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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e223-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001103

ABSTRACT

To contain the surge of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the South Korean government has implemented non-pharmacological interventions as well as border restrictions. The efficacy of entry restrictions should be evaluated to facilitate their preparation for new variants of SARS-CoV-2. This study explored the impact of border policy changes on overseas entrants and local cases of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Data from the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency randomly collected between April 11, 2021 and August 20, 2022 were evaluated using the Granger causality model. The results showed that the outbreak gap of delta variants between international and domestic cases was 10 weeks, while that of omicron variants was approximately 2 weeks, meaning that the quarantine policy helped contain delta variants rather than more transmissible variants. It is recommended that countries implement quarantine policies based on particular purposes accounting for the specific features of different variants to avoid potential negative impacts on the economy.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e248-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001065

ABSTRACT

The pediatric population with comorbidities is a high-risk group for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As of January 2023, the COVID-19 vaccination rate for at least two doses among Korean children 5–11 years is low at 1.1%. We summarized the COVID-19 vaccination status for the pediatric population (5–17 years) with comorbidities through July 2022 using the National Health Insurance Service database. Pediatric patients with comorbidities had higher vaccination rates than the general pediatric population (2.4% vs. 1.1% in 5–11-year-olds [P < 0.001], 76.5% vs. 66.1% in 12–17-year-olds [P < 0.001]). However, there were substantial differences according to comorbidity category, and the 2-dose vaccination rate was lowest among children with immunodeficiency in all age groups (1.1% in 5–11-year-olds, 51.2% in 12–17-year-olds). The COVID-19 vaccination rate among Korean children has remained stagnant at a low proportion despite ongoing outreach. Thus, more proactive strategies are needed alongside continuous surveillance.

3.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 126-134, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966689

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate the effects of long-acting injectable 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate on the clinical and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia. @*Methods@#This study enrolled patients with schizophrenia receiving long-acting injectable 1-monthly paliperidone palmitate for at least 4 months and who subsequently received 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate. Accordingly, 418 patients were followed up for 24 weeks. Their clinical symptoms and social functioning were measured using the Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness and Personal and Social Performance scales. @*Results@#The Personal and Social Performance total score was significantly higher after 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate treatment than at baseline (baseline vs. week 24: 54.3 ± 18.0 vs. 61.0 ± 14.5 [mean ± standard deviation]; p < 0.001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test); the proportion of patients in the mildly ill group (scores 71−100) also increased significantly (baseline vs. week 24: 16.5% vs. 20.6%; p< 0.001; McNemar-Bowker test). The mean Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness score decreased significantly (baseline vs. week 24: 3.7 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.9; p< 0.001; Wilcoxon signed-rank test), as did the proportion of patients in the severely ill group (baseline vs. week 24: 4.1% vs. 2.1%; p < 0.001; McNemar-Bowker test). @*Conclusion@#Continuous 3-monthly paliperidone palmitate treatment significantly enhances the personal and social performance of patients with schizophrenia and reduces the proportion of those with severe illness. These findings suggest that long-acting injectable antipsychotic administration at intervals longer than 1 month might improve the social functioning of and promote return to activities of daily living in patients with schizophrenia.

4.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 799-807, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002765

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Phentermine is a commonly used weight-loss agent in the United States, but there is a little information about the use of phentermine for patients with obesity taking antipsychotic medications. @*Methods@#We gathered 57 patients with obesity taking antipsychotic medications whose phentermine treatment was simultaneous with or after any type of antipsychotic exposure and collected data of clinical information, initial/follow-up anthropometric variables, and adverse events (AEs) for the 6-month study period. @*Results@#In total, the mean body weight reduction (BWR) was 4.45 (7.04) kg, and the mean BWR percent (BWR%) was 3.92% (6.96%) at 6 months. Based on the response to phentermine, the patients were classified into two groups: the responder (n=25; BWR% ≥5%) and nonresponder (n=32; BWR% <5%) groups. The responder group’s mean BWR and BWR% were 10.13 (4.43) kg and 9.35% (4.09%), respectively, at 6 months. The responders had higher rates of anticonvulsant combination therapy (ACT; responder, 72.0% vs. non-responder, 43.8%; p=0.033) and a shorter total antipsychotic exposure duration (responder, 23.9 [16.9] months vs. non-responder, 37.2 [27.6] months; p= 0.039). After adjusting age, sex, and initial body weight, ACT maintained a significant association with phentermine response (odds ratio=3.840; 95% confidence interval: 1.082–13.630; p=0.037). In the final cohort, there was no report of adverse or new-onset psychotic symptoms, and the common AEs were sleep disturbances, dry mouth, and dizziness. @*Conclusion@#Overall, phentermine was effective and tolerable for patients with obesity taking antipsychotic medications, and ACT (predominantly topiramate) augmented the weight-loss effect of phentermine.

5.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1093-1101, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002413

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a noninvasive method to quantitatively assess bowel motility. However, its accuracy in measuring various degrees of small bowel motility has not been extensively evaluated. We aimed to draw a quantitative small bowel motility score from cine MRI and evaluate its performance in a population with varying degrees of small bowel motility. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 174 participants (28.5 ± 7.6 years; 135 males) underwent a 22-second-long cine MRI sequence (2-dimensional balanced turbo-field echo; 0.5 seconds per image) approximately 5 minutes after being intravenously administered 10 mg of scopolamine-N-butyl bromide to deliberately create diverse degrees of small bowel motility. In a manually segmented area of the small bowel, motility was automatically quantified using a nonrigid registration and calculated as a quantitative motility score. The mean value (MV) of motility grades visually assessed by two radiologists was used as a reference standard. The quantitative motility score’s correlation (Spearman’s ρ) with the reference standard and performance (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve [AUROC], sensitivity, and specificity) for diagnosing adynamic small bowel (MV of 1) were evaluated. @*Results@#For the MV of the quantitative motility scores at grades 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3, the mean ± standard deviation values were 0.019 ± 0.003, 0.027 ± 0.010, 0.033 ± 0.008, 0.032 ± 0.009, and 0.043 ± 0.013, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between the quantitative motility score and the MV (ρ = 0.531, P < 0.001). The AUROC value for diagnosing a MV of 1 (i.e., adynamic small bowel) was 0.953 (95% confidence interval, 0.923–0.984). Moreover, the optimal cutoff for the quantitative motility score was 0.024, with a sensitivity of 100% (15/15) and specificity of 89.9% (143/159). @*Conclusion@#The quantitative motility score calculated from a cine MRI enables diagnosis of an adynamic small bowel, and potentially discerns various degrees of bowel motility.

6.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 52-59, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918239

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To investigate whether the diagnostic performance of CT angiography (CTA) could be improved by modifying the conventional criterion (anastomosis site abnormality) to diagnose hepatic artery occlusion (HAO) after liver transplantation (LT) in suspected patients with Doppler ultrasound (US) abnormalities. @*Materials and Methods@#One hundred thirty-four adult LT recipients (88 males and 46 females; mean age, 52.7 years) with suspected HAO on Doppler US (40 HAO and 94 non-HAO according to the reference standards) were included. We evaluated 1) abnormalities in the HA anastomosis, categorized as a cutoff, ≥ 50% stenosis at the anastomotic site, or diffuse stenosis at both graft and recipient sides around the anastomosis, and 2) abnormalities in the distal run-off, including invisibility or irregular, faint, and discontinuous enhancement. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of the conventional (considering anastomosis site abnormalities alone) and modified CTA criteria (abnormalities in both the anastomosis site and distal run-off) for the diagnosis of HAO were calculated and compared using the McNemar test. @*Results@#By using the conventional criterion to diagnose HAO, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy were 100% (40/40), 74.5% (70/94), 62.5% (40/64), 100% (70/70), and 82.1% (110/134), respectively. The modified criterion for diagnosing HAO showed significantly increased specificity (93.6%, 88/94) and accuracy (93.3%, 125/134) compared to that with the conventional criterion (p = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively), although the sensitivity (92.5%, 37/40) decreased slightly without statistical significance (p = 0.250). @*Conclusion@#The modified criterion considering abnormalities in both the anastomosis site and distal run-off improved the diagnostic performance of CTA for HAO in suspected patients with Doppler US abnormalities, particularly by increasing the specificity.

7.
Blood Research ; : 144-151, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937245

ABSTRACT

Background@#Nilotinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety for frontline and 2nd line treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia (Ph+ CML). This study aimed to confirm the safety and efficacy of nilotinib in routine clinical practice within South Korea. @*Methods@#An open-label, multicenter, single-arm, 12-week observational post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study was conducted on 669 Korean adult patients with Ph + CML from December 24, 2010, to December 23, 2016. The patients received nilotinib treatment in routine clinical practice settings. Safety was evaluated by all types of adverse events (AEs) during the study period, and efficacy was evaluated by the complete hematological response (CHR) and cytogenetic response. @*Results@#During the study period, AEs occurred in 61.3% (410 patients, 973 events), adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in 40.5% (271/669 patients, 559 events), serious AEs in 4.5% (30 patients, 37 events), and serious ADRs in 0.7% (5 patients, 8 events). Furthermore, unexpected AEs occurred at a rate of 6.9% (46 patients, 55 events) and unexpected ADRs at 1.2% (8 patients, 8 events). As for the efficacy results, CHR was achieved in 89.5% (442/494 patients), and minor cytogenetic response or major cytogenetic response was achieved in 85.8% (139/162 patients). @*Conclusion@#This PMS study shows consistent results in terms of safety and efficacy compared with previous studies. Nilotinib was well tolerated and efficacious in adult Korean patients with Ph + CML in routine clinical practice settings.

8.
Journal of the Korean Neurological Association ; : 121-126, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926308

ABSTRACT

Several medications are approved to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea including nirmatrelvir/ritonavir, remdesivir, and regdanvimab. There is potential drug-drug interaction between antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the medications used to treat COVID-19. Several AEDs such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and primidone are strong cytochrome P450 inducers and can inhibit the drugs used for COVID-19. Particularly, these drugs are contraindicated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid®). There is a weaker drug-drug interaction between the AEDs and remdesivir. No significant interaction has been reported between the AEDs and molnupiravir. Pharmacokinetic interactions of the AEDs are important in effective management of COVID-19 in patients with epilepsy.

9.
Anesthesia and Pain Medicine ; : 75-86, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925399

ABSTRACT

Background@#Postoperative pain occurring after cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is difficult to control because of extensive surgical injuries and long incisions. We assessed whether the addition of a four-quadrant transabdominal plane (4Q-TAP) block could help in analgesic control. @*Methods@#Seventy-two patients scheduled to undergo elective CRS with HIPEC and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) were enrolled. The patients received 4Q-TAP blocks in a 10 ml mixture of 2% lidocaine and 0.75% ropivacaine per site (4Q-TAP group, n = 36) or normal saline (control group, n = 33). Oxycodone in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and pethidine or tramadol in the ward were used as rescue analgesics. The primary outcome was less than 3 times of rescue analgesic administration (%) in the ward for 5 postoperative days. Secondary endpoints included oxycodone requirement in PACU, fentanyl doses of IV PCA, morphine milligram equivalent (MME) of total opioid use, hospital stay, and postoperative complications. @*Results@#During 5 postoperative days, there was no difference in pain scores and total rescue analgesic administration between two groups. However, the use of oxycodone in PACU (P = 0.011), fentanyl requirement in IV PCA (P = 0.029), and MME/kg of total opioid use (median, 2.35 vs. 3.21 mg/kg, P = 0.009) were significantly smaller in the 4Q-TAP group. Hospital stay and incidence of postoperative morbidity were similar in both groups. @*Conclusions@#The 4Q-TAP block enhanced multimodal analgesia and decreased opioid requirements in patients with CRS with HIPEC, but did not change postoperative recovery outcomes.

10.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 161-167, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968394

ABSTRACT

Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder that increases the risk for type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of Nelumbo nucifera leaf (NL) extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and obese db/db mice. NL extract among various parts (leaf, seed, and root) of N. nucifera most effectively reduced adipogenesis via inhibiting CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The addition of NL extract enhanced the protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) as compared to untreated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The oral administration of NL extract (100 mg/kg BW) significantly reduced food efficacy ratio, body weight, and face or total cholesterol level in obese db /db mice. Also, administration of NL extract significantly decreased adipocyte size and C/EBPα or PPARγ expression in the adipose tissues as compared with control (obese db/db mice). Therefore, our results suggest that NL extract among various parts of N. nucifera could be used as a functional food ingredient for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes.

11.
Ultrasonography ; : 387-397, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919524

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#According to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) guidelines, biopsy is a diagnostic option for focal hepatic lesions depending on the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) category. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography-guided core-needle biopsy (CNB) according to LI-RADS categories. @*Methods@#A total of 145 High-risk patients for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by CNB for a focal hepatic lesion preoperatively were retrospectively enrolled. Focal hepatic lesions on MRI were evaluated according to LI-RADS version 2018. Pathologic results were categorized into HCC, non-HCC malignancies, and benignity. The categorization was defined as correct when the CNB pathology and surgical pathology reports were identical. Nondiagnostic results were defined as inadequate CNB pathology findings for a specific diagnosis. The proportion of correct categorizations was calculated for each LI-RADS category, excluding nondiagnostic results. @*Results@#After excluding 16 nondiagnostic results, 131 lesions were analyzed (45 LR-5, 24 LR-4, 4 LR-3, and 58 LR-M). All LR-5 lesions were HCC, and CNB correctly categorized 97.8% (44/45) of LR-5 lesions. CNB correctly categorized all 24 LR-4 lesions, 16.7% (4/24) of which were non-HCC malignancies. All LR-M lesions were malignant, and 62.1% (36/58) were non-HCC malignancies. CNB correctly categorized 93.1% (54/58) of LR-M lesions, and 12.5% (3/24) of lesions with CNB results of HCC were confirmed as non-HCC malignancies. @*Conclusion@#In agreement with AASLD guidelines, CNB could be helpful for LR-4 lesions, but is unnecessary for LR-5 lesions. In LR-M lesions, CNB results of HCC did not exclude non-HCC malignancy.

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1909-1917, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918199

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Muscle quantity and quality can be measured with an automated system on CT. However, the effects of contrast phases on the muscle measurements have not been established, which we aimed to investigate in this study. @*Materials and Methods@#Muscle quantity was measured according to the skeletal muscle area (SMA) measured by a convolutional neural network-based automated system at the L3 level in 89 subjects undergoing multiphasic abdominal CT comprising unenhanced phase, arterial phase, portal venous phase (PVP), or delayed phase imaging. Muscle quality was analyzed using the mean muscle density and the muscle quality map, which comprises normal and low-attenuation muscle areas (NAMA and LAMA, respectively) based on the muscle attenuation threshold. The SMA, mean muscle density, NAMA, and LAMA were compared between PVP and other phases using paired t tests. Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the inter-phase variability between PVP and other phases. Based on the cutoffs for low muscle quantity and quality, the counts of individuals who scored lower than the cutoff values were compared between PVP and other phases. @*Results@#All indices showed significant differences between PVP and other phases (p < 0.001 for all). The SMA, mean muscle density, and NAMA increased during the later phases, whereas LAMA decreased during the later phases. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the mean differences between PVP and other phases ranged -2.1 to 0.3 cm2 for SMA, -12.0 to 2.6 cm2 for NAMA, and -2.2 to 9.9 cm2 for LAMA.The number of patients who were categorized as low muscle quantity did not significant differ between PVP and other phases (p ≥ 0.5), whereas the number of patients with low muscle quality significantly differed (p ≤ 0.002). @*Conclusion@#SMA was less affected by the contrast phases. However, the muscle quality measurements changed with the contrast phases to greater extents and would require a standardization of the contrast phase for reliable measurement.

13.
Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology ; : 38-43, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916496

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We investigated the association between defoliant exposure and survival to discharge after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. @*Methods@#This is a retrospective case-control study based on the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) registry. The electronic medical records of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims from 6/9/2008 to 12/31/2016 were analyzed statistically. The case patients group had a history of defoliant exposure while the control group did not. Among the 401 victims studied, a total of 110 patients were male out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Baseline characteristics and the parameters involved in cardiac arrest were analyzed and compared between the two groups after propensity score matching. The primary outcome was survival to discharge, and secondary outcomes were sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to admission. @*Results@#After propensity score matching a total of 50 patients (case=25, control=25) were analyzed. Primary outcome (survival to discharge) was not significantly different between case and control groups [(OR, 1.759; 95% C.I., 0.491-6.309) and (OR, 1.842;95% C.I., 0.515-6.593), respectively]. In the subgroup analysis, there were also no significant differences between the control group and subgroups in primary and secondary outcomes according to defoliant exposure severity. @*Conclusion@#There is no statistically significant association between defoliant exposure and survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

14.
Journal of Gastric Cancer ; : 418-425, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914974

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We designed a new regimen by combining intraperitoneal (IP) paclitaxel (PTX) with systemic S-1 plus oxaliplatin (SOX) for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal metastasis. This dose-escalation study aimed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended dose (RD) of IP PTX administered weekly to patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Eight cycles of IP PTX plus SOX regimen were administered to the patients. S-1 was administered orally twice daily at a dose of 80 mg/m2 /day for 14 consecutive days, followed by 7 days of rest. Intravenous oxaliplatin was administered at a fixed dose of 100 mg/m2 on day 1, while IP PTX was administered on days 1 and 8. The initial dose of IP PTX was 40 mg/m2 , and the dose escalation was set in units of 20 mg/m2 up to 80 mg/m2 . Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were defined as grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities, grade 4 leukopenia, grade 3 febrile neutropenia, and grade 3 thrombocytopenia. @*Results@#Nine patients were included in the study. No DLTs were observed in any of the enrolled patients. Therefore, the MTD was not reached, and the RD of IP PTX was determined to be 80 mg/m2 . Four patients (44%) showed a decreased peritoneal cancer index score on second-look laparoscopic examination. @*Conclusions@#The present study determined the dose for further clinical trials of IP PTX to be 80 mg/m2 , when combined with a systemic SOX regimen.

15.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 997-1004, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896573

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to determine whether the use of drugs in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is related to the risk of colorectal cancer using a Cox proportional hazards model with the landmark method to minimize immortal time bias. @*Materials and Methods@#This study was conducted as national cohort-based study using data from Korea’s Health Insurance Corporation. Newly diagnosed patients with inflammatory bowel disease from 2006 to 2010 were monitored for colorectal cancer until 2015. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared with the incidence of colorectal cancer with or without medications by applying various landmark points. @*Results@#In patients with Crohn’s disease, the prevention of colorectal cancer in the group exposed to immunomodulators was significant in the basic Cox model; however, the effect was not statistically significant in the model using the landmark method. The preventive effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid in patients with ulcerative colitis was significant in the basic and 6-month landmark point application models, but not in the remaining landmark application models. @*Conclusion@#In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the preventive effect of drug exposure on colorectal cancer varies depending on the application of the landmark method. Hence, the possibility of immortal time bias should be considered.

16.
The Korean Journal of Orthodontics ; : 95-104, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896059

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the trueness and precision of full-arch scans acquired using five intraoral scanners and investigate the factors associated with the dimensional accuracy of the intraoral scan data. @*Methods@#Nine adult participants (mean age, 34.3 ± 8.3 years) were recruited. Four zirconium spheres (Ø 6 mm) were bonded to the canines and the molars. Following acquisition of reference scans using an industrial-grade scanner, five intraoral scanners, namely i500, CS3600, Trios 3, iTero, and CEREC Omnicam, were used to scan the arches. Linear distances between the four reference spheres were automatically calculated, and linear mixed model analysis was performed to compare the trueness and precision of the intraoral scan data among the different scanners. @*Results@#The absolute mean trueness and precision values for all intraoral scanners were 76.6 ± 79.3 and 56.6 ± 52.4 µm, respectively. The type of scanner and the measured linear distances had significant effects on the accuracy of the intraoral scan data. With regard to trueness, errors in the intermolar dimension and the distance from the canine to the contralateral molar were greater with Omnicam than with the other scanners. With regard to precision, the error in the linear distance from the canine to the molar in the same quadrant was greater with Omnicam and CS3600 than with the other scanners. @*Conclusions@#The dimensional accuracy of intraoral scan data may differ significantly according to the type of scanner, with the amount of error in terms of trueness being clinically significant.

17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 617-628, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895986

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Although it is near concluded that renin-angiotensin system inhibitors do not have a harmful effect on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is no report about whether angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) offer any protective role. This study aimed to compare the association of ARBs and ACEIs with COVID-19-related mortality. @*Methods@#All patients with COVID-19 in Korea between January 19 and April 16, 2020 were enrolled. The association of ARBs and ACEIs with mortality within 60 days were evaluated. A comparison of hazard ratio (HR) was performed between COVID-19 patients and a retrospective cohort of pneumonia patients hospitalized in 2019 in Korea. @*Results@#Among 10,448 COVID-19 patients, ARBs and ACEIs were prescribed in 1,231 (11.7%) and 57 (0.6%) patients, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, and history of comorbidities, the ARB group showed neutral association (HR, 1.034; 95% CI, 0.765 to 1.399; p = 0.8270) and the ACEI groups showed no significant associations likely owing to the small population size (HR, 0.736; 95% CI, 0.314 to 1.726; p = 0.4810). When comparing HR between COVID-19 patients and a retrospective cohort of patients hospitalized with pneumonia in 2019, the trend of ACEIs showed similar benefits, whereas the protective effect of ARBs observed in the retrospective cohort was absent in COVID-19 patients. Meta-analyses showed significant positive correlation with survival of ACEIs, whereas a neutral association between ARBs and mortality. @*Conclusions@#Although ARBs or ACEIs were not associated with fatal outcomes, potential beneficial effects of ARBs observed in pneumonia were attenuated in COVID-19.

18.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1640-1649, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894786

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Flattening in the anteroposterior direction (AP flattening) of the terminal ileum (TI) or sigmoid colon (SC) lying across the psoas muscle, on magnetic resonance enterography (MRE), might mimic bowel inflammation in the coronal view.This study investigated the prevalence of AP flattening and the factors associated with its development. @*Materials and Methods@#A total of 364 surgery-naïve patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) who had undergone MRE were retrospectively reviewed. AP flattening was defined as a luminal collapse in the anteroposterior direction, with a bowel width in the axial plane < 1/4 of the normal diameter without reduction of bowel width in coronal images. The prevalence of AP flattening of the TI and SC on MRE in patients with bowel segments lying across the psoas muscle was determined. We further compared the rate of AP flattening between MRE and computed tomography enterography (CTE) in a subcohort of patients with prior CTE. The factors associated with AP flattening were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression in a subcohort of patients with endoscopic findings of TI. @*Results@#Three hundred and twenty-two and 363 patients, respectively, had TI and SC lying across the psoas muscle. The prevalence of AP flattening on MRE was 7.5% (24/322) in TI and 5.2% (19/363) in SC. The prevalences were significantly higher on MRE than on CTE in both the TI (7.3% [12/164] vs. 0.6% [1/164]; p = 0.003) and SC (5.8% [11/190] vs. 1.6% [3/ 190]; p = 0.039). AP flattening of the TI was independently and strongly associated with the absence of CD inflammation on endoscopy, with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.066 (p = 0.003) for the presence versus the absence (reference) of inflammation. @*Conclusion@#AP flattening of the TI or SC lying across the psoas muscle was uncommon and predominantly observed on MRE of the bowel without CD inflammation.

19.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1341-1351, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894710

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To compare the quality of various polychromatic and monochromatic images with or without using an iterative metal artifact reduction algorithm (iMAR) obtained from a dual-energy computed tomography (CT) to evaluate total knee arthroplasty. @*Materials and Methods@#We included 58 patients (28 male and 30 female; mean age [range], 71.4 [61–83] years) who underwent 74 knee examinations after total knee arthroplasty using dual-energy CT. CT image sets consisted of polychromatic image sets that linearly blended 80 kVp and tin-filtered 140 kVp using weighting factors of 0.4, 0, and -0.3, and monochromatic images at 130, 150, 170, and 190 keV. These image sets were obtained with and without applying iMAR, creating a total of 14 image sets. Two readers qualitatively ranked the image quality (1 [lowest quality] through 14 [highest quality]). Volumes of high- and low-density artifacts and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) between the bone and fat tissue were quantitatively measured in a subset of 25 knees unaffected by metal artifacts. @*Results@#iMAR-applied, polychromatic images using weighting factors of -0.3 and 0.0 (P-0.3i and P0.0i, respectively) showed the highest image-quality rank scores (median of 14 for both by one reader and 13 and 14, respectively, by the other reader;p < 0.001). All iMAR-applied image series showed higher rank scores than the iMAR-unapplied ones. The smallest volumes of low-density artifacts were found in P-0.3i, P0.0i, and iMAR-applied monochromatic images at 130 keV. The smallest volumes of high-density artifacts were noted in P-0.3i. The CNRs were best in polychromatic images using a weighting factor of 0.4 with or without iMAR application, followed by polychromatic images using a weighting factor of 0.0 with or without iMAR application. @*Conclusion@#Polychromatic images combined with iMAR application, P-0.3i and P0.0i, provided better image qualities and substantial metal artifact reduction compared with other image sets.

20.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 624-633, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894696

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the reliability of CT measurements of muscle quantity and quality using variable CT parameters. @*Materials and Methods@#A phantom, simulating the L2–4 vertebral levels, was used for this study. CT images were repeatedly acquired with modulation of tube voltage, tube current, slice thickness, and the image reconstruction algorithm. Reference standard muscle compartments were obtained from the reference maps of the phantom. Cross-sectional area based on the Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds of muscle and its components, and the mean density of the reference standard muscle compartment, were used to measure the muscle quantity and quality using different CT protocols. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were calculated in the images acquired with different settings. @*Results@#The skeletal muscle area (threshold, -29 to 150 HU) was constant, regardless of the protocol, occupying at least 91.7% of the reference standard muscle compartment. Conversely, normal attenuation muscle area (30–150 HU) was not constant in the different protocols, varying between 59.7% and 81.7% of the reference standard muscle compartment. The mean density was lower than the target density stated by the manufacturer (45 HU) in all cases (range, 39.0–44.9 HU). The SNR decreased with low tube voltage, low tube current, and in sections with thin slices, whereas it increased when the iterative reconstruction algorithm was used. @*Conclusion@#Measurement of muscle quantity using HU threshold was reliable, regardless of the CT protocol used. Conversely, the measurement of muscle quality using the mean density and narrow HU thresholds were inconsistent and inaccurate across different CT protocols. Therefore, further studies are warranted in future to determine the optimal CT protocols for reliable measurements of muscle quality.

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