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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1134-1143, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999811

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) improve response rate and survival. However, most patients eventually develop resistance. This study aimed to identify the role of CD73 in EGFR-mutant NSCLC and explore whether CD73 inhibition may serve as a therapeutic strategy in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. @*Materials and Methods@#We evaluated the prognostic role of CD73 expression in EGFR-mutant NSCLC using tumor samples from a single institution. We silenced CD73 in EGFR-TKI–resistant cell lines using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting CD73 and also transfected a vector alone as a negative control. Using these cell lines, cell proliferation and viability assays, immunoblot assays, cell cycle analysis, colony-forming assays, flow cytometry, and apoptosis analysis were performed. @*Results@#High expression of CD73 was associated with shorter survival in patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant NSCLC treated with first-generation EGFR-TKI. CD73 inhibition synergistically inhibited cell viability with first-generation EGFR-TKI treatment compared with the negative control. When CD73 inhibition and EGFR-TKI treatment were combined, G0/G1 cell cycle arrest was induced through the regulation of p21 and cyclin D1. In addition, the apoptosis rate was increased in CD73 shRNA-transfected cells treated with EGFR-TKI. @*Conclusion@#High expression of CD73 adversely affects the survival of patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC. The study demonstrated that inhibiting CD73 in EGFR-TKI–resistant cell lines resulted in increased apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, which overcame the acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR-TKIs. Further research is needed to determine whether blocking CD73 plays a therapeutic role in EGFR-TKI–resistant patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

2.
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery ; : 117-123, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-999522

ABSTRACT

Background@#Midfacial fractures frequently involve the maxillary sinus, leading to maxillary sinus pathology. We aimed to examine the incidence and contributing factors of maxillary sinus pathology in patients who underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) for midfacial fractures. @*Methods@#A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients who underwent ORIF for midfacial fractures at our department over the past 10 years. The incidence of maxillary sinus pathology was identified clinically and/or by computed tomography findings. Factors that significantly influenced the groups with and without maxillary sinus pathology were examined. @*Results@#The incidence of maxillary sinus pathology in patients who underwent ORIF for midfacial fractures was found to be 11.27%, with sinusitis being the most common pathology. Maxillary sinus pathology was significantly associated with the presence of a blowout fracture involving both the medial and the inferior orbital walls. Factors such as sex, age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, inflammatory disease, follow-up period, use of absorbable plates, and use of titanium plates did not have a significant impact on the development of maxillary sinus pathology. @*Conclusion@#The incidence of maxillary sinus pathology in patients who underwent ORIF for midfacial fractures was relatively low, and in most cases, it resolved without the need for specific treatment. Consequently, there may not be a significant need for concern regarding postoperative maxillary sinus pathology.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 83-93, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966489

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Previous report from the ASCEND-8 trial showed consistent efficacy with less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-rearranged (ALK+) advanced/metastatic non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with ceritinib 450-mg with food compared with 750-mg fasted. In this subgroup analysis, we report outcomes in Asian patients of the ASCEND-8 trial. @*Materials and Methods@#Key efficacy endpoints were blinded independent review committee (BIRC)–assessed overall response rate (ORR) and duration of response (DOR) evaluated per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.1. Other efficacy endpoints were investigator-assessed ORR and DOR; BIRC- and investigator-assessed progression-free survival (PFS) and disease control rate; overall survival (OS). Safety was evaluated by frequency and severity of adverse events. @*Results@#At final data cutoff (6 March 2020), 198 treatment-naïve patients were included in efficacy analysis, of which 74 (37%) comprised the Asian subset; 450-mg fed (n=29), 600-mg fed (n=19), and 750-mg fasted (n=26). Baseline characteristics were mostly comparable across study arms. At baseline, more patients in 450-mg fed arm (44.8%) had brain metastases than in 750-mg fasted arm (26.9%). Per BIRC, patients in the 450-mg fed arm had a numerically higher ORR, 24-month DOR rate and 24-month PFS rate than the 750-mg fasted arm. The 36-month OS rate was 93.1% in 450-mg fed arm and 70.9% in 750-mg fasted arm. Any-grade GI toxicity occurred in 82.8% and 96.2% of patients in the 450-mg fed and 750-mg fasted arms, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Asian patients with ALK+ advanced/metastatic NSCLC treated with ceritinib 450-mg fed showed numerically higher efficacy and lower GI toxicity than 750-mg fasted patients.

4.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 140-149, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913828

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Epidermal growth factor receptor kinase domain duplication (EGFR-KDD) is a rare and poorly understood oncogenic mutation in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to investigate the acquired resistance mechanism of EGFR-KDD against EGFR-TKIs. @*Materials and Methods@#We identified EGFR-KDD in tumor tissue obtained from a patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma and established the patient-derived cell line SNU-4784. We also established several EGFR-KDD Ba/F3 cell lines: EGFR-KDD wild type (EGFR-KDDWT), EGFR-KDD domain 1 T790M (EGFR-KDDD1T), EGFR-KDD domain 2 T790M (EGFR-KDDD2T), and EGFR-KDD both domain T790M (EGFR-KDDBDT). We treated the cells with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and performed cell viability assays, immunoblot assays, and ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis screening. @*Results@#In cell viability assays, SNU-4784 cells and EGFR-KDDWT Ba/F3 cells were sensitive to 2nd generation and 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In contrast, the T790M-positive EGFR-KDD Ba/F3 cell lines (EGFR-KDDT790M) were only sensitive to 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In ENU mutagenesis screening, we identified the C797S mutation in kinase domain 2 of EGFR-KDDBDT Ba/F3 cells. Based on this finding, we established an EGFR-KDD domain 1 T790M/domain 2 cis-T790M+C797S (EGFR-KDDT/T+C) Ba/F3 model, which was resistant to EGFR TKIs and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody combined with EGFR TKIs. @*Conclusion@#Our study reveals that the T790M mutation in EGFR-KDD confers resistance to 1st and 2nd generation EGFR TKIs, but is sensitive to 3rd generation EGFR TKIs. In addition, we identified that the C797S mutation in kinase domain 2 of EGFR-KDDT790M mediates a resistance mechanism against 3rd generation EGFR TKIs.

5.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e102-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925869

ABSTRACT

Background@#Regdanvimab has decreased the time to clinical recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and lowered the rate of oxygen therapy according to the results from phase 2/3 randomized controlled trial. More information is needed about the effects and safety of regdanvimab. @*Methods@#We analyzed data for patients with high-risk mild or moderate COVID-19 being admitted to Busan Medical Center between December 1, 2020 and April 16, 2021. A propensity score (PS) matched analysis was conducted to compare patients treated with and without regdanvimab. The primary outcome was in-hospital death or disease aggravation which means the need for oxygen therapy (low- or high-flow oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation) and secondary outcomes comprised the length of hospital stay and adverse reactions. @*Results@#Among 1,617 selected patients, 970 (60.0%) were indicated for regdanvimab. Of these, 377 (38.9%) were administered with regdanvimab. Among a 1:1 PS-matched cohort of 377 patients each treated with and without regdanvimab, 19 (5%) and 81 (21.5%) reached the composite outcome of death, or disease aggravation, respectively (absolute risk difference, −16.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], −21.1, −11.7; relative risk difference, 76.5%; P < 0.001).Regdanvimab significantly reduced the composite outcome of death, or disease aggravation in univariate (odds ratio [OR], 0.194; 95% CI, 0.112–0.320; P < 0.001) and multivariableadjusted analyses (OR, 0.169; 95% CI, 0.095–0.289; P < 0.001). The hospital stay was shorter for the group with than without regdanvimab. Some hematological adverse reactions were more frequent in the group without regdanvimab, but other adverse reactions did not significantly differ between the groups. @*Conclusion@#Regdanvimab was associated with a significantly lower risk of disease aggravation without increasing adverse reactions.

6.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 140-152, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925819

ABSTRACT

Background@#The kinetics of neutralizing antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) play an important role in evaluating vaccine efficacy and durability, herd immunity, additional vaccination, and prediction models of immune protection against coronavirus disease 2019. @*Materials and Methods@#Serum collection times were 4 and 8 weeks after 1st inoculation of AZD1222 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK), and 2 and 16 weeks after 2nd inoculation with 12-week dosing intervals. Neutralizing antibody (Nab) titers were measured indirectly using commercially available R-FIND SARS-CoV-2 Neutralizing Antibody ELISA Kit (SG Medical Inc., Seoul, Korea). Possible influences of gender, age, and adverse events on neutralizing antibody titer were also investigated. @*Results@#Nab titers (median inhibition %) started to decrease shortly after reaching peaks.This decrease was more pronounced in the elderly group (≥56 years) than in the young group (≤39 years) at 8 weeks (49.5% vs. 55.4%, P = 0.021) and 16 weeks (40.6% vs. 53.9%, P = 0.006) after the 1st and 2nd inoculation. And Nab titers were inversely correlated with age in the 8-week (r = -0.2091, P = 0.0284) and the 28-week group (r = -0.2811, P = 0.0029). Seropositive conversion of Nab reached 89.1% and 100% following 1st and 2nd inoculation. This 100% seropositivity was dropped sharply to 74.5% after 16 weeks. Compared to subjects without adverse events (51.8%), median inhibition was higher in subjects with one or more systemic adverse events (74.2%, P = 0.0203) or those with one or more local and systemic adverse events (77.1%, P = 0.0003). @*Conclusion@#Nab induced by AZD1222 (AstraZeneca, UK) vaccination started to degrade shortly after the production period. Nab titers were lower in the elderly than in younger group during the degradation period. This seems to be because the degradation process of Nab is more pronounced in the elderly. This may explain why the frequency of breakthrough infections, disease severity, and mortality were higher in the elderly and may require revaccination to ensure robust immunity.

7.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 975-984, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895970

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, a validated predictive biomarker for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, is reported to change over time. This poses challenges during clinical application in non-small cell lung cancer. @*Methods@#This study included patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgery or biopsy and evaluation of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells via immunohistochemistry more than twice. We set the threshold of PD-L1 positivity to 10% and categorized patients into four groups according to changes in PD-L1 expression. Clinicopathologic information was collected from medical records. Statistical analyses, including Fisher’s exact test and log-rank test, were performed. @*Results@#Of 109 patients, 38 (34.9%) and 45 (41.3%) had PD-L1 positivity in archival and recent samples, respectively. PD-L1 status was maintained in 78 (71.6%) patients, but changed in 31 (28.4%), with 19 (17.4%) from negative to positive. There were no significant differences in characteristics between patients who maintained PD-L1 negativity and whose PD-L1 status changed from negative to positive. Patients harboring PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples achieved better responses (p = 0.129) and showed longer overall survival than those who maintained PD-L1 negativity when they received immune checkpoint inhibitors after platinum failure (median overall survival 14.4 months vs. 4.93 months; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.93). @*Conclusions@#PD-L1 status changed in about one-fourth of patients. PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples was predictive of better responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, archival samples could be used for assessment of PD-L1 status. The need for new biopsies should be decided individually.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 263-280, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875253

ABSTRACT

Percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy (PTNB) is one of the essential diagnostic procedures for pulmonary lesions. Its role is increasing in the era of CT screening for lung cancer and precision medicine. The Korean Society of Thoracic Radiology developed the first evidence-based clinical guideline for PTNB in Korea by adapting pre-existing guidelines. The guideline provides 39 recommendations for the following four main domains of 12 key questions: the indications for PTNB, pre-procedural evaluation, procedural technique of PTNB and its accuracy, and management of post-biopsy complications. We hope that these recommendations can improve the diagnostic accuracy and safety of PTNB in clinical practice and promote standardization of the procedure nationwide.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1195-1203, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913804

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Angiosarcoma is a highly aggressive mesenchymal tumor. Although systemic chemotherapy is often considered for the inoperable or metastatic angiosarcoma, the outcome of such treatment is unsatisfactory and poorly delineated. @*Materials and Methods@#We reviewed electronic medical records of 75 patients with angiosarcoma who were treated with systemic chemotherapy for inoperable or metastatic disease. Patients were classified as having liver involvement if they had either primary or metastatic hepatic lesions. @*Results@#Among the patients evaluated, 51 patients were male (68%) and 24 patients (32%) had primary cutaneous angiosarcoma. Liver involvement was present in 28 patients (37.3%). A total of 59 patients received first-line weekly paclitaxel (wPac) and showed an objective response rate (ORR) of 23.7% (n=14), a median progression free survival (mPFS) of 4.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0–6.1), and a median overall survival (mOS) of 10.2 months (95% CI 7.0–14.6). Among patients without liver involvement, patients receiving wPac (n=35) had significantly prolonged mPFS (5.8 vs. 3.2 months, respectively, p=0.014) with a tendency for prolonged mOS (13.8 vs. 11.6 months, respectively, p=0.13) than those receiving other regimens (n=12). A total of 24 patients received second- or later-line pazopanib monotherapy and showed an ORR of 16.7% (n=4), a mPFS of 2.4 months (95% CI 1.8–4.3) and a mOS of 5.4 months (95% CI 3.5–NA). @*Conclusion@#Treatment with first-line wPac and later-line pazopanib seems to provide survival benefit, especially for patients with advanced angiosarcoma without liver involvement.

10.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 975-984, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903674

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, a validated predictive biomarker for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, is reported to change over time. This poses challenges during clinical application in non-small cell lung cancer. @*Methods@#This study included patients with non-small cell lung cancer who underwent surgery or biopsy and evaluation of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells via immunohistochemistry more than twice. We set the threshold of PD-L1 positivity to 10% and categorized patients into four groups according to changes in PD-L1 expression. Clinicopathologic information was collected from medical records. Statistical analyses, including Fisher’s exact test and log-rank test, were performed. @*Results@#Of 109 patients, 38 (34.9%) and 45 (41.3%) had PD-L1 positivity in archival and recent samples, respectively. PD-L1 status was maintained in 78 (71.6%) patients, but changed in 31 (28.4%), with 19 (17.4%) from negative to positive. There were no significant differences in characteristics between patients who maintained PD-L1 negativity and whose PD-L1 status changed from negative to positive. Patients harboring PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples achieved better responses (p = 0.129) and showed longer overall survival than those who maintained PD-L1 negativity when they received immune checkpoint inhibitors after platinum failure (median overall survival 14.4 months vs. 4.93 months; hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.20 to 0.93). @*Conclusions@#PD-L1 status changed in about one-fourth of patients. PD-L1 positivity in either archival or recent samples was predictive of better responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Therefore, archival samples could be used for assessment of PD-L1 status. The need for new biopsies should be decided individually.

11.
Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery ; : 135-144, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831998

ABSTRACT

Distal clavicle fractures are less common than mid-shaft fractures in adults and there is no consensus on the best classification system or the ideal treatment approach considering that high nonunion rates have been reported. Although there are numerous treatment options for distal clavicle fractures, a gold standard treatment has not yet been established. Each surgical technique has its pros and cons. In this review article, we provide an overview of classification systems and treatment methods for distal clavicle fractures.

12.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1112-1119, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831143

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors represents a major advance in the treatment of lung cancer, allowing sustained recovery in a significant proportion of patients. Nivolumab is a monoclonal anti–programmed death cell protein 1 antibody licensed for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after prior chemotherapy. In this study, we describe the demographic and clinical outcomes of patients with advanced NSCLC treated with nivolumab in the Korean expanded access program. @*Materials and Methods@#Previously treated patients with advanced non-squamous and squamous NSCLC patients received nivolumab at 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks up to 36 months. Efficacy data including investigator-assessed tumor response, progression data, survival, and safety data were collected. @*Results@#Two hundred ninety-nine patients were treated across 36 Korean centers. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 18% and 49%, respectively; the median progression-free survival was 2.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87 to 3.45), and the overall survival (OS) was 13.2 months (95% CI, 10.6 to 18.9). Patients with smoking history and patients who experienced immune-related adverse events showed a prolonged OS. Cox regression analysis identified smoking history, presence of immune-related adverse events as positive factors associated with OS, while liver metastasis was a negative factor associated with OS. The safety profile was generally comparable to previously reported data. @*Conclusion@#This real-world analysis supports the use of nivolumab for pretreated NSCLC patients, including those with an older age.

13.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 284-291, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831069

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Osimertinib is a third-generation, irreversible, oral epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that potently and selectively inhibits both EGFR sensitizing mutation and EGFR T790M and has demonstrated efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) central nervous system (CNS) metastases. We present results of a subgroup analysis of Korean patients from the pooled data of two global phase II trials: AURA extension (NCT01802632) and AURA2 (NCT02094261). @*Materials and Methods@#Enrolled patients had EGFR T790M-positive NSCLC and disease progression during or after EGFR-TKI therapy. Patients received osimertinib 80 mg orally once daily until disease progression. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR). @*Results@#In total, 66 Korean patients received osimertinib treatment with a median treatment duration of 19 months. In the evaluable-for-response population (n=62), ORR was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.5 to 84.5) and median duration of response was 9.8 months (95% CI, 7.1 to 16.8). In the full analysis set (n=66), median progression-free survival was 10.9 months (95% CI, 8.3 to 15.0; data cutoff November 1, 2016), and median overall survival was 29.2 months (95% CI, 24.8 to 35.7; data cutoff May 1, 2018). Eight patients with CNS metastases were evaluable for response, none of whom showed CNS progression. The most common adverse events were rash (53%), cough (33%), paronychia, diarrhea, and decreased appetite (each 32%). @*Conclusion@#Efficacy and safety profiles of osimertinib in this subgroup are consistent with the global phase II pooled population, which supports osimertinib as a recommended treatment for Korean patients with T790M positive NSCLC.

14.
The Journal of Korean Knee Society ; : e22-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834985

ABSTRACT

Background@#Periprosthetic infection after total knee arthroplasty is a challenging problem, and physicians should identify risk factors to decrease recurrence. However, risk factors for reinfection with two-stage reimplantation have not yet been well established. The purpose of this study was to assess treatment outcomes of subsequent twostage knee reimplantation and identify risk factors for uncontrolled periprosthetic knee joint infections. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed 70 knees diagnosed with a periprosthetic knee joint infection treated with two-stage reimplantation between September 2011 and October 2016 at our institution. Patients in the controlled infection group (group C) required no further medication or surgical treatment within 2 years after reimplantation.Patients in the uncontrolled infection group (group U) displayed symptoms of active infection after resection arthroplasty or were reinfected after two-stage reimplantation. We compared group C and group U, and analyzed potential risk factors for uncontrolled prosthetic joint infection (PJI). @*Results@#Of 70 knees included in this analysis, 53 (75.7%) were clinically deemed free from infection at the latest follow-up. The remaining 17 knees (24.3%) required additional surgical procedures after two-stage reimplantation.Demographics were not statistically significantly different between the two groups. Wound complications were statistically more frequent in group U (p = 0.030). Pre-reimplantation C-reactive protein (CRP) was statistically different between groups C and U (0.44 and 1.70, respectively, (p = 0.025). Among the cultured microorganisms, fungus species were statistically more frequently detected in group U compared with group C ((p = 0.031). @*Conclusions@#The reinfection rate of our two-stage reimplantation protocol was 24.3% in the included cases.Wound complications, higher pre-reimplantation CRP levels, and fungus species were statistically more common in group U compared with group C. Our findings will help in counseling patients and physicians to understand that additional caution may be required when treating PJI if the aforementioned risk factors are present.Level of evidence: IV, case series.

15.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 119-127, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719712

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This randomized phase III study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of irinotecan plus cisplatin (IP) over etoposide plus cisplatin (EP) in Korean patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive IP, composed of irinotecan 65 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1 and 8+cisplatin 70 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1 every 3 weeks, or EP, composed of etoposide 100 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1, 2, 3+cisplatin 70 mg/m2 intravenously on day 1, every 3 weeks for a maximum of six cycles, until disease progression, or until unacceptable toxicity occurred. The primary endpoint was overall survival. RESULTS: A total of 362 patients were randomized to IP (n=173) and EP (n=189) arms. There were no significant differences between IP and EP arms for the median overall survival (10.9 months vs. 10.3 months, p=0.120) and the median progression-free survival (6.5 months vs. 5.8 months, p=0.115). However, there was a significant difference in response rate (62.4% vs. 48.2%, p=0.006). The pre-planned subgroup analyses showed that IP was associated with longer overall survival in male (11.3 months vs. 10.1 months, p=0.036), < 65 years old (12.7 months vs. 11.3 months, p=0.024), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0/1 (12.4 months vs. 10.9 months, p=0.040) patient groups. The severity of treatment-related adverse events such as grade 3/4 anemia, nausea and diarrhea was more frequent in patients treated with IP. CONCLUSION: The IP chemotherapy did not significantly improve the survival compared with EP chemotherapy in Korean patients with extensive-disease SCLC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anemia , Arm , Cisplatin , Diarrhea , Disease Progression , Disease-Free Survival , Drug Therapy , Etoposide , Lung Neoplasms , Nausea , Small Cell Lung Carcinoma
16.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 169-177, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719707

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Despite the successful use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in cancer patients, their effect on herpes zoster development has not been studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) TKI and cytotoxic chemotherapy on the risk of herpes zoster development in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a medical review of all eligible NSCLC patients in Seoul National University hospital between 2002 and 2015. We classified patients based on whether they previously underwent EGFR TKI therapy into either the TKI group or the cytotoxic group. We compared the incidence rates of herpes zoster during TKI therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Additionally, the longitudinal risk of herpes zoster from TKIs was analyzed using the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of the TKI group to the cytotoxic group and the log-rank test of the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Of the 2,981 NSCLC patients, 54 patients (1.54%) developed herpes zoster. In the TKI group (2,002 patients), the IRR of herpes zoster during TKI therapy compared to that during cytotoxic chemotherapy was 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 2.09). The IRR of the TKI group compared to the cytotoxic group was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.64 to 2.76). The Kaplan-Meier cumulative risk of both groups was not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the incidence rate of herpes zoster in the TKI group was not statistically different from the incidence in the cytotoxic group during and after chemotherapy in NSCLC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Drug Therapy , Erlotinib Hydrochloride , Herpes Zoster , Incidence , Methods , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , ErbB Receptors , Seoul , Tyrosine
17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1116-1124, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919139

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Although crizotinib is standard chemotherapy for advanced anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), clinical factors affecting progression-free survival (PFS) have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors affecting PFS of crizotinib and develop a prognostic model for advanced ALK-positive NSCLC.@*METHODS@#Clinicopathologic features of patients enrolled in PROFILE 1001, 1005, 1007, and 1014 (training cohort) were reviewed. We conducted multivariate Cox analysis for PFS and overall survival (OS) in the training cohort (n = 159) and generated a proportional hazards model based on significant clinicopathologic factors, and then validated the model in an independent validation cohort (n = 40).@*RESULTS@#In the training cohort, the objective response rate was 81.5%. Median PFS and OS from the start of crizotinib were 12.4 and 31.3 months, respectively. Multivariate Cox analysis showed poor performance status, number of metastatic organs (≥ 3), and no response to crizotinib independently associated shorter PFS. Based on a score derived from these three factors, median PFS and OS of patients with one or two factors were significantly shorter compared to those without these factors (median PFS, 22.4 months vs. 10.5 months vs. 6.5 months; median OS, not reached vs. 29.1 months vs. 11.8 months, respectively; p < 0.001 for each group). This model also had validated in an independent validation cohort.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Performance status, number of metastatic organs, and response to crizotinib affected PFS of crizotinib in ALK-positive NSCLC. Based on these factors, we developed a simple and useful prediction model for PFS.

18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1313-1323, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Since patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have favorable outcomes after treatment, treatment de-escalation for these patients is being actively investigated. However, not all HPV-positive HNSCCs are curable, and some patients have a poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to identify poor prognostic factors in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC.@*METHODS@#Patients who received a diagnosis of HNSCC and tested positive for HPV from 2000 to 2015 at a single hospital site (n = 152) were included in this retrospective analysis. HPV typing was conducted using the HPV DNA chip assay or liquid bead microarray system. Expression of p16 in the tumors was assessed by immunohistochemistry. To determine candidate factors associated with overall survival (OS), univariate and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed.@*RESULTS@#A total of 152 patients with HPV-positive HNSCC were included in this study; 82.2% were male, 43.4% were current or former smokers, and 84.2% had oropharyngeal cancer. By univariate analysis, old age, performance status ≥ 1, non-oropharyngeal location, advanced T classification (T3–4), and HPV genotype 18 were significantly associated with poor OS. By multivariable analysis, performance status ≥ 1 and non-oropharyngeal location were independently associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR], 4.36, p = 0.015; HR, 11.83, p = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, HPV genotype 18 positivity was also an independent poor prognostic factor of OS (HR, 10.87, p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Non-oropharyngeal cancer, poor performance status, and HPV genotype 18 were independent poor prognostic factors in patients with HPV-positive HNSCC. Patients with these risk factors might not be candidates for de-escalation treatment.

19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 885-893, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#This study was to evaluate the clinical significance of infusion-related reaction (IRR) of rituximab in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients who received R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) as a first-line chemotherapy.@*METHODS@#The medical records of 326 patients diagnosed with DLBCL were re trospectively analyzed. Both doctor's progress records and nursing records were reviewed. IRR was graded according to the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria.@*RESULTS@#IRR was not associated with overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) of DLBCL patients as compared to those who did not have IRR (OS: median 78.0 months vs. 69.0 months, p = 0.700; PFS: median 65.4 months vs. 64.0 months, p = 0.901). IRR grade did not affect OS or PFS. B symptoms was independently associated with IRR (hazard ratio [HR], 1.850; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.041 to 3.290; p = 0.036). Further, bone marrow involvement was independently associated with re-IRR (HR, 4.904; 95% CI, 0.767 to 3.118; p = 0.029).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Our study shows that IRR of rituximab is not associated with OS or PFS of DLBCL patients who received R-CHOP. Furthermore, our study suggests a need for more careful observation for IRR in patients with B symptoms or bone marrow involvement.

20.
The Journal of Korean Knee Society ; : e10-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-917076

ABSTRACT

With the rising number of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions, revision ACL reconstructions are becoming increasingly common. A revision procedure may be performed to improved knee function, correct instability, and facilitate a return to normal activities. When performing a revision reconstruction, the surgeon decides between a single-stage or a two-stage revision. Two-stage revisions are rarely performed, but are particularly useful when addressing substantial tunnel-widening, active infection, and concomitant knee pathology (e.g., malalignment, other ligamentous injuries, meniscal or chondral lesions). Among these potential scenarios requiring a two-stage revision, tunnel-widening is the most common cause; the first stage involves graft removal, tunnel curettage, and bone grafting, followed by revision ACL reconstruction in the second stage. The purpose of this article is to review the preoperative planning, surgical considerations, rehabilitation, and outcomes of two-stage revision ACL reconstructions and summarize the recent literature outlining treatment results.

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