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1.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e292-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001237

ABSTRACT

As nucleocapsid protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is immunogenic but not targeted in vaccines, it could be useful in distinguishing natural infection from vaccination. We aimed to investigate the clinical utility of sero-immunological responses against the nucleocapsid protein. Nucleocapsid antibody immunoassay study with 302 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients showed lower titers in immunocompromised patients (P < 0.001), higher titers in higher severity (P = 0.031), and different seroconversion rates and titers according to variants of concern. Longitudinal evaluation of nucleocapsid antibodies using 513 samples from 291 COVID-19 patients revealed that it could persist up to 556 days from symptom onset. Interferon gamma release assay against the nucleocapsid protein showed poor response, precluding the deduction of a cut-off for the nucleocapsid protein. In conclusion, nucleocapsid antibody provides instructive clues about the immunogenicity of nucleocapsid proteins by different seroconversion rates and titers according to the severity of infection, host immune status, and different variants of concern.

2.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e205-2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1001102

ABSTRACT

Tixagevimab/cilgavimab is a monoclonal antibody used to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 among immunocompromised hosts and maintained neutralizing activity against early omicron variants. Omicron BN.1 became a dominant circulating strain in Korea early 2023, but its susceptibility to tixagevimab/cilgavimab is unclear. We conducted plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) against BN.1 in a prospective cohort (14 patients and 30 specimens). BN.1 PRNT was conducted for one- and three-months after tixagevimab/ cilgavimab administration and the average PRNT ND 50 of each point was lower than the positive cut-off value of 20 (12.9 ± 4.5 and 13.2 ± 4.2, respectively, P = 0.825). In the paired analyses, tixagevimab/cilgavimab-administered sera could not actively neutralize BN.1 (PRNT ND 50 11.5 ± 2.9, P = 0.001), compared with the reserved activity against BA.5 (ND 50 310.5 ± 180.4). Unlike virus-like particle assay, tixagevimab/cilgavimab was not active against BN.1 in neutralizing assay, and would not be effective in the present predominance of BA.2.75 sublineages.

3.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 430-439, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927170

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Real-world experience with tocilizumab in combination with dexamethasone in patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) needs to be investigated. @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the effect of severity-adjusted dosing of dexamethasone in combination with tocilizumab for severe COVID-19 from August 2020 to August 2021. The primary endpoint was 30-day clinical recovery, which was defined as no oxygen requirement or referral after recovery. @*Results@#A total of 66 patients were evaluated, including 33 patients in the dexamethasone (Dexa) group and 33 patients in the dexamethasone plus tocilizumab (DexaToci) group. The DexaToci group showed a statistically significant benefit in 30-day clinical recovery, compared to the Dexa group (p=0.024). In multivariable analyses, peak FiO2 within 3 days and tocilizumab combination were consistently significant for 30-day recovery (all p<0.05). The DexaToci group showed a significantly steeper decrease in FiO2 (-4.2±2.6) than the Dexa group (−2.7±2.6; p=0.021) by hospital day 15. The duration of oxygen requirement was significantly shorter in the DexaToci group than the Dexa group (median, 10.0 days vs. 17.0 days; p=0.006). Infectious complications and cellular and humoral immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the convalescence stage were not different between the two groups. @*Conclusion@#A combination of severity-adjusted dexamethasone and tocilizumab for the treatment of severe COVID-19 improved clinical recovery without increasing infectious complications or hindering the immune response against SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 410-414, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834284

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is spreading rapidly all over the world, being a major threat to public health. Since clinical feature of COVID-19 has not been fully evaluated yet, empirical antibacterial agents are frequently combined for the treatment of COVID-19 in addition to antiviral agents, concerning co-existing bacterial pathogens. We experienced a case of severe thrombocytopenia with epistaxis and petechiae, while treating a COVID-19 patient with ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and lopinavir/ritonavir. The platelet count decreased to 2,000/mm 3 and recovered after discontinuation of the three suspected drugs. In treating a potentially fatal emerging infectious disease, empirical and/or experimental approach would be unavoidable. However, the present case suggests that the possibility of adverse effects caused by polypharmacy should also be carefully considered.

5.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 59-69, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834261

ABSTRACT

Background@#Cancer patients can be at a higher risk of infection due to drug-resistant bacteria than the general population for various reasons. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate possible risk factors and outcomes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamaseproducing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-KP) bacteremia in cancer patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Cases were divided into two groups based on whether or not the isolated strain produced ESBL and multivariable regressions were done to identify possible risk factors of ESBL-KP bacteremia and mortality. For ESBL-producing strain, additional molecular analysis was done. @*Results@#278 cases with KP bacteremia were identified between 2010 and 2012, of which ESBLproducers were 50 (18%). The presence of percutaneous drainage catheter [odds ratio (OR) 4.99, P <0.001] and prior exposure to certain classes of antibiotics including third-generation cephalosporin (OR 2.14, P = 0.03) had significant associations with ESBL-KP bacteremia. Individuals who died within 14 days after the onset of KP bacteremia were more likely to have higher mean Pitt bacteremia score (1.56 in survival group vs. 3.43 in mortality group, P <0.001), hemodialysis (OR 17.03, P = 0.01) and chronic liver disease (OR 5.57, P = 0.01). Although 14-day mortality was higher with ESBL production (OR 2.76, P = 0.04), no significant differences in 30-day mortality (OR 1.67, P = 0.20) and other morbidity indices were observed. 49 ESBL-KP isolates, 65.4% of them produced CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15 enzymes, and ST711 was the most common. @*Conclusion@#There were several differences in clinical characteristics between ESBL-KP and nonESBL-KP bacteremia in cancer patients, similar to previous reports including non-cancer patients.

6.
Annals of Laboratory Medicine ; : 63-67, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762453

ABSTRACT

As 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-targeted sequencing can detect DNA from non-viable bacteria, it can be used to identify pathogens from clinical samples even in patients pretreated with antibiotics. We compared the results of 16S rRNA-targeted sequencing and culture for identifying bacterial species in normally sterile body fluid (NSBF): cerebrospinal, pericardial, peritoneal and pleural fluids. Over a 10-year period, a total of 312 NSBF samples were evaluated simultaneously using 16S rRNA-targeted sequencing and culture. Results were concordant in 287/312 (92.0%) samples, including 277 (88.8%) negative and 10 (3.2%) positive samples. Of the 16 sequencing-positive, culture-negative samples, eight showed clinically relevant isolates that included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus spp. All these samples were obtained from the patients pretreated with antibiotics. The diagnostic yield of 16S rRNA-targeted sequencing combined with culture was 11.2%, while that of culture alone was 6.1%. 16S rRNA-targeted sequencing in conjunction with culture could be useful for identifying bacteria in NSBF samples, especially when patients have been pretreated with antibiotics and when anaerobic infection is suspected.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteria , Body Fluids , DNA , Fusobacterium nucleatum , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , Staphylococcus , Streptococcus pneumoniae
7.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 28-2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-782484

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Liver Abscess , Liver
8.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 215-221, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831777

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Healthcare-associated (HCA) infection is a recently suggested new category of community-onset infections. The implications of HCA infections in terms of diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) are not well understood. We sought to delineate the differences between community-acquired (CA) SBP and HCA SBP with specific interest in the antimicrobial resistance of causative microorganisms and outcomes. @*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all SBP episodes with positive ascitic culture and/or blood culture from June 2000 to August 2011. Community-onset SBP episodes were included when they occurred within 48 hours after admission and were classified as CA SBP and HCA SBP based on the predefined criteria. @*Results@#A total of 188 episodes of community-onset SBP were analyzed (65.4% HCA SBP and 34.6% CA SBP). HCA SBP had a higher resistance rate to third-generation cephalosporin (6.8% vs. 1.6%, p = 0.168). The overall 30-day mortality was similar between both groups (37.4% vs. 41.5%, p = 0.638). The independent risk factors for 30-day all-cause mortality in community-onset SBP included high Child-Pugh score, acute kidney injury, and resistance to third-generation cephalosporins; HCA infection was not associated. @*Conclusions@#Hepatic functional status, renal dysfunction, and third-generation cephalosporin resistant pathogens more adversely affected the outcome of cirrhotic patients with community-onset SBP rather than HCA infection. The higher rate of third-generation cephalosporin resistance was notable in HCA SBP, which will require a novel approach to empirical antibiotic treatment selection in this population.

9.
Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research ; : 285-293, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-830543

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to investigate how rates of surgical site infections (SSI) were changed over 2 years after applying colon SSI bundle in patients who underwent colon surgery. @*Methods@#The multidisciplinary working group developed a care bundle consisting of 8 components, including several recommendations of Surgical Care Improvement Project and monitoring of medical/surgical hand washing. We implemented the care bundle for each patient who underwent colon surgery from April 2013 to December 2014. @*Results@#Overall bundle compliance was 87.9% before implementation, 88.2% in 2013, and 90.5% in 2014. In particular, compliance of the following 3 components was substantial improved during the project period; discontinuation of prophylactic antimicrobial agent within 24 hours of surgery (from 88.3% to 100%), surgical hand washing (from 50.0% to 78.9%), and medical hand washing (from 74.7% to 82.8%). The rate of SSI was 8.0% (12/150) during 3 months before implementation, 3.3% (16/480) from April to December in 2013, and 2.3% (14/607) in 2014. @*Conclusion@#After implementation of multidisciplinary care bundle, the compliance of each component was increased and rates of SSIs were significantly decreased compared to those before the quality improvement project.

10.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 117-126, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-837083

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is related to infectious mononucleosis or nasopharyngeal cancer, and its epidemiology may change according to the socioeconomic development of communities. This study aimed to evaluate the recent epidemiology of EBV seropositive rate in Korea. @*Methods@#We retrospectively reviewed EBV serology test results obtained from a part of clinical care at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea, from January 2000 to December 2017. @*Results@#The EBV seropositive rate in 26,527 subjects during the study period was 81.0% (21,485/26,527): 44.4% (2,716/6,122) in subjects aged 0–9 years, 75.8% (2,077/2,739) in those aged 10–19 years, and 94.5% (16,692/17,666) in those aged ≥20 years. The EBV seropositive rate decreased from 89.4% (8,592/9,616) in 2000–2008 to 76.2% (12,893/16,911) in 2009– 2017 (P<0.001). Especially, the EBV seropositive rate in subjects aged 0–19 years significantly decreased from 2000–2008 to 2009–2017 (0–9 years, 62.8% [1,172/1,866] in 2000–2008 and 36.3% [1,544/4,256] in 2009–2017; 10–19 years, 83.8% [745/858] in 2000–2008 and 70.8% (1,332/1,881) in 2009–2017) (P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#The EBV seropositive rate in children has decreased in the last 20 years. As the age of patients with primary EBV infection increased, there is a need for interest in clinical manifestation, such as infectious mononucleosis, in adolescents and young adults.

11.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 1347-1362, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly prevalent in hospitals, and has recently emerged in the community. The impact of methicillin-resistance on mortality and medical costs for patients with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) requires reevaluation.@*METHODS@#We searched studies with SAB or endocarditis using electronic databases including Ovid-Medline, Embase-Medline, and Cochrane Library, as well as five local databases for published studies during the period January 2000 to September 2011.@*RESULTS@#A total of 2,841 studies were identified, 62 of which involved 17,563 adult subjects and were selected as eligible. A significant increase in overall mortality associated with MRSA, compared to that with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), was evidenced by an odds ratio (OR) of 1.95 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73 to 2.21; p < 0.01). In 13 endocarditis studies, MRSA increased the risk of mortality, with an OR of 2.65 (95% CI, 1.46 to 4.80). When three studies, which compared mortality rates between CA-MRSA and CA-MSSA, were combined, the risk of methicillin-resistance increased 3.23-fold compared to MSSA (95% CI, 1.25 to 8.34). The length of hospital stay in the MRSA group was 10 days longer than that in the MSSA group (95% CI, 3.36 to 16.70). Of six studies that reported medical costs, two were included in the analysis, which estimated medical costs to be $9,954.58 (95% CI, 8,951.99 to 10,957.17).@*CONCLUSIONS@#MRSA is still associated with increased mortality, longer hospital stays and medical costs, compared with MSSA in SAB in studies published since the year 2000.

12.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 414-426, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914559

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis has been a major public health threat in modern Korea. A few reports from the mid-1940s have demonstrated a high prevalence of latent and active tuberculosis infections. The high disease burden urged the newly established government to place a high priority on tuberculosis control. The government led a nationwide effort to control tuberculosis by building dedicated hospitals, conducting mass screening, providing technical and material support for microbiological diagnosis, administering Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccination, and improving appropriate antibiotic treatment through public health centers. Such concerted efforts resulted in a gradual decrease in the disease burden of tuberculosis, as demonstrated by National Tuberculosis Prevalence Surveys and notifiable disease statistics. While great progress has been made, new challenges - including an aging population, outbreaks in schools and healthcare facilities, and migration from high-prevalence countries - lie ahead. Here, we review the modern history of tuberculosis in Korea, focusing on epidemiology and public health policies.

13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e17-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719585

ABSTRACT

We implemented a carbapenem-saving strategy in hemato-oncology patients from 2013, using an empirical combination of piperacillin-tazobactam and amikacin for high-risk hemato-oncology patients with febrile neutropenia, who remain hemodynamically unstable > 72 hours despite initial cefepime treatment. All-cause mortality was not different between the two periods (6.54 and 6.57 deaths per 1,000 person-day, P = 0.926). Group 2 carbapenem use significantly decreased after strategy implementation (78.43 vs. 67.43 monthly days of therapy, P = 0.018), while carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacilli did not show meaningful changes during the study period. Our carbapenem-saving strategy could effectively suppress carbapenem use without an increase of overall mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amikacin , Febrile Neutropenia , Mortality
14.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : e212-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety and clinical effectiveness data of peramivir in the real clinical field are limited. A prospective observational study was conducted based on the post-marketing surveillance data to evaluate the post-marketing safety and effectiveness of peramivir in Korean adults with seasonal influenza. METHODS: Among adults aged 20 years or older who were diagnosed with influenza A or B, patients who started peramivir within 48 hours from the initial symptoms of influenza were enrolled. All adverse events (AEs) that occurred within 7 days after administration of peramivir were checked. For the evaluation of effectiveness, changes in the severity of influenza symptoms and daily living performance were examined before and 7 days after the administration of peramivir. The date on which influenza related symptoms disappeared was checked. RESULTS: A total of 3,024 patients were enrolled for safety evaluation and 2,939 patients were for effectiveness evaluation. In the safety evaluation, 42 AEs were observed in 35 (1.16%) patients. The most common AE was fever. AEs were mostly rated as mild in severity. Serious AEs were observed in 10 patients and two of them died. However, both deaths were considered to be less relevant to peramivir. In the effectiveness evaluation, the severity of influenza symptoms decreased by 10.68 ± 4.01 points and daily living performance was improved 5.59 ± 2.16 points. Influenza related symptoms disappeared on average 3.02 ± 2.39 days after peramivir administration. CONCLUSION: Peramivir showed a tolerable safety profile and acceptable effectiveness in Korean adult patients with seasonal influenza.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Fever , Influenza, Human , Observational Study , Prospective Studies , Seasons , Treatment Outcome
15.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 317-323, 2018.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716250

ABSTRACT

To prevent the transmission of pathogens in hospitals, implementation of transmission-based precautions is essential, such as precautions to prevent airborne, droplet, and contact transmissions. However, it is impossible to identify all hidden asymptomatic carriers. Emphasis has therefore been placed on the use of standard precautions, including hand hygiene and cough etiquette. Recently, the possibility of the spread of imported emerging infectious diseases in medical institutions has also become an area of focus. Prevention of the spread of infections in hospitals should be a top priority to ensure the highest quality of care.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Cough , Hand Hygiene , Patient Isolation
16.
Korean Journal of Pediatrics ; : 366-370, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718234

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important diseases that cause significant mortality and morbidity in young children. Data on TB transmission from an infected child are limited. Herein, we report a case of disseminated TB in a child and conducted a contact investigation among exposed individuals. METHODS: A 4-year-old child without Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination was diagnosed as having culture-proven disseminated TB. The child initially presented with symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease, and nosocomial and kindergarten exposures were reported. The exposed individuals to the index case were divided into 3 groups, namely household, nosocomial, or kindergarten contacts. Evaluation was performed following the Korean guidelines for TB. Kindergarten contacts were further divided into close or casual contacts. Chest radiography and tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma-releasing assay were performed for the contacts. RESULTS: We examined 327 individuals (3 household, 10 nosocomial, and 314 kindergarten contacts), of whom 18 (5.5%), the brother of the index patient, and 17 kindergarten children were diagnosed as having latent TB infection (LTBI). LTBI diagnosis was more frequent in the children who had close kindergarten contact with the index case (17.1% vs. 4.4%, P=0.007). None of the cases had active TB. CONCLUSION: This is the first reported case of TB transmission among young children from a pediatric patient with disseminated TB in Korea. TB should be emphasized as a possible cause of chronic diarrhea and failure to thrive in children. A national TB control policy has been actively applied to identify Korean children with LTBI.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Diagnosis , Diarrhea , Failure to Thrive , Family Characteristics , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Korea , Mortality , Radiography , Siblings , Skin Tests , Thorax , Tuberculin , Tuberculosis , Vaccination
17.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 102-112, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS@#The aim of our study was to compare the characteristics of nosocomial infective endocarditis (NIE) with community-acquired infective endocarditis (CIE) and to determine independent risk factors for in-hospital death.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 560 patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis. NIE was defined by a diagnosis made > 72 hours after hospital admission or within 2 months of hospital discharge.@*RESULTS@#Among the 560 cases reviewed, 121 were classified as NIE. Compared with patients with CIE, patients with NIE were older (mean ± SD, 51.30±18.01 vs. 59.76±14.87, p < 0.001). The in-hospital death rate of the NIE group was much higher than that of the CIE group (27.3% vs. 5.9%, p < 0.001). More patients with NIE had central intravenous catheters, and were undergoing hemodialysis (p < 0.001). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the most common causal microorganism of NIE, and MRSA (p < 0.001) and fungus (p = 0.002) were more common in NIE compared with CIE. On multiple analysis, age, liver cirrhosis, cancer chemotherapy, central intravenous catheter, hemodialysis, and genitourinary tract manipulation were independent clinical risk factors for NIE. Among the patients with NIE, 33 died during their hospital admission. The independent risk factors for in-hospital death were older age (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.07; p = 0.037) and chemotherapy for malignancy (adjusted OR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.18 to 12.87; p = 0.026).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Because of the considerable incidence of NIE and its poor prognosis, we should pay attention to early diagnosis and active management of NIE, especially for older patients and patients receiving chemotherapy.

18.
Pediatric Infection & Vaccine ; : 123-131, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741865

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is mostly asymptomatic but can be detrimental to certain hosts. We investigated changes of CMV seroprevalence in Koreans before and after the year 2000. METHODS: We reviewed laboratory values of patients who were tested for CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from January 1995 to December 2015. Changes in seroprevalence were analyzed by gender, age, region, and tested year period (period 1, 1995–2005 vs. period 2, 2006–2015). RESULTS: Overall CMV seropositivity was 94.1% (10,900/11,584). There was no significant difference for CMV seropositivity among the two periods (94.2% vs. 94.1%) (P=0.862). CMV seropositivity in the 11 to 20-year age group in period 2 (78.8%) was significantly lower than that of period 1 (89.9%) (P=0.001). The seropositivity of individuals aged 31–40 years (97.4%) was significantly higher than that of younger age groups (P < 0.001) and lower than that of older age groups (P < 0.001). Of 2,441 females of reproductive age (from 15 to 49), CMV seropositivity was 97% (2,467/2,441). The seropositivity in women aged 20–24-years was higher than that of men in the same age group (97.6% vs. 85.6%, P=0.003). No significant difference was observed among different regions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall CMV seropositivity of Koreans was estimated to be 94% and the average seropositivity of reproductive women was 97%. Monitoring of the changes in seroprevalence including the reproductive age group is needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Cytomegalovirus , Immunoglobulin G , Korea , Seoul , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 357-361, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722309

ABSTRACT

While carbapenems are the drug of choice to treat extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains, some alternative carbapenem-sparing regimens are suggested for antibiotic stewardship. We experienced a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure for acute pyelonephritis caused by an apparently susceptible Escherichia coli. A 71-year-old woman presented the emergency department with fever for 7 days and bilateral flank pain for 2 days. The laboratory results and abdominopelvic computed tomography finding were compatible with acute pyelonephritis. During 3-day ciprofloxacin therapy, the patient remained febrile with persistent bacteremia. After the change in antibiotics to ertapenem, the patient’s clinical course started to improve. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were identified in all three consecutive blood samples. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, serotypes, and sequence types showed the three isolates were derived from the identical strain. The isolates produced CTX-M-14 type ESBL belonging to the ST69 clonal group. Despite in vitro susceptibility, the failure was attributed to a gyrA point mutation encoding Ser83Leu within quinolone resistance-determining regions. This case suggests that ciprofloxacin should be used cautiously in the treatment of serious infections caused by ciprofloxacin-susceptible, ESBL-producing E. coli, even in acute pyelonephritis because in-vitro susceptibility tests could fail to detect certain genetic mutations.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Carbapenems , Ciprofloxacin , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Fever , Flank Pain , In Vitro Techniques , Point Mutation , Pyelonephritis , Serogroup , Treatment Failure
20.
Infection and Chemotherapy ; : 357-361, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721804

ABSTRACT

While carbapenems are the drug of choice to treat extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing strains, some alternative carbapenem-sparing regimens are suggested for antibiotic stewardship. We experienced a case of ciprofloxacin treatment failure for acute pyelonephritis caused by an apparently susceptible Escherichia coli. A 71-year-old woman presented the emergency department with fever for 7 days and bilateral flank pain for 2 days. The laboratory results and abdominopelvic computed tomography finding were compatible with acute pyelonephritis. During 3-day ciprofloxacin therapy, the patient remained febrile with persistent bacteremia. After the change in antibiotics to ertapenem, the patient’s clinical course started to improve. ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were identified in all three consecutive blood samples. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, serotypes, and sequence types showed the three isolates were derived from the identical strain. The isolates produced CTX-M-14 type ESBL belonging to the ST69 clonal group. Despite in vitro susceptibility, the failure was attributed to a gyrA point mutation encoding Ser83Leu within quinolone resistance-determining regions. This case suggests that ciprofloxacin should be used cautiously in the treatment of serious infections caused by ciprofloxacin-susceptible, ESBL-producing E. coli, even in acute pyelonephritis because in-vitro susceptibility tests could fail to detect certain genetic mutations.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , Carbapenems , Ciprofloxacin , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Emergency Service, Hospital , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Fever , Flank Pain , In Vitro Techniques , Point Mutation , Pyelonephritis , Serogroup , Treatment Failure
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