Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
Add filters








Language
Year range
1.
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal ; : 653-667, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000285

ABSTRACT

Background@#CycloZ, a combination of cyclo-His-Pro and zinc, has anti-diabetic activity. However, its exact mode of action remains to be elucidated. @*Methods@#KK-Ay mice, a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model, were administered CycloZ either as a preventive intervention, or as a therapy. Glycemic control was evaluated using the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Liver and visceral adipose tissues (VATs) were used for histological evaluation, gene expression analysis, and protein expression analysis. @*Results@#CycloZ administration improved glycemic control in KK-Ay mice in both prophylactic and therapeutic studies. Lysine acetylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, liver kinase B1, and nuclear factor-κB p65 was decreased in the liver and VATs in CycloZ-treated mice. In addition, CycloZ treatment improved mitochondrial function, lipid oxidation, and inflammation in the liver and VATs of mice. CycloZ treatment also increased the level of β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which affected the activity of deacetylases, such as sirtuin 1 (Sirt1). @*Conclusion@#Our findings suggest that the beneficial effects of CycloZ on diabetes and obesity occur through increased NAD+ synthesis, which modulates Sirt1 deacetylase activity in the liver and VATs. Given that the mode of action of an NAD+ booster or Sirt1 deacetylase activator is different from that of traditional T2DM drugs, CycloZ would be considered a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of T2DM.

2.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 716-732, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898140

ABSTRACT

The world is facing the new challenges of an aging population, and understanding the process of aging has therefore become one of the most important global concerns. Sarcopenia is a condition which is defined by the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with age. In research and clinical practice, sarcopenia is recognized as a component of geriatric disease and is a current target for drug development. In this review we define this condition and provide an overview of current therapeutic approaches. We further highlight recent findings that describe key pathophysiological phenotypes of this condition, including alterations in muscle fiber types, mitochondrial function, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) metabolism, myokines, and gut microbiota, in aged muscle compared to young muscle or healthy aged muscle. The last part of this review examines new therapeutic avenues for promising treatment targets. There is still no accepted therapy for sarcopenia in humans. Here we provide a brief review of the current state of research derived from various mouse models or human samples that provide novel routes for the development of effective therapeutics to maintain muscle health during aging.

3.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 395-405, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-833051

ABSTRACT

Despite considerable efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has become the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac mitochondria are crucial cell organelles responsible for creating energy-rich ATP and mitochondrial dysfunction is the root cause for developing heart failure. Therefore, maintenance of mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is an essential process for cardiovascular homeostasis and cardiac health. In this review, we describe the major mechanisms of MQC system, such as mitochondrial unfolded protein response and mitophagy. Moreover, we describe the results of MQC failure in cardiac mitochondria. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects of 2 drug candidates, urolithin A and spermidine, for restoring mitochondrial homeostasis to treat CVD.

4.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 716-732, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890436

ABSTRACT

The world is facing the new challenges of an aging population, and understanding the process of aging has therefore become one of the most important global concerns. Sarcopenia is a condition which is defined by the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with age. In research and clinical practice, sarcopenia is recognized as a component of geriatric disease and is a current target for drug development. In this review we define this condition and provide an overview of current therapeutic approaches. We further highlight recent findings that describe key pathophysiological phenotypes of this condition, including alterations in muscle fiber types, mitochondrial function, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) metabolism, myokines, and gut microbiota, in aged muscle compared to young muscle or healthy aged muscle. The last part of this review examines new therapeutic avenues for promising treatment targets. There is still no accepted therapy for sarcopenia in humans. Here we provide a brief review of the current state of research derived from various mouse models or human samples that provide novel routes for the development of effective therapeutics to maintain muscle health during aging.

5.
Korean Circulation Journal ; : 395-405, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816678

ABSTRACT

Despite considerable efforts to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD), it has become the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac mitochondria are crucial cell organelles responsible for creating energy-rich ATP and mitochondrial dysfunction is the root cause for developing heart failure. Therefore, maintenance of mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is an essential process for cardiovascular homeostasis and cardiac health. In this review, we describe the major mechanisms of MQC system, such as mitochondrial unfolded protein response and mitophagy. Moreover, we describe the results of MQC failure in cardiac mitochondria. Furthermore, we discuss the prospects of 2 drug candidates, urolithin A and spermidine, for restoring mitochondrial homeostasis to treat CVD.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cause of Death , Heart Failure , Heart , Homeostasis , Mitochondria , Mitophagy , Organelles , Quality Control , Spermidine , Unfolded Protein Response
6.
Annals of Coloproctology ; : 36-46, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762291

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We evaluated the relationship of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and desmoplastic reactions with cancer invasiveness and long-term outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Histologic evaluation of mature CAFs and desmoplasia was performed by observing the collagen fiber structure and fibroblast cytomorphology in the intratumoral stroma and invasive front of CRC tissues. Cancer-cell invasiveness was evaluated using lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, perineural invasion, tumor budding, and tumor growth patterns. Overall survival and systemic recurrence were analyzed. A network analysis was performed between CAF maturation, desmoplastic reaction, and cancer invasiveness. RESULTS: The proportions of mature CAFs in the intratumoral stroma and the invasive front were 57.6% and 60.3%, respectively. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression was significantly higher in the mature CAFs in the invasive front as compared to immature CAFs. Lymphatic invasion increased as the number of mature fibroblasts in the intratumoral stroma increased. Tumor budding was observed in almost half of both mature and immature stroma samples and occurred more frequently in infiltrating tumors. On network analysis, well-connected islands were identified that was associated with EGFR overexpression, CAF maturation, and infiltrating tumor growth patterns leading to tumor budding. CONCLUSION: The maturity of CAFs and desmoplastic reactions were associated with cancer invasion. However, the cytomorphologic characteristics of CAFs were insufficient as an independent prognostic factor for patients with CRC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Collagen , Colorectal Neoplasms , Fibroblasts , Islands , ErbB Receptors , Recurrence , Wound Healing
7.
Experimental & Molecular Medicine ; : 577-583, 2009.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-34742

ABSTRACT

During fasting periods, hepatic glucose production is enhanced by glucagon to provide fuels for other organs. This process is mediated via cAMP-dependent induction of the CREB regulated transcriptional coactivator (CRTC) 2, a critical transcriptional activator for hepatic gluconeogenesis. We have previously shown that CRTC2 activity is regulated by AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) family members. Here we show that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione directly regulate AMPK to modulate CRTC2 activity in hepatocytes. Adiponectin or thiazolidinedione lowered glucose production from primary hepatocytes. Treatment of both reagents reduced gluconeogenic gene expression as well as cAMP-mediated induction of CRE reporter, suggesting that these reagents directly affect CREB/CRTC2- dependent transcription. Furthermore, adiponectin or thiazolidinedione mediated repression of CRE activity is largely blunted by co-expression of phosphorylation defective mutant CRTC2, underscoring the importance of serine 171 residue of this factor. Taken together, we propose that adiponectin and thiazolidinedione promote the modulation of AMPK-dependent CRTC2 activity to influence hepatic gluconeogenesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Male , Mice , Rats , Adiponectin/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Regulation , Gluconeogenesis/drug effects , Glucose/metabolism , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Liver/cytology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Protein Kinases/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Thiazolidinediones/pharmacology , Transcription Factors/genetics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL