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1.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 684-692, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-976690

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We conducted a nationwide, multicenter, prospective registry study for newly diagnosed patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) to better define the clinical characteristics, treatment patterns, survival outcomes, and the role of upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in these patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Patients with PTCL receiving chemotherapy with curative intent were registered and prospectively monitored. All patients were pathologically diagnosed with PTCL. @*Results@#A total of 191 patients with PTCL were enrolled in this prospective registry study. PTCL, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) was the most common pathologic subtype (n=80, 41.9%), followed by angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) (n=60, 31.4%). With a median follow-up duration of 3.9 years, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 39.5% and 60.4%, respectively. The role of upfront ASCT was evaluated in patients who were considered transplant-eligible (n=59). ASCT was performed as an upfront consolidative treatment in 32 (54.2%) of these patients. There were no significant differences in PFS and OS between the ASCT and non-ASCT groups for all patients (n=59) and for patients with PTCL-NOS (n=26). However, in patients with AITL, the ASCT group was associated with significantly better PFS than the non-ASCT group, although there was no significant difference in OS. @*Conclusion@#The current study demonstrated that the survival outcomes with the current treatment options remain poor for patients with PTCL-NOS. Upfront ASCT may provide a survival benefit for patients with AITL, but not PTCL-NOS.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e48-2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915501

ABSTRACT

Poor graft function (PGF) is a serious, potentially life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Eltrombopag has shown multilineage responses in patients with refractory severe aplastic anemia, supporting the idea that it may improve cytopenia in patients with PGF. This retrospective, single center analysis included 8 Korean patients receiving eltrombopag for PGF. Median interval between transplant and eltrombopag treatment was 73 days, and the median duration treatment was 3.5 weeks.With median maximum daily dose of 50 mg, the time to best response was 93 days. Median hemoglobin increased from 8.2 g/dL to 10.9 g/dL, platelet from 18.5 × 109 /L to 54 × 109 /L, and absolute neutrophil count from 1.25 × 109 /L to 3.32 × 109 /L. In conclusion, eltrombopag is a good option for PGF in Korean patients, even at a lower dose compared to western patients.

3.
Blood Research ; : 20-28, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925647

ABSTRACT

Despite the availability of therapies to treat patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), there is currently little data from randomized trials to assist clinicians in managing patients. The evidence-based guidelines of the Korean Society of Hematology Aplastic Anemia Working Party (KSHAAWP) are intended to support patients and physicians in the management of ITP. Experts from the KSHAAWP discussed and described this guideline according to the current treatment situation for ITP in Korea and finalized the guidelines. The expert panel recommended the management of ITP in adult and pediatric patients with newly diagnosed, persistent, and chronic disease refractory to first-line therapy with minor bleeding. Management approaches include observation and administration of corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, anti-D immunoglobulin, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists. Currently, evidence supporting strong recommendations for various management approaches is lacking. Therefore, a large focus was placed on shared decision-making, especially regarding second-line treatment.

4.
Blood Research ; : S67-S74, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925626

ABSTRACT

The history of human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells (AMLSCs) began in a seminal study performed by Lapidot and Dick, proving that only CD34+CD38- human primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells can repopulate in severe combined immunodeficient mice. The concept of leukemic stem cells (LSCs) has impeded a huge change in the treatment strategy against AML from killing proliferating leukemic cells to eradicating quiescent/dormant LSCs. As next-generation sequencing technologies have developed, multiple and recurrent genetic mutations have been discovered in large cohorts of patients with AML, and the updated understanding of leukemogenesis has improved the old concept of LSC to a revised version of a serial developmental model of LSC; that is, pre-LSCs are generated as seeds by the first hit on epigenetic regulators, and then, leukemia-initiating LSCs emerge from seeds by the second hits on genes involved in transcription and signaling. Dreams for universal and targetable AMLSC biomarker sparing healthy hematopoietic stem cells have weakened after the confrontation of significant heterogeneity of AMLSCs from genomic and immunophenotypic viewpoints. However, there is still hope for effective targets for AMLSCs since there is evidence that grouped gene signatures, such as 17-gene LSC score, and common epigenetic signatures, such as HOXA clusters, independent of various gene mutations, exist. Recently, the LSC niche in the bone marrow has been actively investigated and has expanded our knowledge of the physiology and vulnerability of AMLSCs. Presently, an applicable treatment that always works in AMLSCs is lacking. However, we will find a way, we always have.

5.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 199-207, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967076

ABSTRACT

As a principal component of solar radiation, ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure can be harmful depending on the duration and intensity because the human body can easily be exposed to it. Many studies have demonstrated that UVB causes a series of inflammatory and other skin disorders. UVB has been classified as the Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Diverse studies have focused on UVB exposure but the complex perspective of acute and chronic UVB exposure is still lacking. This review presents the differences between acute and chronic exposure to UVB and summarizes public information in terms of toxicogenomic characteristics. We also demonstrated the differences between adverse effects of acute and chronic UVB exposure on the skin system. From the published literatures, we compared the biological pathways predict of the adverse effects caused by each UVB exposure type. Furthermore, our review not only clarifies the differences in each UVB exposure network but also suggests major hub genes related to cellular mechanisms and diseases that are thought to be affected by acute and chronic UVB exposure.

6.
Blood Research ; : 264-271, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966426

ABSTRACT

Background@#Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is the sole curative option for myelofibrosis (MF). However, it is unknown as to which of the two, myeloablative conditioning (MAC) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), is a better preconditioning regimen. @*Methods@#Twenty-five patients with MF were treated with alloSCT, 12 of whom underwent RIC.Baseline characteristics, response to alloSCT, adverse events, including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and survival outcomes were reviewed. @*Results@#There was no difference in the neutrophil engraftment rate and time to engraftment between MAC vs. RIC. The time to platelet engraftment was significantly longer in the MAC group (median, 112.8 vs. 28.8 days for MAC vs. RIC, respectively, P =0.049). RIC was more advantageous in terms of achieving complete chimerism (38.5% vs. 83.3%, P =0.041). The incidence of acute GVHD was 84.6% (11 of 13) and 58.3% (7 of 12) in the MAC and RIC groups, respectively. The cumulative incidence of grade III‒IV acute GVHD was significantly higher in the MAC group than in the RIC group (P =0.03). No significant differences were observed in progression-free and overall survival. The 17-month probability of progression-free survival was 38.4% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19.3‒76.5] vs. 47.6% (95% CI, 25.7‒88.2) (P =0.21), and that of overall survival was 53.8% (95% CI, 32.5‒89.1) vs. 48.6% (95% CI, 26.8‒88.3) (P =0.85) for MAC vs. RIC, respectively. @*Conclusion@#RIC offers a significant advantage over MAC, even in younger patients with MF undergoing alloSCT, in terms of cell engraftment, rate of complete chimerism achievement, and incidence of acute GVHD.

7.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 83-97, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899041

ABSTRACT

The exponential growth of nanotechnology and the industrial production have raised concerns over its impact on human and environmental health and safety (EHS). Although there has been substantial progress in the assessment of pristine nanoparticle toxicities, their EHS impacts require greater clarification. In this review, we discuss studies that have assessed nanoparticle eco-genotoxicity in different test systems and their fate in the environment as well as the considerable confounding factors that may complicate the results. We highlight key mechanisms of nanoparticle-mediated genotoxicity. Then we discuss the reliability of endpoint assays, such as the comet assay, the most favored assessment technique because of its versatility to measure low levels of DNA strand breakage, and the micronucleus assay, which is complementary to the former because of its greater ability to detect chromosomal DNA fragmentation. We also address the current recommendations on experimental design, including environmentally relevant concentrations and suitable exposure duration to avoid false-positive or -negative results. The genotoxicity of nanoparticles depends on their physicochemical features and the presence of co-pollutants. Thus, the effect of environmental processes (e.g., aggregation and agglomeration, adsorption, and transformation of nanoparticles) would account for when determining the actual genotoxicity relevant to environmental systems, and assay procedures must be standardized. Indeed, the engineered nanoparticles offer potential applications in different fields including biomedicine, environment, agriculture, and industry. Toxicological pathways and the potential risk factors related to genotoxic responses in biological organisms and environments need to be clarified before appropriate and sustainable applications of nanoparticles can be established.

8.
Journal of Cancer Prevention ; : 83-97, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891337

ABSTRACT

The exponential growth of nanotechnology and the industrial production have raised concerns over its impact on human and environmental health and safety (EHS). Although there has been substantial progress in the assessment of pristine nanoparticle toxicities, their EHS impacts require greater clarification. In this review, we discuss studies that have assessed nanoparticle eco-genotoxicity in different test systems and their fate in the environment as well as the considerable confounding factors that may complicate the results. We highlight key mechanisms of nanoparticle-mediated genotoxicity. Then we discuss the reliability of endpoint assays, such as the comet assay, the most favored assessment technique because of its versatility to measure low levels of DNA strand breakage, and the micronucleus assay, which is complementary to the former because of its greater ability to detect chromosomal DNA fragmentation. We also address the current recommendations on experimental design, including environmentally relevant concentrations and suitable exposure duration to avoid false-positive or -negative results. The genotoxicity of nanoparticles depends on their physicochemical features and the presence of co-pollutants. Thus, the effect of environmental processes (e.g., aggregation and agglomeration, adsorption, and transformation of nanoparticles) would account for when determining the actual genotoxicity relevant to environmental systems, and assay procedures must be standardized. Indeed, the engineered nanoparticles offer potential applications in different fields including biomedicine, environment, agriculture, and industry. Toxicological pathways and the potential risk factors related to genotoxic responses in biological organisms and environments need to be clarified before appropriate and sustainable applications of nanoparticles can be established.

9.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 401-412, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875471

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Understanding leukemic stem cell (LSC) is important for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treatment. However, association of LSC with patient prognosis and genetic information in AML patients is unclear. @*Methods@#Here we investigated the associations between genetic information and the various LSC phenotypes, namely multipotent progenitor (MPP)-like, lymphoid primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP)-like and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP)-like LSC in 52 AML patients. @*Results@#In secondary AML patients, MPP-like LSC was significantly higher than de novo AML (p = 0.0037). The proportion of MPP-like LSC was especially high in post-myeloproliferative neoplasm AML (p = 0.0485). There was no correlation between age and LSC phenotype. Mutations of KRAS and NRAS were observed in MPP-like LSC dominant patients, TP53 and ASXL1 mutations in LMPP-like LSC dominant patients, and CEBPA, DNMT3A and IDH1 mutations in GMP-like LSC dominant patients. Furthermore, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with MPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0540), and TP53 mutation with LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0276). When the patients were separated according to the combined risk including next generation sequencing data, the poorer the prognosis, the higher the LMPP-like LSC expression (p = 0.0052). This suggests that the dominant phenotype of LSC is one of the important factors in predicting the prognosis and treatment of AML. @*Conclusions@#LSC phenotype in AML is closely associated with the recurrent mutations which has prognostic implication. Further research to confirm the meaning of LSC phenotype in the context of genetic aberration is warranted.

10.
Blood Research ; : 27-34, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-820806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although T-cell-replete hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from haploidentical donors (HIDs) using anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) has shown promising outcomes, previous studies often adopted heterogenous graft sources and conditioning.METHODS: We retrospectively compared HCT outcomes from 62 HIDs, 36 partially-matched unrelated donors (PUDs), and 55 matched unrelated donors (MUDs) in patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome using the same graft source of peripheral blood and a reduced intensity conditioning of busulfan, fludarabine, and ATG.RESULTS: The estimates of 3-yr disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were not significantly different among the MUD, HID, and PUD groups, at 46%, “41%, and 36%” for the DFS rate (P=0.844), and 55%, 45%, and 45% for the OS rate (P=0.802), respectively. Cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality at 3 yr was similar among different donor types. Subsequent multivariable analyses showed that the sex of the patient (male) and a high/very high disease risk index were independently associated with poorer DFS and OS, while the donor type was not.CONCLUSION: T-cell replete HCT from HIDs using an ATG-containing reduced intensity conditioning regimen may be a reasonable option in the absence of matched related donors in patients with acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antilymphocyte Serum , Busulfan , Cell Transplantation , Disease-Free Survival , Incidence , Leukemia , Mortality , Myelodysplastic Syndromes , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes , Tissue Donors , Transplants , Unrelated Donors
11.
Journal of Clinical Neurology ; : 581-585, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833673

ABSTRACT

Background@#and Purpose: The main difficulty when diagnosing leptomeningeal metastases (LMSs) is the low sensitivity of cytology. Cancer cells release cell-free DNA (cfDNA) during proliferation and apoptosis, and so we analyzed the cfDNA level as a biomarker for LMSs in hematologic malignancy. @*Methods@#This study prospectively enrolled 20 patients with hematologic malignancy who underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. LMS was diagnosed based on both CSF cytology and clinical findings. @*Results@#The CSF level of cfDNA was higher in patients with LMSs (108.17±84.84 ng/mL, mean±standard deviation) than in non-LMS patients (14.23±2.78 ng/mL). The sensitivity of cfDNA was higher than that of cytology (100% vs. 87%). @*Conclusions@#The cfDNA level in the CSF can be used as a supplemental marker for diagnosing LMS in hematologic malignancy patients.

12.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1188-1198, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831914

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A link between oral cavity infections and chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (CIOM) in patients with hematological malignancies (HMs) undergoing intensive chemotherapy (IC) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been suggested. However, conclusive data are lacking, and there are no current guidelines for the prophylactic use of antimicrobials to prevent CIOM in these populations. @*Methods@#The relationships between herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation and Candida colonization in the oral cavity and CIOM in patients with HMs undergoing IC or HSCT were evaluated. Patients aged ≥ 19 years with HMs undergoing IC or HSCT were enrolled. Each patient was evaluated for HSV and Candida in the oral cavity along with CIOM at baseline and during the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks. @*Results@#Seventy presentations among 56 patients were analyzed. CIOM was observed in 23 presentations (32.9%), with a higher incidence associated with HSCT (17 of 35 presentations, 48.6%) than with IC (six of 35 presentations, 8.6%). The reactivation of HSV-1 was significantly associated with an increased incidence of CIOM after adjusting for age, sex, type of disease, and treatment stage. A higher HSV-1 viral load was associated with an increased incidence of CIOM. The presence of Candida was not associated with CIOM. @*Conclusions@#HSV-1 reactivation in the oral cavity was highly associated with CIOM in patients with HMs undergoing high-dose chemotherapy.

13.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 457-464, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831828

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is caused by genetic and epigenetic alteration of hematopoietic precursors and immune dysregulation. Approximately 20% of patients with MDS develop an autoimmune disease (AID). Here, we investigated whether particular genetic mutations are associated with AID in patients with MDS. @*Methods@#Eighty-eight genetic mutations associated with myeloid malignancy were sequenced in 73 MDS patients. The association between these mutations and AID was then analyzed. @*Results@#The median age of the 73 MDS patients was 70 years (interquartile range, 56 to 75), and 49 (67.1%) were male. AID was observed in 16 of 73 patients (21.9%). Mutations were detected in 57 (78.1%) patients. The percentage (68.8% vs. 80.7%, p = 0.32) and the mean number of mutations (1.8 ± 1.6 vs. 2.2 ± 1.8, p = 0.34) in MDS patients with or without AID were similar. However, the ten-eleven translocation- 2 (TET2) mutation rate was significantly higher in patients with AID than in those without (31.3% vs. 5.3%, respectively; p = 0.001). All TET2 mutations were variants of strong clinical significance. @*Conclusions@#Mutation of TET2 in patients with MDS may be associated with increased risk of developing AID.

14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 178-183, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate and select microRNAs relevant to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathogenesis, we analyzed differential microRNA expression by quantitative small RNA next-generation sequencing using duplicate marrow samples from individual AML patients. METHODS: For this study, we obtained paired marrow samples at two different time points (initial diagnosis and first complete remission status) in patients with AML. Bone marrow microRNAs were profiled by next-generation small RNA sequencing. Quantification of microRNA expression was performed by counting aligned reads to microRNA genes. RESULTS: Among 38 samples (32 paired samples from 16 AML patients and 6 normal marrow controls), 27 were eligible for sequencing. Small RNA sequencing showed that 12 microRNAs were selectively expressed at higher levels in AML patients than in normal controls. Among these 12 microRNAs, mir-181, mir-221, and mir-3154 were more highly expressed at initial AML diagnosis as compared to first complete remission. Significant correlations were found between higher expression levels of mir-221, mir-146, and mir-155 and higher marrow blast counts. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that mir-221 and mir-181 are selectively enriched in AML marrow and reflect disease activity. mir-3154 is a novel microRNA that is relevant to AML but needs further validation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bone Marrow , Diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , MicroRNAs , RNA , Sequence Analysis, RNA
16.
Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives ; (6): 133-139, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715250

ABSTRACT

The Second Meeting of the National Control Laboratories for Vaccines and Biologicals in the Western Pacific, was jointly organized by the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation of the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in the Republic of Korea, and by the World Health Organization Regional Office for the Western Pacific. In the National Lot Release Systems session countries including Canada, China, Japan, Malaysia, Vietnam, and the Republic of Korea, all shared information on their current Lot Release Systems, including current practices and developments in risk-based official lot release of vaccines. In the session on Quality Control of Blood Products, experts from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control shared quality control and research results for; blood coagulation factor VIII products, and the measurement of procoagulant activity in immunoglobulin products. Representatives from Japan proposed a regional collaborative study to test aggregated immunoglobulin free from complement activity. A cell-based Japanese encephalitis vaccine potency assay was proposed by representatives from Korea and they also called for voluntary participation of other National Control Laboratories in a collaborative study, on the first Korean Gloydius anti-venom standard. Participants agreed in general to continue communicating, and coordinate presentation of the study results.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Factors , Canada , China , Complement System Proteins , Encephalitis, Japanese , Factor VIII , Immunoglobulins , Japan , Korea , Malaysia , Quality Control , Republic of Korea , Vaccine Potency , Vaccines , Vietnam , World Health Organization
17.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 1252-1259, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717743

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signals are important in carcinogenesis and progression of prostate cancer. Dovitinib is an oral, pan-class inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor, and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR). We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of dovitinib in men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a single-arm, phase II, open-label, multicenter trial of dovitinib 500 mg/day (5-days-on/2-days-off schedule). The primary endpoint was 16-week progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), toxicity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate. Biomarker analyses for VEGFR2, FGF23, and FGFR2 using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed. RESULTS: Forty-four men were accrued from 11 hospitals. Eighty percent were post-docetaxel. Median PSA was 100 ng/dL, median age was 69, 82% had bone metastases, and 23% had liver metastases. Median cycles of dovitinib was 2 (range, 0 to 33). Median PFS was 3.67 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36 to 5.98) and median OS was 13.70 months (95% CI, 0 to 27.41). Chemotherapy-naïve patients had longer PFS (17.90 months; 95% CI, 9.23 to 28.57) compared with docetaxel-treated patients (2.07 months; 95% CI, 1.73 to 2.41; p=0.001) and the patients with high serum VEGFR2 level over median level (7,800 pg/mL) showed longer PFS compared with others (6.03 months [95% CI, 4.26 to 7.80] vs. 1.97 months [95% CI, 1.79 to 2.15], p=0.023). Grade 3 related adverse events were seen in 40.9% of patients. Grade 1-2 nausea, diarrhea, fatigue, anorexia, and all grade thrombocytopenia are common. CONCLUSION: Dovitinib showed modest antitumor activity with manageable toxicities in men with mCRPC. Especially, patients who were chemo-naïve benefitted from dovitinib.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Anorexia , Biomarkers , Carcinogenesis , Castration , Diarrhea , Disease-Free Survival , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Fatigue , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Liver , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Nausea , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostate , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Prostatic Neoplasms , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant , Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor , Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor , Thrombocytopenia
18.
Blood Research ; : 254-263, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21833

ABSTRACT

Management options for patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) have evolved substantially over the past decades. The American Society of Hematology published a treatment guideline for clinicians referring to the management of ITP in 2011. This evidence-based practice guideline for ITP enables the appropriate treatment of a larger proportion of patients and the maintenance of normal platelet counts. Korean authority operates a unified mandatory national health insurance system. Even though we have a uniform standard guideline enforced by insurance reimbursement, there are several unsolved issues in real practice in ITP treatment. To optimize the management of Korean ITP patients, the Korean Society of Hematology Aplastic Anemia Working Party (KSHAAWP) reviewed the consensus and the Korean data on the clinical practices of ITP therapy. Here, we report a Korean expert recommendation guide for the management of ITP.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anemia, Aplastic , Clothing , Consensus , Evidence-Based Practice , Hematology , Insurance , National Health Programs , Platelet Count , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic
19.
Blood Research ; : 300-306, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the outcomes of serum galactomannan (GM) assay for the screening of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) recipients while on primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP). METHODS: This study included patients with hematologic disorders who underwent alloHSCT from January 2013 to November 2015. Patients received routine PAP with fluconazole before 2014 and micafungin after 2014; serum GM tests were performed and retrospectively analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of serum GM tests for detection of probable/proven IPA were evaluated. The serial change of serum GM levels was illustrated on a time series plot. RESULTS: A total of 136 alloHSCT recipients at Seoul National University Hospital were included in the study. Fluconazole was administered in 72 patients for PAP, while micafungin was administered in the remaining 64 patients. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and NPV of serum GM assays were 95.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.9–99.9%), 93.8% (95% CI 91.7–95.5%), and 99.8% (95% CI 99.1–100.0%), respectively. However, the PPV of GM tests was relatively low at 35.4% (95% CI 23.9–48.2%). The serial change in serum GM levels differed according to the antifungal agents used. With effective PAP using micafungin, serial serum GM levels showed zero order kinetics during the neutropenic period. CONCLUSION: Although the serum GM assay is a sensitive and specific test for detecting IPA in alloHSCT recipients, its role for routine surveillance in an era of effective PAP with micafungin is limited.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antifungal Agents , Fluconazole , Hematology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Kinetics , Mass Screening , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seoul , Stem Cell Transplantation , Stem Cells
20.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 28-36, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-169455

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: CKD-516 is a newly developed vascular disrupting agent. This phase I dose-escalation study of CKD-516 was conducted to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor efficacy in patients with advanced solid tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients received CKD-516 intravenously on D1 and D8 every 3 weeks, in a standard 3+3 design. Safety was evaluated by National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 4.02 and response was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor ver. 1.1. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients were treated with CKD-516 at seven dosing levels: 1 mg/m2/day (n=3), 2 mg/m2/day (n=3), 3.3 mg/m2/day (n=3), 5 mg/m2/day (n=3), 7 mg/m2/day (n=3), 9 mg/m2/day (n=6), and 12 mg/m2/day (n=2). Mean age was 54 and 56.5% of patients were male. Two dose-limiting toxicities, which were both grade 3 hypertension, were observed in two patients at 12 mg/m2/day. The MTD was determined as 12 mg/m2/day. Most common adverse events were gastrointestinal adverse events (diarrhea, 34.8% [30.4% grade 1/2, 13.0% grade 3]; nausea, 21.7% [all grade 1/2]; vomiting, 21.7% [all grade 1/2]), myalgia (17.4%, all grade 1/2), and abdominal pain (21.7% [21.7% grade 1/2, 4.3% grade 3]). The pharmacokinetic study showed the dose-linearity of all dosing levels. Among 23 patients, six patients (26.1%) showed stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 39 days (95% confidence interval, 37 to 41 days). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates feasibility of CKD-516, novel vascular disrupting agent, in patients with advanced solid tumor. MTD of CKD-516 was defined as 12 mg/m2/day on D1 and D8 every 3 weeks.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Abdominal Pain , Disease-Free Survival , Hypertension , Myalgia , Nausea , Pharmacokinetics , Vomiting
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