM-sensitive genes through microarray screening of the heterozygous gene deletion library in fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Secondary confirmation was followed by a spotting assay, finally yielding 13 TAM-sensitive genes under the drug-induced haploinsufficient condition. For these 13 TAM-sensitive genes, we conducted a comparative analysis of their Gene Ontology (GO) ‘biological process’ terms identified from other genome-wide screenings of the budding yeast deletion library and the MCF7breast cancer cell line. Several TAM-sensitive genes overlapped between the yeast strains and MCF7 in GO terms including ‘cell cycle’ (cdc2, rik1, pas1, and leo1), ‘signaling’ (sck2, oga1, and cki3), and ‘vesicle-mediated transport’ (SPCC126.08c, vps54, sec72, and tvp15), suggesting their roles in the ER-independent cytotoxic effects of TAM. We recently reported that the cki3 gene with the ‘signaling’ GO term was related to the ER-independent antifungal action mechanisms of TAM in yeast. In this study, we report that haploinsufficiency of the essential vps54 gene, which encodes the GARP complex subunit, significantly aggravated TAM sensitivity and led to an enlarged vesicle structure in comparison with the SP286 control strain. These results strongly suggest that the vesicle-mediated transport process might be another action mechanism of the ER-independent antifungal or cytotoxic effects of TAM.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874319

ABSTRACT

We used a heterozygous gene deletion library of fission yeasts comprising all essential and non-essential genes for a microarray screening of target genes of the antifungal terbinafine, which inhibits ergosterol synthesis via the erg1 enzyme. We identified 14 heterozygous strains corresponding to 10 non-essential [7 ribosomal-protein (RP) coding genes, spt7, spt20, and elp2] and 4 essential genes (tif302, rpl2501, rpl31, and erg1). Expectedly, their erg1 mRNA and protein levels had decreased compared to the control strain SP286. When we studied the action mechanism of the non-essential target genes using cognate haploid deletion strains, knockout of SAGA-subunit genes caused a down-regulation in erg1 transcription compared to the control strain ED668. However, knockout of RP genes conferred no susceptibility to ergosterol-targeting antifungals. Surprisingly, the RP genes participated in the erg1 transcription as components of repressor complexes as observed in a comparison analysis of the experimental ratio of erg1 mRNA. To understand the action mechanism of the interaction between the drug and the novel essential target genes, we performed isobologram assays with terbinafine and econazole (or cycloheximide). Terbinafine susceptibility of the tif302 heterozygous strain was attributed to both decreased erg1 mRNA levels and inhibition of translation. Moreover, Tif302 was required for efficacy of both terbinafine and cycloheximide. Based on a molecular modeling analysis, terbinafine could directly bind to Tif302 in yeasts, suggesting Tif302 as a potential off-target of terbinafine. In conclusion, this genome-wide screening system can be harnessed for the identification and characterization of target genes under any condition of interest.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903715

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Real-world, clinical practice data are lacking about sofosbuvir/ ribavirin (SOF/RBV) treatment of Korean patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 (HCV GT2) infection. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of SOF/RBV in Korean patients with HCV GT2 infection and clinical factors predicting sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after the end of SOF/RBV treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 181 patients with HCV GT2 with/without cirrhosis were treated with SOF/RBV for 16/12 weeks. Rapid virological response (RVR) was defined as non-detectable HCV RNA at 4 weeks. @*Results@#The RVR rate was 80.7% (146/181), the end of treatment response rate was 97.8% (177/181) and the SVR12 rate was 92.8% (168/181). Of eight patients with relapse, four did not achieve RVR. Three patients had a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multivariable analysis showed that RVR (p = 0.015) and no previous history of HCC (p = 0.007) were associated with SVR12. Factors significantly contributing to RVR included cirrhosis, creatinine concentration, and pre-treatment HCV RNA level. SVR12 rate was significantly higher in RVR (+) than RVR (–) patients (95.2% vs. 82.9%, p = 0.011) and also significantly higher in patients without than with a history of HCC (94.1% vs. 72.7%, p = 0.008). During treatment, 80/181 patients (44.2%) experienced mild to moderate adverse events, with 32 (17.7%) requiring RBV dose reductions due to anemia. @*Conclusions@#SOF/RBV treatment was effective and tolerable in HCV GT2 patients. RVR and no previous history of HCC were positive predictors of SVR12.

6.
Gut and Liver ; : 440-450, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898457

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents that is an approved treatment for chronic infections by all six hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. However, there are limited data on the effect of G/P in Korean patients in actual real-world settings. We evaluated the real-life effectiveness and safety of G/P at a single institution in Korea. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational, cohort study used sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after treatment completion (SVR12) as the primary effectiveness endpoint. Safety and tolerability were also determined. @*Results@#We examined 267 individuals who received G/P for chronic HCV infections. There were 148 females (55.4%), and the overall median age was 63.0 years (range, 25 to 87 years). Eightythree patients (31.1%) had HCV genotype-1 and 182 (68.2%) had HCV-2. A total of 212 patients (79.4%) were HCV treatment-naïve, 200 (74.9%) received the 8-week treatment, 13 (4.9%) had received prior treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, 37 (13.7%) had chronic kidney disease stage 3 or higher, and 10 (3.7%) were receiving dialysis. Intention to treat (ITT) analysis indicated that 256 (95.9%) achieved SVR12. A modified ITT analysis indicated that SVR12 was 97.7% (256/262). Six patients failed therapy because of posttreatment relapse. SVR12 was significantly lower in those who received prior sofosbuvir treatment (p=0.002) and those with detectable HCV RNA at week 4 (p=0.027). Seventy patients (26.2%) experienced one or more adverse events, and most of them were mild. @*Conclusions@#These real-life data indicated that G/P treatment was highly effective and well tolerated, regardless of viral genotype or patient comorbidities.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896011

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Real-world, clinical practice data are lacking about sofosbuvir/ ribavirin (SOF/RBV) treatment of Korean patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 (HCV GT2) infection. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of SOF/RBV in Korean patients with HCV GT2 infection and clinical factors predicting sustained virological response 12 weeks (SVR12) after the end of SOF/RBV treatment. @*Methods@#A total of 181 patients with HCV GT2 with/without cirrhosis were treated with SOF/RBV for 16/12 weeks. Rapid virological response (RVR) was defined as non-detectable HCV RNA at 4 weeks. @*Results@#The RVR rate was 80.7% (146/181), the end of treatment response rate was 97.8% (177/181) and the SVR12 rate was 92.8% (168/181). Of eight patients with relapse, four did not achieve RVR. Three patients had a history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Multivariable analysis showed that RVR (p = 0.015) and no previous history of HCC (p = 0.007) were associated with SVR12. Factors significantly contributing to RVR included cirrhosis, creatinine concentration, and pre-treatment HCV RNA level. SVR12 rate was significantly higher in RVR (+) than RVR (–) patients (95.2% vs. 82.9%, p = 0.011) and also significantly higher in patients without than with a history of HCC (94.1% vs. 72.7%, p = 0.008). During treatment, 80/181 patients (44.2%) experienced mild to moderate adverse events, with 32 (17.7%) requiring RBV dose reductions due to anemia. @*Conclusions@#SOF/RBV treatment was effective and tolerable in HCV GT2 patients. RVR and no previous history of HCC were positive predictors of SVR12.

8.
Gut and Liver ; : 440-450, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890753

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (G/P) is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents that is an approved treatment for chronic infections by all six hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes. However, there are limited data on the effect of G/P in Korean patients in actual real-world settings. We evaluated the real-life effectiveness and safety of G/P at a single institution in Korea. @*Methods@#This retrospective, observational, cohort study used sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after treatment completion (SVR12) as the primary effectiveness endpoint. Safety and tolerability were also determined. @*Results@#We examined 267 individuals who received G/P for chronic HCV infections. There were 148 females (55.4%), and the overall median age was 63.0 years (range, 25 to 87 years). Eightythree patients (31.1%) had HCV genotype-1 and 182 (68.2%) had HCV-2. A total of 212 patients (79.4%) were HCV treatment-naïve, 200 (74.9%) received the 8-week treatment, 13 (4.9%) had received prior treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, 37 (13.7%) had chronic kidney disease stage 3 or higher, and 10 (3.7%) were receiving dialysis. Intention to treat (ITT) analysis indicated that 256 (95.9%) achieved SVR12. A modified ITT analysis indicated that SVR12 was 97.7% (256/262). Six patients failed therapy because of posttreatment relapse. SVR12 was significantly lower in those who received prior sofosbuvir treatment (p=0.002) and those with detectable HCV RNA at week 4 (p=0.027). Seventy patients (26.2%) experienced one or more adverse events, and most of them were mild. @*Conclusions@#These real-life data indicated that G/P treatment was highly effective and well tolerated, regardless of viral genotype or patient comorbidities.

9.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834141

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Gastric delta cells (D-cells), which are somatostatin-secreting cells, are the main paracrine inhibitor of acid secretion. The number of D-cells was studied in children presenting with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) disease. @*Methods@#We retrospectively investigated the number of D-cells in the gastric body and antrum through immunofluorescence examinations according to symptoms, endoscopic findings, and Helicobacter pylori infection in 75 children who visited Hanyang University Hospital Pediatrics. @*Results@#The mean patient age was 12.2±3.3 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.4. The mean D-cell number per high-power field in the antrum and body was 20.5 and 12 in children with substernal pain, 18.3 and 10.3 in vomiting, 22.3 and 6 in diarrhea, and 9.3 and 6 in abdominal pain, respectively (p>0.05). According to endoscopic findings, the mean D-cell number in the antrum and body was 14.3 and 6 with gastritis, 14 and 9.3 with reflux esophagitis, 16.7 and 8.7 with duodeno-gastric reflux, 19.3 and 12.7 with gastric ulcer, 16 and 13.7 with duodenitis, and 12.3 and 4 with duodenal ulcer, respectively (p>0.05). The D-cell number in the gastric body was 2.7 and 8.7 in children with current H. pylori infection and non-infected children, respectively (p=0.01), while those in the antrum were 15.5 and 14, respectively, with no statistical significance. @*Conclusion@#The D-cell number was lower in the gastric body of children with current H. pylori infection. Further studies concerning peptide-secreting cells with a control group would provide information about the pathogenic pathways of UGI disorder.

10.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836728

ABSTRACT

Background@#/Aim: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) has been widely used for the diagnosis and treatment. PTCS-related complications (hemobilia, cholangitis, biliary tract perforations) are not infrequent. However, data on the risk factors for PTCS-related complications are limited. Therefore, we aimed to identify the risk factors for PTCS-related complications. @*Methods@#Two hundred thirty-three patients who underwent PTCS at a single tertiary center between January 2006 and October 2014 were enrolled. After retrospectively analyzing the patients’ medical records, 212 patients were enrolled and classified into two groups: 1) a complication group and 2) a non-complication group. @*Results@#The study population comprised 112 men and 100 women, with a median age of 64.5 years. Of the 212 patients, 32 (15.1%) developed complications: 14 (6.7%) developed cholangitis, six (2.8%) developed bile duct injury, and two (0.9%) developed hemobilia. In the univariate analyses, older age, a small number of tract dilatation sessions, and computed tomography (CT) findings of liver cirrhosis and a non-dilated intrahepatic duct were risk factors for PTCS-related complications. In the multivariate analysis, older age, a small number of tract dilatation sessions, and the CT finding of a non-dilated intrahepatic duct were independent factors for predicting PTCS-related complications. Serial tract dilatations (≥2 sessions) were performed in 95 patients (44.8%), but this did not affect the complication rate. In this subgroup of patients, a short interval between sessions (≤3 days) was associated with PTCSrelated complications. @*Conclusions@#Elderly patients and those with non-dilated intrahepatic ducts on CT need to be managed carefully. Stepwise tract dilatations and a long interval between sessions (>3 days) can help decrease PTCS-related complications.

11.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830924

ABSTRACT

Econazole, a potent broad-spectrum antifungal agent and a Ca2+ channel antagonist, induces cytotoxicity in leukemia cells and is used for the treatment of skin infections. However, little is known about its cytotoxic effects on solid tumor cells. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying econazole-induced toxicity in vitro and evaluated its regulatory effect on the metastasis of gastric cancer cells. Using the gastric cancer cell lines AGS and SNU1 expressing wild-type p53 we demonstrated that econazole could significantly reduce cell viability and colony-forming (tumorigenesis) ability. Econazole induced G0/G1 phase arrest, promoted apoptosis, and effectively blocked proliferation- and survival-related signal transduction pathways in gastric cancer cells. In addition, econazole inhibited the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase- 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, which degrade the extracellular matrix and basement membrane. Econazole also effectively inhibited the metastasis of gastric cancer cells, as confirmed from cell invasion and wound healing assays. The protein level of p53 was significantly elevated after econazole treatment of AGS and SNU1 cells. However, apoptosis was blocked in econazole-treated cells exposed to a p53-specific small-interfering RNA to eliminate p53 expression. These results provide evidence that econazole could be repurposed to induce gastric cancer cell death and inhibit cancer invasion.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 40-47, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors are widely used to prevent gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD)-related bleeding, but no standard administration regimens have been established. We aimed to prospectively compare the effects of continuous infusion and intermittent dosing with pantoprazole on preventing gastric ESD-related bleeding. Additionally, we analyzed the risk factors for bleeding. METHODS: From April 2012 to May 2013, patients with a gastric epithelial neoplasm scheduled for ESD in the Pusan National University Hospital were randomly assigned to one of two groups according to the pantoprazole administration regimen (continuous infusion or intermittent dosing). The primary outcomes measured were intra- and postprocedural bleeding events. RESULTS: The final analysis included 401 patients. The rate of significant intraprocedural bleeding was 25.4% in the C group and 24.0% in the I group, with no significant difference (p=0.419). In addition, there was no significant difference in the postprocedural bleeding rate between the C and I groups (11.7% vs 10.2%, p=0.374). Multivariate analysis showed that intraprocedural bleeding was associated with the proximal tumor location, the presence of fibrosis, and the size of the resected specimen, whereas postprocedural bleeding was associated with the size of the resected specimen and the procedure/coagulation time. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent dosing with pantoprazole is sufficient and cost-effective for the prevention of gastric ESD-related bleeding. Operators should consider tumor characteristics when planning ESD to minimize the risk of intraprocedural bleeding, and patients with large iatrogenic ulcers should be carefully monitored for postprocedural bleeding.


Subject(s)
Fibrosis , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage , Hemorrhage , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial , Prospective Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Risk Factors , Stomach Neoplasms , Ulcer
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-786622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cooperation of patients plays an essential role during gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for successful outcomes. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of a patient-positioning device (EZ-FIX®) during ESD for gastric epithelial neoplasm.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 86 consecutive patients with gastric epithelial neoplasm scheduled for ESD at the Pusan National University Hospital were included and randomly assigned to the EZ-FIX® (n=44) or non-EZ-FIX® (n=42) groups. The primary outcomes measured were endoscopist satisfaction profiles and contribution level of EZ-FIX® to the procedure.RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding patients' clinicopathologic characteristics, though the mean procedure time was longer in the EZ-FIX® group (P=0.044). In the EZ-FIX® group, 16 patients (36.4%) were categorized as a contribution group. Subgroup analysis between the contribution and non-contribution groups revealed that the contribution group had a larger lesion size (P=0.043) and a longer procedure time (P=0.037) and showed a higher patient's movement score (P < 0.001) with a higher dosage of propofol (P=0.004) and pethidine (P=0.001) required. Endoscopist satisfaction scores on sedation (P < 0.001) and overall procedure (P=0.010) were lower in the contribution group.CONCLUSIONS: Thus, EZ-FIX® might be helpful especially for patients who are expected to exhibit uncooperative sedation or those with a large lesion size, which would necessitate a longer procedure time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Meperidine , Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial , Patient Positioning , Propofol , Prospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer (PC) patients have poor prognoses because this cancer is typically diagnosed at an advanced stage and the therapeutic options are limited. We examined the potential of metabolic profiling for early diagnosis and identification of potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: Ten patients and 10 healthy volunteer controls older than 20 years of age were enrolled between May and December 2015. The patients were confirmed to have pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cytologically or histologically. Blood plasma samples were derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Untargeted GC-MS data were analyzed using statistical methods, including Wilcoxon rank-sum test and principal component analyses. RESULTS: L-lysine was 1.36-fold higher in patients than in healthy controls (p<0.05). L-leucine was 0.63-fold lower (p<0.01) and palmitic acid was 0.93-fold lower (p<0.5) in patients than in controls. Orthogonal partial least squared-discriminant analysis revealed significant differences between the patients and controls. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the metabolic profiles of patients with PC are distinct from those of the healthy population. Further studies are required to develop methods for early diagnosis and identify therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma , Early Diagnosis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Korea , Leucine , Lysine , Metabolome , Palmitic Acid , Pancreatic Ducts , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Plasma , Principal Component Analysis , Prognosis
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759993

ABSTRACT

We report 3 cases of arachnoid cysts (ACs) that completely disappeared after burr hole drainage, without cyst fenestration into the subarachnoid space or cystoperitoneal shunt. The first patient was a 21-year-old female with an AC of the right cerebral convexity, found incidentally. After endoscopic AC fenestration was performed, the patient complained of persistent headache. Two-month postoperative brain imaging revealed reaccumulated AC and associated multi-stage subdural hematoma. Burr hole drainage was performed to resolve the chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). Three months later, brain computed tomography showed that the CSDH and the AC had disappeared. The second patient was an 11-year-old male who had a history of trauma 1 month prior to presentation at the clinic. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed an AC in the left sylvian fissure with CSDH. We performed burr hole drainage to treat the CSDH first. Subsequently, the AC as well as the CSDH disappeared. The third case was an AC of the right parietal convexity, found incidentally. Only burr hole drainage was performed, following which, the AC disappeared. This case series shows that an AC can disappear naturally after rupture into the subdural space by trauma or the burr hole procedure.


Subject(s)
Arachnoid Cysts , Arachnoid , Brain , Child , Drainage , Female , Headache , Hematoma, Subdural , Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Neuroimaging , Rabeprazole , Rupture , Subarachnoid Space , Subdural Space , Trephining , Young Adult
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 587-588, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763892

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763819

ABSTRACT

Bar-code (tag) microarrays of yeast gene-deletion collections facilitate the systematic identification of genes required for growth in any condition of interest. Anti-sense strands of amplified bar-codes hybridize with ~10,000 (5,000 each for up- and down-tags) different kinds of sense-strand probes on an array. In this study, we optimized the hybridization processes of an array for fission yeast. Compared to the first version of the array (11 µm, 100K) consisting of three sectors with probe pairs (perfect match and mismatch), the second version (11 µm, 48K) could represent ~10,000 up-/down-tags in quadruplicate along with 1,508 negative controls in quadruplicate and a single set of 1,000 unique negative controls at random dispersed positions without mismatch pairs. For PCR, the optimal annealing temperature (maximizing yield and minimizing extra bands) was 58℃ for both tags. Intriguingly, up-tags required 3× higher amounts of blocking oligonucleotides than down-tags. A 1:1 mix ratio between up- and down-tags was satisfactory. A lower temperature (25℃) was optimal for cultivation instead of a normal temperature (30℃) because of extra temperature-sensitive mutants in a subset of the deletion library. Activation of frozen pooled cells for >1 day showed better resolution of intensity than no activation. A tag intensity analysis showed that tag(s) of 4,316 of the 4,526 strains tested were represented at least once; 3,706 strains were represented by both tags, 4,072 strains by up-tags only, and 3,950 strains by down-tags only. The results indicate that this microarray will be a powerful analytical platform for elucidating currently unknown gene functions.


Subject(s)
Oligonucleotides , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Schizosaccharomyces , Yeasts
18.
Genomics & Informatics ; : 22-29, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714916

ABSTRACT

Incorporation of unique barcodes into fission yeast gene deletion collections has enabled the identification of gene functions by growth fitness analysis. For fine tuning, it is important to examine barcode sequences, because mutations arise during strain construction. Out of 8,708 barcodes (4,354 strains) covering 88.5% of all 4,919 open reading frames, 7,734 barcodes (88.8%) were validated as high-fidelity to be inserted at the correct positions by Sanger sequencing. Sequence examination of the 7,734 high-fidelity barcodes revealed that 1,039 barcodes (13.4%) deviated from the original design. In total, 1,284 mutations (mutation rate of 16.6%) exist within the 1,039 mutated barcodes, which is comparable to budding yeast (18%). When the type of mutation was considered, substitutions accounted for 845 mutations (10.9%), deletions accounted for 319 mutations (4.1%), and insertions accounted for 121 mutations (1.6%). Peculiarly, the frequency of substitutions (67.6%) was unexpectedly higher than in budding yeast (~28%) and well above the predicted error of Sanger sequencing (~2%), which might have arisen during the solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis and PCR amplification of the barcodes during strain construction. When the mutation rate was analyzed by position within 20-mer barcodes using the 1,284 mutations from the 7,734 sequenced barcodes, there was no significant difference between up-tags and down-tags at a given position. The mutation frequency at a given position was similar at most positions, ranging from 0.4% (32/7,734) to 1.1% (82/7,734), except at position 1, which was highest (3.1%), as in budding yeast. Together, well-defined barcode sequences, combined with the next-generation sequencing platform, promise to make the fission yeast gene deletion library a powerful tool for understanding gene function.


Subject(s)
DNA , Gene Deletion , Mutation Rate , Open Reading Frames , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saccharomycetales , Schizosaccharomyces
19.
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pancreatic pseudocyst is a common complication of acute and chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopy ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage includes multiple steps and requires many resources such as a linear echoendoscope and a fluoroscopy room, which may not be available at all medical centers. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of EUS-guided pancreatic pseudocyst drainage without fluoroscopy. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed 10 patients who had undergone EUS-guided transmural drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst without use of fluoroscopy at the Pusan National University Hospital between January 2009 and December 2016. Drainage was performed via a transgastric approach and one or two 7 Fr double-pigtail stents were inserted. RESULTS: The technical success rate was 100% and the clinical success rate was 80%. In two patients, clinical success was not achieved and additional percutaneous catheter drainage was done. Therefore, pseudocysts in all the patients were treated successfully without surgical drainage. However, there were three adverse events in three patients: bleeding, infection, and stent migration in each respective patient. During the median follow-up period of 36.5 months, there was no recurrence of pseudocysts in any of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: EUS-guided transmural drainage of pseudocyst drainage without use of fluoroscopy is a technically feasible, safe, and effective procedure for the treatment of pancreatic pseudocyst.


Subject(s)
Catheters , Drainage , Endoscopy , Endosonography , Fluoroscopy , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Pancreas , Pancreatic Pseudocyst , Pancreatitis, Chronic , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Stents , Ultrasonography
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