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1.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 340-344, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902764

ABSTRACT

A new chromone analogue (1) was isolated from an EtOAc-extract of Pleosporales sp. culture medium, together with five known chromones (2 – 6). The isolation workflow was guided by a Molecular Networking-based dereplication strategy. The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated using NMR and MS spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration was established by the Mosher's method. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitirc oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compound 1 showed marginal inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 118.7 μM.

2.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 340-344, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895060

ABSTRACT

A new chromone analogue (1) was isolated from an EtOAc-extract of Pleosporales sp. culture medium, together with five known chromones (2 – 6). The isolation workflow was guided by a Molecular Networking-based dereplication strategy. The chemical structure of the new compound was elucidated using NMR and MS spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration was established by the Mosher's method. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitirc oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compound 1 showed marginal inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 118.7 μM.

3.
Immune Network ; : e17-2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835443

ABSTRACT

We investigated effects of reblastatins on phenotypic changes in monocytes/macrophages induced by 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol). Treatment of THP-1 monocytic cells with reblastatin derivatives, such as 17-demethoxy-reblastatin (17-DR), 18-dehydroxyl-17-demethoxyreblastatin (WK88-1), 18-hydroxyl-17-demethoxyreblastatin (WK88-2), and 18-hydroxyl-17-demethoxy-4,5-dehydroreblastatin (WK88-3), resulted in blockage of CCL2, CCL3, and CCL4 expression at the transcription and protein levels, which, in turn, impaired migration of monocytes/macrophages and Jurkat T cells expressing CCR5, and almost complete inhibition of transcription of M1 marker cytokines, like CXCL10, CXCL11, and TNF-α. Reblastatins also downregulated surface CD14 as well as soluble CD14 along with inhibition of LPS response and matrix metalloprotease-9 expression. Surface levels of mature dendritic cell (mDC)-specific markers, including CD80, CD83, CD88, CD197, and MHC class I and II molecules, were remarkably down-regulated, and 27OHChol-induced decrease of endocytic activity was recovered following treatment with 17-DR, WK88-1, WK88-2, and WK88-3. However, 15-hydroxyl-17-demethoxyreblastatin (DHQ3) did not affect the molecular or functional changes in monocytic cells induced by 27OHChol. Furthermore, surface levels of CD105, CD137, and CD166 were also down-regulated by 17-DR, WK88-1, WK88-2, and WK88-3, but not by DHQ3. Collectively, results of the current study indicate that, except DHQ3, reblastatins regulate the conversion and differentiation of monocytic cells to an immunostimulatory phenotype and mDCs, respectively, which suggests possible applications of reblastatins for immunomodulation in a milieu rich in oxygenated cholesterol molecules.

4.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 222-227, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760569

ABSTRACT

Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) is a well-established method adopted by international pharmacopoeia for quantitative and purity analyses. Emodin is a type of anthraquinone, well known as the main active component of Fabaceae, Polygonaceae and Rhamnaceae. Purity analysis of emodin is usually performed by using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. However, it cannot detect impurities such as salts, volatile matter, and trace elements. Using the qNMR method, it is possible to determine the compound content as well as the nature of the impurities. Several experimental parameters were optimized for the quantification, such as relaxation delay, spectral width, number of scans, temperature, pulse width, and acquisition time. The method was validated, and the results of the qNMR method were compared with those obtained by the HPLC and mass balance analysis methods. The qNMR method is specific, rapid, simple, and therefore, a valuable and reliable method for the purity analysis of emodin.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Emodin , Fabaceae , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Methods , Polygonaceae , Relaxation , Rhamnaceae , Salts , Spectrum Analysis , Trace Elements
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758919

ABSTRACT

Microorganisms play important roles in obesity; however, the role of the gut microbiomes in obesity is controversial because of the inconsistent findings. This study investigated the gut microbiome communities in obese and lean groups of captive healthy cynomolgus monkeys reared under strict identical environmental conditions, including their diet. No significant differences in the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Prevotella were observed between the obese and lean groups, but a significant difference in Spirochetes (p < 0.05) was noted. Microbial diversity and richness were similar, but highly variable results in microbial composition, diversity, and richness were observed in individuals, irrespective of their state of obesity. Distinct clustering between the groups was not observed by principal coordinate analysis using an unweighted pair group method. Higher sharedness values (95.81% ± 2.28% at the genus level, and 79.54% ± 5.88% at the species level) were identified among individual monkeys. This paper reports the association between the gut microbiome and obesity in captive non-human primate models reared under controlled environments. The relative proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as well as the microbial diversity known to affect obesity were similar in the obese and lean groups of monkeys reared under identical conditions. Therefore, obesity-associated microbial changes reported previously appear to be associated directly with environmental factors, particularly diet, rather than obesity.


Subject(s)
Bacteroidetes , Diet , Environment, Controlled , Firmicutes , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Haplorhini , Macaca fascicularis , Methods , Microbiota , Obesity , Prevotella , Primates , Spirochaetales
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728309

ABSTRACT

Busulfan is an antineoplastic agent with a narrow therapeutic window. A post-hoc population pharmacokinetic analysis of a prospective randomized trial for comparison of four-times daily versus once-daily intravenous busulfan was carried out to search for predictive factors of intravenous busulfan (iBu) pharmacokinetics (PK). In this study the population PK of iBu was characterized to provide suitable dosing recommendations. Patients were randomized to receive iBu, either as 0.8 mg/kg every 6 h or 3.2 mg/kg daily over 4 days prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In total, 295 busulfan concentrations were analyzed with NONMEM. Actual body weight and sex were significant covariates affecting the PK of iBu. Sixty patients were included in the study (all Korean; 23 women, 37 men; mean [SD] age, 36.5 [10.9] years; weight, 66.5 [11.3] kg). Population estimates for a typical patient weighing 65 kg were: clearance (CL) 7.6 l/h and volume of distribution (Vd) 32.2 l for men and 29.1 L for women. Inter-individual random variabilities of CL and Vd were 16% and 9%. Based on a CL estimate from the final PK model, a simple dosage scheme to achieve the target AUC0-inf (defined as median AUC0-inf with a once-daily dosage) of 26.18 mg/lxhr, was proposed: 24.79xABW0.5 mg q24h, where ABW represents the actual body weight in kilograms. The dosing scheme reduced the unexplained interindividual variabilities of CL and Vd of iBu with ABW being a significant covariate affecting clearance of iBU. We propose a new simple dosing scheme for iBu based only on ABW.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Busulfan , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-53831

ABSTRACT

Disappearance of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) in chronic hepatitis B usually indicates clearance of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, false HBsAg negativity with mutations in pre-S2 and 'a' determinant has been reported. It is also known that YMDD mutations decrease the production of HBV and escape detection of serum HBsAg. Here, we report overlapping gene mutations in a patient with HBsAg loss during the lamivudine therapy. After 36 months of lamivudine therapy in a 44-yrold Korean chronic hepatitis B patient, serum HBsAg turned negative while HBV DNA remained positive by a DNA probe method. Nucleotide sequence of serum HBV DNA was compared with the HBV genotype C subtype adr registered in NCBI AF 286594. Deletion of nucleotides 23 to 55 (amino acids 12 to 22) was identified in the pre-S2 region. Sequencing of the 'a' determinant revealed amino acid substitutions as I126S, T131N, M133T, and S136Y. Methionine of rtM204 in the P gene was substituted for isoleucine indicating YIDD mutation (rtM204I). We identified a HBV mutant composed of pre-S2 deletions and 'a' determinant substitutions with YMDD mutation. Our result suggests that false HBsAg negativity can be induced by combination of overlapping gene mutations during the lamivudine therapy.


Subject(s)
Adult , Amino Acid Sequence , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Base Sequence , Comparative Study , DNA Mutational Analysis , DNA, Viral/blood , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , Gene Deletion , Genes, Overlapping/genetics , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B, Chronic/blood , Humans , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Male , Molecular Sequence Data , Mutation , Protein Precursors/genetics , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Viral Proteins/genetics
8.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Diagnostic or thepapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the mainstream for the pancreaticobiliary disease. However, the ERCP related complications are serious and sometimes fatal to the patients. We have reviewed our experiences of the operative management for the ERCP injury. METHODS: Medical records of 13 patients who underwent laparotomic surgical intervention for various ERCP injuries from March 1996 to August 2002 at Department of Surgery, the Catholic University of Korea were reviewed. RESULTS: The age range of the patients was from 28 to 85 years. There were 5 females and 8 males. 6 patients showed the duodenal perforations and 4 patients suffered from bleedings around the ampulla of Vater. One of the 4 bleeding patients had huge expanding submucosal hematomas throughout the entire duodenum. We found massive retroperitoneal extraluminal air density in one patient but we could not find any leakage of the contrast media during the upper gastrointestinal series, however, this patient complained aggravated peritoneal irritation sign, so we explored the abdomen. Most of the patients had free abdominal or retroperitoneal air shadows (n=7) on plain chest or abdominal X-ray. We diagnosed the uncontrolled bleeding from the sphincterotomy site using the gastroduodenal fiberscopes in 3 patients. On the computed tomogaphic images, one patient showed a huge duodenal hematoma, another one had a retroperitoneal fluid collection and another one revealed a retroperitoneal air shadow. One patient showed aggravated pancreatitis on the serial CT scan and finally the patient developed a hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis, then we explored the abdomen and tried peripancreatic drainage but we lost the patient in 19 postoperative day due to sepsis. The other 12 patients survived by the various surgical procedures. For the 6 patients, we performed duodenotomic sphincteroplasty, tube duodenostomy and biliary drainage with T-tube. One patient survived with Whipple's procedure, one patient improved by the pyloric exclusion and one patient cured with the duodenal diverticulization. Other procedures were primary repair of the duodenum, transduodenal sphincteroplasty and just cholecystectomy and T-tube choledochostomy. CONCLUSION: There was tendency to uneventful improvement of patients by the early detection and urgent laparotomic surgical intervention of the ERCP complication.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Ampulla of Vater , Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde , Cholecystectomy , Choledochostomy , Contrast Media , Drainage , Duodenostomy , Duodenum , Female , Hematoma , Hemorrhage , Humans , Korea , Male , Medical Records , Pancreatitis , Sepsis , Sphincterotomy, Transduodenal , Thorax , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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