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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874818

ABSTRACT

: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are approved for treating non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the safety and efficacy of combined ICI and Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) treatment remain undefined. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed patients treated with ICIs with or without GKS at our institute to manage patients with brain metastases from NSCLC. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with brain metastases from NSCLC treated with ICIs between January 2015 and December 2017. Of 134 patients, 77 were assessable for brain responses and categorized into three groups as follows : group A, ICI alone (n=26); group B, ICI with concurrent GKS within 14 days (n=24); and group C, ICI with non-concurrent GKS (n=27). Results : The median follow-up duration after brain metastasis diagnosis was 19.1 months (range, 1–77). At the last follow-up, 53 patients (68.8%) died, 20 were alive, and four were lost to follow-up. The estimated median overall survival (OS) of all patients from the date of brain metastasis diagnosis was 20.0 months (95% confidence interval, 12.5–27.7) (10.0, 22.5, and 42.1 months in groups A, B, and C, respectively). The OS was shorter in group A than in group C (p=0.001). The intracranial disease progression-free survival (p=0.569), local progression-free survival (p=0.457), and complication rates did not significantly differ among the groups. Twelve patients showed leptomeningeal seeding (LMS) during follow-up. The 1-year LMS-free rate in treated with ICI alone group (69.1%) was significantly lower than that in treated with GKS before ICI treatment or within 14 days group (93.2%) (p=0.004). Conclusion : GKS with ICI showed no favorable OS outcome in treating brain metastasis from NSCLC. However, GKS with ICI did not increase the risk of complications. Furthermore, compared with ICI alone, GKS with ICI may be associated with a reduced incidence of LMS. Further understanding of the mechanism, which remains unknown, may help improve the quality of life of patients with brain metastasis.

2.
Journal of Rhinology ; : 135-139, 2020.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-836288

ABSTRACT

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is possible and can be a cause of recurrent bacterial meningitis. Petrous apex meningocele (PAM) is mostly asymptomatic and is often found during incidental imaging tests. We experienced a case of CSF rhinorrhea with recurrent meningitis in bilateral PAM after adenoidectomy. This report highlights the diagnostic process of CSF leak, identification of leakage site, and surgical approach to petrous apex lesions.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831292

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#. Endoscopic pituitary surgery usually requires a collaboration between neurosurgeons and ENT surgeons to achieve optimal outcomes. However, neurosurgeons occasionally perform these procedures alone without an ENT surgeon. In this study, postoperative sinonasal quality of life and olfactory function were compared in patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary surgery performed by a single neurosurgeon or by a collaborative team of a neurosurgeon and an ENT surgeon. @*Materials and Methods@#. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was performed. Patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary surgery for pituitary adenoma from January 2015 to April 2018 were included. The study patients were divided into two groups; patients in group 1 underwent surgery performed by a single neurosurgeon, while patients in group 2 received surgery performed by a collaborative team of surgeons. Olfaction was assessed using a subjective Likert scale, the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and the butanol threshold test (BTT). In addition, patients answered the Sino-nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) questionnaire regarding sinonasal quality of life before and 3 months after surgery. @*Results@#. This study included 152 patients (46 patients in group 1 and 106 patients in group 2). Significant differences were not observed between the two groups regarding age, sex, tumor size, or operation time. Although subjective olfaction was not significantly different before and after surgery, group 2 showed significantly better objective olfactory function based on the CC-SIT (8.44±3.00 vs. 9.84±1.40; P=0.012) and BTT (4.67±0.84 vs. 5.02±0.33; P=0.022) scores at 3 months after surgery. The SNOT-22 scores were not statistically significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05). @*Conclusion@#. In the present study, better olfactory outcomes were observed in patients who underwent surgery performed by a collaborative team of a neurosurgeon and an ENT surgeon. This result shows the need for collaboration between neurosurgeons and ENT surgeons in endoscopic pituitary surgery.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831089

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels for solid tumors have been useful in clinical framework for accurate tumor diagnosis and identifying essential molecular aberrations. However, most cancer panels have been designed to address a wide spectrum of pan-cancer models, lacking integral prognostic markers that are highly specific to gliomas. @*Materials and Methods@#To address such challenges, we have developed a glioma-specific NGS panel, termed “GliomaSCAN,” that is capable of capturing single nucleotide variations and insertion/deletion, copy number variation, and selected promoter mutations and structural variations that cover a subset of intron regions in 232 essential glioma-associated genes. We confirmed clinical concordance rate using pairwise comparison of the identified variants from whole exome sequencing (WES), immunohistochemical analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. @*Results@#Our panel demonstrated high sensitivity in detecting potential genomic variants that were present in the standard materials. To ensure the accuracy of our targeted sequencing panel, we compared our targeted panel to WES. The comparison results demonstrated a high correlation. Furthermore, we evaluated clinical utility of our panel in 46 glioma patients to assess the detection capacity of potential actionable mutations. Thirty-two patients harbored at least one recurrent somatic mutation in clinically actionable gene. @*Conclusion@#We have established a glioma-specific cancer panel. GliomaSCAN highly excelled in capturing somatic variations in terms of both sensitivity and specificity and provided potential clinical implication in facilitating genome-based clinical trials. Our results could provide conceptual advance towards improving the response of genomically guided molecularly targeted therapy in glioma patients.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739672

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been no practical guidelines for the management of patients with central nervous system (CNS) tumors in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, started to prepare guidelines for CNS tumors from February 2018. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. RESULTS: First, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended. After the diagnosis of a glioblastoma with neurosurgical intervention, patients aged ≤70 years with good performance should be treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy with temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Stupp's protocol) or standard brain radiotherapy alone. However, those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy (preferred)±concurrent or adjuvant temozolomide, temozolomide alone (Level III), or supportive treatment. Alternatively, patients aged >70 years with good performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy+concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide or Stupp's protocol or hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone, while those with poor performance should be treated by hypofractionated brain radiotherapy alone or temozolomide chemotherapy if the patient has methylated MGMT gene promoter (Level III), or supportive treatment. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that glioblastomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to the individual comprehensive condition of the patient.


Subject(s)
Brain , Central Nervous System , Chemoradiotherapy , Diagnosis , Drug Therapy , Glioblastoma , Humans , Korea , Radiotherapy
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea in the past. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, developed the guideline for glioblastoma successfully and published it in Brain Tumor Research and Treatment, the official journal of KSNO, in April 2019. Recently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade III cerebral glioma in adults has been established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords. Scope of the disease was confined to cerebral anaplastic astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests high grade glioma, maximal safe resection if feasible is globally recommended. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-mutant should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy whereas those with anaplastic astrocytoma, NOS, and anaplastic astrocytoma, IDH-wildtype should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of anaplastic oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p19q-codeletion, and anaplastic oligodendroglioma, NOS should be primary treated by standard brain radiotherapy and neoadjuvant or adjuvant PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) combination chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade III cerebral glioma of adults should be treated by maximal safe resection if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Lomustine , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There was no practical guideline for the management of patients with central nervous system tumor in Korea for many years. Thus, the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO), a multidisciplinary academic society, has developed the guideline for glioblastoma. Subsequently, the KSNO guideline for World Health Organization (WHO) grade II cerebral glioma in adults is established. METHODS: The Working Group was composed of 35 multidisciplinary medical experts in Korea. References were identified by searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases using specific and sensitive keywords as well as combinations of keywords regarding diffuse astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma of brain in adults. RESULTS: Whenever radiological feature suggests lower grade glioma, the maximal safe resection if feasible is recommended globally. After molecular and histological examinations, patients with diffuse astrocytoma, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-wildtype without molecular feature of glioblastoma should be primarily treated by standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy (Level III) while those with molecular feature of glioblastoma should be treated following the protocol for glioblastomas. In terms of patients with diffuse astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma (IDH-mutant and 1p19q codeletion), standard brain radiotherapy and adjuvant PCV (procarbazine+lomustine+vincristine) combination chemotherapy should be considered primarily for the high-risk group while observation with regular follow up should be considered for the low-risk group. CONCLUSION: The KSNO's guideline recommends that WHO grade II gliomas should be treated by maximal safe resection, if feasible, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy according to molecular and histological features of tumors and clinical characteristics of patients.


Subject(s)
Adult , Astrocytoma , Brain , Central Nervous System , Drug Therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Follow-Up Studies , Glioblastoma , Glioma , Humans , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Korea , Oligodendroglioma , Radiotherapy , World Health Organization
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56568

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze outcomes and identify prognostic factors in patients with cerebral metastases from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) particularly, focusing on associations of biomarkers and systemic treatments. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 134 patients who underwent GKS for brain metastases due to NSCLC between January 2002 and December 2012. Representative biomarkers including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, K-ras mutation, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) mutation status were investigated. RESULTS: The median overall survival after GKS was 22.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.8–35.1 months). During follow-up, 63 patients underwent salvage treatment after GKS. The median salvage treatment-free survival was 7.9 months (95% CI, 5.2–10.6 months). Multivariate analysis revealed that lower recursive partition analysis (RPA) class, small number of brain lesions, EGFR mutation (+), and ALK mutation (+) were independent positive prognostic factors associated with longer overall survival. Patients who received target agents 30 days after GKS experienced significant improvements in overall survival and salvage treatment-free survival than patients who never received target agents and patients who received target agents before GKS or within 30 days (median overall survival: 5.0 months vs. 18.2 months, and 48.0 months with p-value=0.026; median salvage treatment-free survival: 4.3 months vs. 6.1 months and 16.6 months with p-value=0.006, respectively). To assess the influence of target agents on the pattern of progression, cases that showed local recurrence and new lesion formation were analyzed according to target agents, but no significant effects were identified. CONCLUSION: The prognosis of patients with brain metastases of NSCLC after GKS significantly differed according to specific biomarkers (EGFR and ALK mutations). Our results show that target agents combined with GKS was related to significantly longer overall survival, and salvage treatment-free survival. However, target agents were not specifically associated with improved local control of the lesion treated by GKS either development of new lesions. Therefore, it seems that currently popular target agents do not affect brain lesions themselves, and can prolong survival by controlling systemic disease status.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , Brain , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lymphoma , Medical Records , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Phosphotransferases , Prognosis , Radiosurgery , ErbB Receptors , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Salvage Therapy
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) invading into the cavernous sinus are surgically challenging. To decrease recurrence rate, surgeon makes a strong endeavor to resect tumor gross totally. However, gross total resection (GTR) is difficult to achieve with cavernous sinus invasion. Recently, a new classification system for cavernous invasion of pituitary adenomas was suggested. The aim of this study is to validate this new classification system and to identify limitations and considerations in designing treatment strategies for patients with NFPA involving the cavernous sinus. METHODS: Between January 2000 and January 2012, 275 patients who underwent operation for NFPA were enrolled in the study. Median age was 50 years (15–79 years). There were 145 males and 130 females. The median follow-up duration was 4 years (range 1–12.5 years). RESULTS: Related to extent of tumor removal, GTR was obtained in 184 patients (66.9%), near total resection (NTR) was obtained in 45 patients (16.3%), and sub-total resection (STR) was obtained in 46 patients (16.7%) of a total 275 patients. There were statistically significant differences between the extent of resection and the new Knosp classification (p<0.001). In the high-grade group of the new Knosp classification, there was no difference in recurrence between patients who underwent GTR or NTR only and those who underwent STR with adjuvant radiation therapy (p=0.515). CONCLUSION: In case of high risk of surgical complications, STR with adjuvant radiation therapy can be considered as an alternative strategy for safe treatment of cavernous-invading adenomas.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Cavernous Sinus , Classification , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Pituitary Neoplasms , Recurrence
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-205884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiomatous meningioma is a rare histological subtype of meningioma. Therefore, this specific medical condition is rarely reviewed in the literature. In the present work, we report the clinical and radiological features with postoperative outcomes of angiomatous meningioma. METHODS: This retrospective study included the patients who were pathologically diagnosed with angiomatous meningioma after surgical resection between February 2010 and September 2015 in our institute. We analyzed the clinical data, radiological manifestation, treatment and prognosis of all patients. RESULTS: The 15 patients (5 males and 10 females) were diagnosed with angiomatous meningioma during the study period. The median age of patients at the time of surgery was 63 years (range: 40 to 80 years). According to Simpson classification, 7, 5, and 3 patients achieved Simpson grade I, II, and IV resection, respectively. In the follow-up period, recurrence was noted in one patient. Ten out of the 15 patients showed homogeneous enhancement. Two patients demonstrated cystic changes. There was no occurrence of calcification or hemorrhage in our patients. Characteristically, 14 out of 15 patients showed signal voids of vessels. Significant peritumoral edema was observed in the majority of tumors (67%). CONCLUSION: Angiomatous meningiomas are rare benign meningioma. Brain images of angiomatous meningioma usually demonstrate signal void signs and peritumoral edema. In the present study, angiomatous meningiomas showed good prognosis after surgical resection.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Edema , Classification , Edema , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Meningioma , Prognosis , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are clinically challenging because they present at a late stage with local mass effects or hypopituitarism. Surgery for non-functioning pituitary adenoma requires a special strategic approach for both minimal morbidity and radical resection. However, the clinical predictive factors associated with recurrence are limited. Here, we investigated optimal treatment of non-functioning pituitary adenoma. METHODS: We enrolled 289 patients who presented with non-functioning pituitary adenoma between January 2000 and January 2012 and who had received follow-up for at least one year for this retrospective study. Of these patients, 152 were male and 137 were female, with a median age of 51 years (range 15.79 years) and a median follow-up of four years (range 1.12.6 years). Characteristics of patients and tumors were reviewed with electronic medical records and radiologic images, retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the tumors, 193 were gross-totally resected, 53 were near-totally resected, and 43 were sub-totally resected. The extent of resection and adjuvant radiotherapy were both statistically significant prognostic factors of recurrence. Immunohistochemistry of tumor specimens did not yield consistent results. CONCLUSION: With a high rate of recurrence, NFPA should be closely followed-up over a long-term period. Improvement of surgical techniques with advanced surgical equipment and adjuvant radiosurgery would lead to reduce the recurrence rate and improve patients' outcome.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypopituitarism , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Pituitary Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Equipment
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) are clinically challenging because they present at a late stage with local mass effects or hypopituitarism. Surgery for non-functioning pituitary adenoma requires a special strategic approach for both minimal morbidity and radical resection. However, the clinical predictive factors associated with recurrence are limited. Here, we investigated optimal treatment of non-functioning pituitary adenoma. METHODS: We enrolled 289 patients who presented with non-functioning pituitary adenoma between January 2000 and January 2012 and who had received follow-up for at least one year for this retrospective study. Of these patients, 152 were male and 137 were female, with a median age of 51 years (range 15.79 years) and a median follow-up of four years (range 1.12.6 years). Characteristics of patients and tumors were reviewed with electronic medical records and radiologic images, retrospectively. RESULTS: Of the tumors, 193 were gross-totally resected, 53 were near-totally resected, and 43 were sub-totally resected. The extent of resection and adjuvant radiotherapy were both statistically significant prognostic factors of recurrence. Immunohistochemistry of tumor specimens did not yield consistent results. CONCLUSION: With a high rate of recurrence, NFPA should be closely followed-up over a long-term period. Improvement of surgical techniques with advanced surgical equipment and adjuvant radiosurgery would lead to reduce the recurrence rate and improve patients' outcome.


Subject(s)
Electronic Health Records , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypopituitarism , Immunohistochemistry , Male , Pituitary Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Radiotherapy, Adjuvant , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Surgical Equipment
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-202959

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to provide a systematic and standardized treatment course for MVD patients, a critical pathway (CP) program was developed and the results of its long term application were analyzed. METHODS: This was a methodological study. The CP was established and applied to 75 (step I) and 1,216 (step II). Another group of 56 with similar features was used as a control group. RESULTS: The application of CP turned out to be useful in many regards: the rate of hearing loss was reduced from 1.8% to 0% (step I) and 0.5% (step II), and low cranial nerve palsy was reduced from 1.8% to 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The length of hospitalization decreased by 2.56 days (25.2%) for step I and 3.05 days (30.0%) for step II. Days of ICU stay were reduced by 7.9% and 1.8%. The total cost per patient was reduced by 14.8% (step I). The cost per day was increased by 13.7% and 52.4%. An increase in the patient satisfaction index was noted, as shown in the ICU information guide (p=.002). CONCLUSION: The development and application of CP was found to improve the quality of medical treatment and the efficacy of hospital management in MVD patients. Well organized and efficient system and multidisciplinary teamwork are the key component of the successful application of CP.


Subject(s)
Cranial Nerve Diseases , Critical Pathways , Hearing Loss , Hospitalization , Humans , Methods , Microvascular Decompression Surgery , Patient Satisfaction , Quality Control
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140381

ABSTRACT

McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by a triad of poly/monostotic fibrous dysplasia, cafe-au-lait macules and hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies including human growth hormone excess. Acromegaly as a manifestation of endocrine hyperfunction with MAS is uncommon. Surgical excision may be challenging due to the associated severe fibrous dysplasia of the skull base. Through the endoscopic procedures, we treated a case of MAS presenting with compressive optic neuropathy due to fibrous dysplasia and acromegaly caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma. We reviewed the literature on GH excess in MAS to highlight its surgical and medical challenges.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Decompression , Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic , Growth Hormone , Human Growth Hormone , Optic Nerve Diseases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Skull Base
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-140380

ABSTRACT

McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is characterized by a triad of poly/monostotic fibrous dysplasia, cafe-au-lait macules and hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies including human growth hormone excess. Acromegaly as a manifestation of endocrine hyperfunction with MAS is uncommon. Surgical excision may be challenging due to the associated severe fibrous dysplasia of the skull base. Through the endoscopic procedures, we treated a case of MAS presenting with compressive optic neuropathy due to fibrous dysplasia and acromegaly caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma. We reviewed the literature on GH excess in MAS to highlight its surgical and medical challenges.


Subject(s)
Acromegaly , Decompression , Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic , Growth Hormone , Human Growth Hormone , Optic Nerve Diseases , Pituitary Neoplasms , Skull Base
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-76402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Meningioma is the second most common primary central nervous system neoplasm. In contrast, chordoid meningioma is rare; due to the paucity of cases, little is known about its clinical features or treatment outcomes. The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes for patients with chordoid meningioma. METHODS: In total, 16 patients, with newly diagnosed chordoid meningioma who underwent surgical excision between 1999 and 2012 were included. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records, radiological findings, and pathological findings. The median follow-up period was 56.5 (range, 3-170) months. The MIB-1 labeling index ranged from 1 to 26.60% (median, 5.04). RESULTS: Simpson grade I, II, and III resections were performed in four, nine, and three patients, respectively. The overall recurrence rate was 37.5%. Overall progression-free survival (PFS) after resection was 94.7 months (95% CI=62.9-126.6). Of the 4 patients with Simpson grade I resection, recurrence occurred in one patient. Among the Simpson grade II and III resection groups, eight patients underwent adjuvant radiation therapy and they showed significantly longer PFS (121 months, 95% CI=82.1-159.9) than the patients who underwent surgery alone (40.5 months, 95% CI=9.6-71.3) by the log-rank test (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Chordoid meningiomas are difficult to manage and have a high rate of recurrence. Complete resection of the tumor is a key determinant of better outcomes. Adjuvant radiation therapy is recommended, eparticulary when Simpson grade I resection was not achieved.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System , Disease-Free Survival , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Medical Records , Meningioma , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-8769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for perioptic lesions. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with perioptic tumors were treated at our institute from May 2004 to December 2008. All patients had a lesion in close contact with the optic apparatus. Twenty-four of these patients had undergone surgical resection before fractionated GKRS. Radiation was delivered in four sessions with 12 hours intervals between sessions. The mean target volume was 3,851 mm3 and the median cumulative marginal dose was 20 Gy. The median follow-up was 38.2 months. Visual acuity and visual fields were analyzed according to visual impairment score using the German Ophthalmological Society guidelines. RESULTS: Tumor control was achieved in 35 (94.6%) of the 37 patients with available follow-up images. Progressive tumor growth was observed in two craniopharyngioma patients (5.4%). Favorable visual outcomes in the postoperative period were achieved in 94.7% of cases (36/38). Sixteen patients showed visual function after fractionated GKRS, twenty cases were stationary, and two patients showed visual function deterioration after GKRS. CONCLUSION: GKRS is a safe and effective alternative to either surgery or fractionated radiotherapy for selected benign lesions that are adjacent to the optic apparatus.


Subject(s)
Craniopharyngioma , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Postoperative Period , Radiosurgery , Radiotherapy , Vision Disorders , Visual Acuity , Visual Fields
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study to determine prognostic factors and treatment outcomes of brain metastases (BM) from breast cancer (BC) after Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS). METHODS: Pathologic and clinical features, and outcomes were analyzed in a cohort of 62 patients with BM from BC treated by GKS. The Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, and Cox's proportional hazards model were used to assess prognostic factors. RESULTS: Median survival after GKS was 73.0 weeks (95% confidence interval, 46.0-100.1). HER2+ [hazard ratio (HR) 0.441; p=0.045], Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) > or =70 (RR 0.416; p=0.050) and systemic chemotherapy after GKS (RR 0.282; p=0.001) were found to be a favorable prognostic factor of overall survival. Actuarial local control (LC) rate were 89.5+/-4.5% and 70.5+/-6.9% at 6 and 12 months after GKS, respectively. No prognostic factors were found to affect LC rate. Uni- and multivariate analysis revealed that the distant control (DC) rate was higher in patients with; a small number (< or =3) of metastasis (HR 0.300; p=0.045), no known extracranial metastasis (p=0.013, log-rank test), or the HER2+ subtype (HR 0.267; p=0.027). Additional whole brain radiation therapy and metastasis volume were not found to be significantly associated with LC, DC, or overall survival. CONCLUSION: The treatment outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed BM from BC treated with GKS could be affected primarily by intrinsic subtype, KPS, and systemic chemotherapy. Therapeutic strategy and prognosis scoring system should be individualized based on considerations of intrinsic subtype in addition to traditionally known parameters related to stereotactic radiosurgery.


Subject(s)
Brain , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cohort Studies , Drug Therapy , Humans , Methods , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Radiosurgery , Retrospective Studies
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203498

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a safe and effective treatment with favorable outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of delayed cranirve ( VI, VII, and VIII ) palsy following MVD and its clinical courses. METHODS: Between January 1998 and December 2009, 1354 patients underwent MVD for HFS at our institution. Of them, 100 patients (7.4%) experienced delayed facial palsy (DFP), one developed sixth nerve palsy, and one patient had delayed hearing loss. RESULTS: DFP occurred between postoperative day number 2 and 23 (average 11 days). Ninety-two patients (92%) completely recovered; however, House-Brackmann grade II facial weakness remained in eight other patients (8%). The time to recovery averaged 64 days (range, 16 days to 9 months). Delayed isolated sixth nerve palsy recovered spontaneously without any medical or surgical treatment after 8 weeks, while delayed hearing loss did not improve. CONCLUSION: Delayed cranial nerve (VI, VII, and VIII) palsies can occur following uncomplicated MVD for HFS. DFP is not an unusual complication after MVD, and prognosis is fairly good. Delayed sixth nerve palsy and delayed hearing loss are extremely rare complications after MVD for HFS. We should consider the possibility of development of these complications during the follow up for MVD.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases , Cranial Nerve Diseases , Cranial Nerves , Facial Paralysis , Follow-Up Studies , Hearing , Hearing Loss , Hemifacial Spasm , Humans , Incidence , Isoflurophate , Microvascular Decompression Surgery , Paralysis , Prognosis
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25527

ABSTRACT

Despite recent advances in the development of novel targeted chemotherapies, the prognosis of malignant glioma remains dismal. The chemo-resistance of this tumor is attributed to tumor heterogeneity. To explain this unique chemo- resistance, the concept of cancer stem cells has been evoked. Cancer stem cells, a subpopulation of whole tumor cells, are now regarded as candidate therapeutic targets. Here, the author reviews and discusses the cancer stem cell concept.


Subject(s)
Brain , Brain Neoplasms , Glioma , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Population Characteristics , Prognosis
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