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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925998

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#This study aimed to identify central symptoms of depression in elderly cognitive disorder patients through network analysis. @*Methods@#A total of 222 participants, 61 male and 104 female suffering from a cognitive disorder, participated in the dementia screening test and were given Mini-Mental Status Examination in the Korean Version of the CERAD Assessment Packet or Mini-Mental Status Examination for Dementia Screening and Korean Form of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-K) at a public health center in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. This study used network analysis to identify the centrality in the symptom network of depression among elderly cognitive disorder patients. @*Results@#Among 30 nodes included in our network analysis, 435 edges were available, and 50 edges had a meaningful relationship. According to the centrality results of the study, we found that GDS-K item 16, “Do you feel depressed and discouraged?” item 3, “Do you feel like you’re living in vain?” and item 15, “Do you enjoy being alive?” were the key symptoms. Also, there was a difference in symptom correlations between cognitive disorder patients and normal participants. @*Conclusion@#The results suggest that depressive mood, discouragement, worthlessness and loss of pleasure should be the priority intervention goals in intervening in depressive symptoms of the elderly with cognitive disabilities.

2.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 92-99, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891317

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Palpability is known to be a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer. The present study analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of palpable and nonpalpable breast cancers using big data. @*Methods@#Between January 2005 and May 2019, a total of 15,141 patients were enrolled. All patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas. Patients with unclear medical records, multiple tumors, bilateral breast cancers, inflammatory breast cancers, inoperable breast cancers and distant metastasis were excluded. Patients were divided into the palpable and nonpalpable breast cancer groups based on physicians’ clinical examinations. The clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survivals (DSS) were analyzed. @*Results@#Patients with palpable breast cancers were younger, had larger tumors, and higher tumor-node-metastasis stage (p<0.001) than patients with nonpalpable breast cancers. Palpable breast cancer cases had higher rates of lympho-vascular invasion, higher histologic and nuclear grades than nonpalpable breast cancer cases (p<0.001). The positive proportion of hormone receptor was higher in the nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the palpable breast cancer group, but that of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). The Ki-67 index was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Total mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group. However, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were performed more frequently in nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). According to a multivariate analysis, younger age, lower body mass index, larger tumor size, tumor location, higher stage, higher histologic grade and higher Ki-67 index were associated with palpability (p<0.001). DSS was significantly lower in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Palpable breast cancers tend to be triple negative breast cancers and have higher histologic grade and, Ki-67 index and worse prognosis than nonpalpable breast cancers. Therefore, based on the results of the present study, treating palpable breast cancers requires careful attention.

3.
Journal of Breast Disease ; (2): 92-99, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899021

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Palpability is known to be a poor prognostic factor for breast cancer. The present study analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of palpable and nonpalpable breast cancers using big data. @*Methods@#Between January 2005 and May 2019, a total of 15,141 patients were enrolled. All patients were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinomas. Patients with unclear medical records, multiple tumors, bilateral breast cancers, inflammatory breast cancers, inoperable breast cancers and distant metastasis were excluded. Patients were divided into the palpable and nonpalpable breast cancer groups based on physicians’ clinical examinations. The clinicopathological characteristics and disease-specific survivals (DSS) were analyzed. @*Results@#Patients with palpable breast cancers were younger, had larger tumors, and higher tumor-node-metastasis stage (p<0.001) than patients with nonpalpable breast cancers. Palpable breast cancer cases had higher rates of lympho-vascular invasion, higher histologic and nuclear grades than nonpalpable breast cancer cases (p<0.001). The positive proportion of hormone receptor was higher in the nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the palpable breast cancer group, but that of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). The Ki-67 index was higher in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Total mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered more frequently in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group. However, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy were performed more frequently in nonpalpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). According to a multivariate analysis, younger age, lower body mass index, larger tumor size, tumor location, higher stage, higher histologic grade and higher Ki-67 index were associated with palpability (p<0.001). DSS was significantly lower in the palpable breast cancer group than in the nonpalpable breast cancer group (p<0.001). @*Conclusion@#Palpable breast cancers tend to be triple negative breast cancers and have higher histologic grade and, Ki-67 index and worse prognosis than nonpalpable breast cancers. Therefore, based on the results of the present study, treating palpable breast cancers requires careful attention.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-896969

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard axillary procedure in early breast cancer patients. In a randomized trial, the survival rates were not different when axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was omitted in patients with 1 or 2 lymph node metastases who underwent breast conserving surgery. This study aimed to compare the outcomes in patients who underwent total mastectomy (TM) with 1 or 2 metastatic nodes according to the types of axillary surgery. @*Methods@#In total, 79,058 patients registered in the Korean Breast Cancer Society database who underwent TM were included in the analysis. The inclusion criteria were history of TM and SLNB, pathologic T stage 1 or 2, clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes, no radiation therapy, and no neoadjuvant therapy. We divided the patients into the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups. The groups were matched by propensity scores. We retrospectively analyzed the differences in the overall survival (OS) between the 2 groups. @*Results@#A total of 883 patients were matched in a 1:4 ratio for the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups in the cohort from 1999 to 2014. There were no significant differences in OS between the 2 groups (P = 0.413). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant survival benefit in the SLNB + ALND group in the T2 subgroup (P = 0.013). @*Conclusion@#OS did not differ between the 2 groups in early breast cancer patients with 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes who underwent TM. Omission of ALND may be considered in selected patients.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-889265

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard axillary procedure in early breast cancer patients. In a randomized trial, the survival rates were not different when axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was omitted in patients with 1 or 2 lymph node metastases who underwent breast conserving surgery. This study aimed to compare the outcomes in patients who underwent total mastectomy (TM) with 1 or 2 metastatic nodes according to the types of axillary surgery. @*Methods@#In total, 79,058 patients registered in the Korean Breast Cancer Society database who underwent TM were included in the analysis. The inclusion criteria were history of TM and SLNB, pathologic T stage 1 or 2, clinically negative axillary lymph nodes, 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes, no radiation therapy, and no neoadjuvant therapy. We divided the patients into the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups. The groups were matched by propensity scores. We retrospectively analyzed the differences in the overall survival (OS) between the 2 groups. @*Results@#A total of 883 patients were matched in a 1:4 ratio for the SLNB only and SLNB + ALND groups in the cohort from 1999 to 2014. There were no significant differences in OS between the 2 groups (P = 0.413). Subgroup analysis revealed a significant survival benefit in the SLNB + ALND group in the T2 subgroup (P = 0.013). @*Conclusion@#OS did not differ between the 2 groups in early breast cancer patients with 1 or 2 metastatic axillary lymph nodes who underwent TM. Omission of ALND may be considered in selected patients.

6.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-183277

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) has very excellent prognosis, lymph node metastases are found frequently. This study identifies the risk factors of clinically negative cervical lymph node metastasis (cN0) and investigates the need for central lymph node dissection in cN0 PTMC. METHODS: From Jan. 1(st) 2007 to Dec. 30(th) 2013, 1593 patients received surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Seven hundred and eleven patients were diagnosed with cN0 PTMCs. They all received thyroidectomy (total thyroidectomy or lobectomy) with prophylactic central neck dissection. We reviewed the medical records and analyzed the risk factors affecting central lymph node metastasis (CLNM). RESULTS: Of 711 PTMCs patients without clinical lymph node metastasis, 170 (23.9%) patients had CLNM. CLNM was frequent in males than females (P<0.001). The larger the primary tumor, the higher the risk of CLNM (P<0.001). Extra-thyroidal extension was an independent risk factor of CLNM (P<0.001). Recurrence rates in the CLNM negative group was 1.3%, and in the CLNM positive group 2.4%. The CLNM positive group recurred at a slightly higher rate, but not statistically significantly (P=0.329). Five year disease free survival in the CLNM negative was 96.8%, and in the positive group 94.1%, not a statistically significant (P=0.630). CONCLUSION: In this study, male gender, the size of primary tumor, and extra-thyroidal extension were the risk factors of occult LNM but occult LNM in PTMC was not associated with recurrence rate or five-year disease free survivals. Therefore, we can omit prophylactic central lymph node dissection in patient with cN0 PTMC.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Lymph Node Excision , Lymph Nodes , Male , Medical Records , Neck Dissection , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-222302

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thyroid papillary carcinoma is the most common endocrine tumor. There are many known factors affecting the pathophysiology of papillary carcinomas. In this study, we attempted to determine the clinical characteristics of papillary carcinomas with other benign pathologies. METHODS: From May 2007 to December 2012, a total of 994 patients underwent thyroidectomy and were diagnosed as papillary carcinomas. Retrospective study was performed using medical records. We categorized them according to five groups depending on associated benign disease, Papillary carcinoma with Graves disease (Group 1), Multinodular goiter (Group 2), Hashimoto thyroiditis (Group 3), Multinodular goiter and Hashimoto thyroiditis (Group 4), and Papillary carcinoma only (Group 5), and we performed a comparison analysis. RESULTS: T and N stage of group 2 were lower than those of group 5 and T stage of group 3 was lower than that of group 4. T and N stage of group 4 were lower than those of group 5 and extrathyroidal extension rate of group 4 was lower than that of group 5. CONCLUSION: Papillary carcinomas have variable clinical characteristics according to underlying benign thyroid disease. Conduct of advanced research regarding the mechanisms of the effect of benign thyroid disease on papillary carcinomas is needed.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Papillary , Goiter , Graves Disease , Hashimoto Disease , Humans , Medical Records , Pathology , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroidectomy
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211944

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) measurement is the most sensitive screening test for thyroid dysfunction. TSH is a well-known thyroid growth factor but its pathogenic role in thyroid oncogenesis remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between clinicopathologic characteristics of nonfunctioning thyroid nodules and preoperative TSH serum concentrations. METHODS: Serum TSH concentrations can be affected by many factors. After exclusion of these confounding factors, a total of 126 patients who underwent thyroidectomy from Januray 2009 to December 2010 were included in this study. Average age was 45.4 +/- 10.6 years and male:female ratio was 1:2.9. There were 11 patients with benign nodules, 34 patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) of less than 5 mm in maximal diameter, 66 patients with PTMCs of more than 5 mm but not more than 10 mm in maximal diameter, and 15 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) of more than 10 mm in maximal diameter. RESULTS: TNM stages of PTCs correlated with higher preoperative TSH serum concentrations. There were trends of higher preoperative TSH serum concentrations in patients who had extrathyroidal extension (P = 0.059) and advanced N stages (P = 0.120) but did not reach statistical significance. Patients' age, sex, and tumor volume did not seem to affect preoperative TSH serum concentrations significantly. CONCLUSION: In patients who have PTCs without clinical, immunological, or ultrasonographic evidence of thyroiditis, higher preoperative TSH serum concentrations within the normal range might suggest advanced TNM stages.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma , Carcinoma, Papillary , Cell Transformation, Neoplastic , Factor IX , Humans , Mass Screening , Reference Values , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroid Nodule , Thyroidectomy , Thyroiditis , Thyrotropin , Tumor Burden
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728178

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of micellar systems on the absorption of beta-lapachone (b-lap) through different intestinal segments using a single-pass rat intestinal perfusion technique. B-lap was solubilized in mixed micelles composed of phosphatidylcholine and sodium deoxycholate, and in sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-based conventional micelles. Both mixed micelles and SLS micelles improved the in situ permeability of b-lap in all intestinal segments tested although the mixed micellar formulation was more effective in increasing the intestinal absorption of b-lap. The permeability of b-lap was greatest in the large intestinal segments. Compared with SLS micelles, the effective permeability coefficient values measured with mixed micelles were 5- to 23-fold higher depending on the intestinal segment. Our data suggest that b-lap should be delivered to the large intestine using a mixed micellar system for improved absorption.


Subject(s)
Absorption , Animals , Deoxycholic Acid , Intestinal Absorption , Intestine, Large , Mice , Micelles , Naphthoquinones , Perfusion , Permeability , Phosphatidylcholines , Rats , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728099

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to establish the method of measurement of hydrogen peroxide and to estimate the anti-oxidative effect of genistein in the skin. UVB induced skin oxidation and anti-oxidative effect of genistein formulations were evaluated by determining levels of hydrogen peroxide. The mechanism involved in the determination of hydrogen peroxide is based on a color reaction between ferric ion (Fe3+) and xylenol orange, often called FOX assay and subsequent monitoring of absorbance values of the reactant at 540 nm. The reaction was to some extent pH-dependent and detection sensitivity was greatest at pH 1.75. Genistein liposomal gel demonstrated better anti-oxidative effect with regard to lowering hydrogen peroxide levels elevated by UVB irradiation compared to genistein-suspended gel. A linear relationship has been observed between anti-oxidative effect of genistein and drug deposition in the skin tissue. Genistein liposomal gel resulting in the localization of the drug in the deeper skin led to improved anti-oxidative effect compared to genistein gel. The suggested method for evaluation of oxidation of the skin can be used as a tool to screen effective anti-oxidative agents and their delivery systems acting on the skin.


Subject(s)
Citrus sinensis , Genistein , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Phenols , Skin , Sulfoxides
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